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latin [2016/12/14 07:49]
amycsj
latin [2016/12/14 11:01]
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 =====Latin===== =====Latin=====
 +This page has Latin language resources and follows Collins //A Primer of Ecclesiastical Latin//
  
 ===Resources=== ===Resources===
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-====History of Latin===+===History of Latin===
  
   * Pre-Classical - Italian region of latio - from 1000bc. 7C bc oldest fibula (buckle) 6C Lapis Negra - date certain.   * Pre-Classical - Italian region of latio - from 1000bc. 7C bc oldest fibula (buckle) 6C Lapis Negra - date certain.
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   * Cicero wouldn'​t recognize it.    * Cicero wouldn'​t recognize it. 
  
-**History of Xn Latin** +==History of Xn Latin==
-   +
   * Roots not in city of rome - early xns spoke greek. ​   * Roots not in city of rome - early xns spoke greek. ​
   * Roots in N. Africa - Xns there mainly spoke and wrote latin    * Roots in N. Africa - Xns there mainly spoke and wrote latin 
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   * Subj, verb, personal agency][No articles exist in Latin. Translate from context]   * Subj, verb, personal agency][No articles exist in Latin. Translate from context]
 ==5 Cases:== ==5 Cases:==
-  ​|Nominative ​   |subject & predicate //Flavius// est //​pater// ​   | +|Nominative ​   |subject & predicate //Flavius// est //​pater// ​   | 
-  |Genitive ​   |'​of'​ possession Servus //​patris// ​ | +|Genitive ​   |'​of'​ possession Servus //​patris// ​ | 
-  |Dative ​ |indir. Object '​for'​ '​to' ​ | +|Dative ​ |indir. Object '​for'​ '​to' ​ | 
-  |Accusative ​ |dir object. Avis //​locustam//​ edit  | +|Accusative ​ |dir object. Avis //​locustam//​ edit  | 
-  |Ablative ​ |- more complicated ​  | +|Ablative ​ |- more complicated ​  | 
-  |:::  |Personal agency in passive sentences '​by'​ Puella //domina// amatur. ​ | +|:::  |Personal agency in passive sentences '​by'​ Puella //domina// amatur. ​ | 
-  |:::  |After certain prepositions '​locativus'​ in //​Roma// ​ | +|:::  |After certain prepositions '​locativus'​ in //​Roma// ​ | 
-  |:::  |Instrumentality or means, '​by'​ //cultre pugnare// ​ | +|:::  |Instrumentality or means, '​by'​ //cultre pugnare// ​ | 
-  |:::  |specifying the verb  |+|:::  |specifying the verb  |
  
 **Dative of posession** Libro est mihi.  **Dative of posession** Libro est mihi. 
  
 Verbs - 4 (5) conjugations1st **-a-**2nd **-e-** long e3rd **-e-** short e goes to e or ie4th **-i-** ​ Verbs - 4 (5) conjugations1st **-a-**2nd **-e-** long e3rd **-e-** short e goes to e or ie4th **-i-** ​
-  ​|present ​   |sum    |es    |est    |sumus ​   |estis ​ |sunt  | + 
-  |imperfect ​   |eram    |eras    |erat    |eramus ​   |eratis ​   |erant ​ |+|present ​   |sum    |es    |est    |sumus ​   |estis ​ |sunt  | 
 +|imperfect ​   |eram    |eras    |erat    |eramus ​   |eratis ​   |erant ​ |
 ==Vocabulary== ==Vocabulary==
-//saeculum, saculi// n. age, world +  * //saeculum, saculi// n. age, world 
-//famulus -i// m. servant +  ​* ​//famulus -i// m. servant 
-//numquam// adv. never +  ​* ​//numquam// adv. never 
-//quoque// also, too +  ​* ​//quoque// also, too 
-//deleo, delere, delevi, deletus// wipe out, destroy +  ​* ​//deleo, delere, delevi, deletus// wipe out, destroy 
-//venio, venire, veni, ventus// come - note the present and perfect are often the same - see context. //invenio// find +  ​* ​//venio, venire, veni, ventus// come - note the present and perfect are often the same - see context. ​ 
-//mundus -a -um// clean, pure //imundus -a -um// impure ​// //mundus, -i// m. world +  * //invenio// find 
-//perhibeo, perhibere, perhibui, perhibitus//​ hold out, produce, afford. +  ​* ​//mundus -a -um// clean, pure  
-//video, videre, vidi, visus// see, realize +  * //imundus -a -um// impure ​ 
-//scio, scire, scivi, scitus// know +  * //mundus, -i// m. world 
-//socium, socii// n. companion, ally +  ​* ​//perhibeo, perhibere, perhibui, perhibitus//​ hold out, produce, afford. 
-//​vestigium,​ vestigii// n. footstep +  ​* ​//video, videre, vidi, visus// see, realize 
-//resulto, resultare, resultavi, resultatus//​ resound, rebound +  ​* ​//scio, scire, scivi, scitus// know 
-//hostia, hostiae// sacrificial offering +  ​* ​//socium, socii// n. companion, ally 
-//valeo, valere, valui, valitus// be well, be strong, be able (+ inf) +  ​* ​//​vestigium,​ vestigii// n. footstep 
-//videor, videri, ​&​mdash;, ​visus sum// be seen, seem (+ inf) +  ​* ​//resulto, resultare, resultavi, resultatus//​ resound, rebound 
-//desino, desinere, desii, desitus // cease (+ inf) +  ​* ​//hostia, hostiae// sacrificial offering 
-//excipio, excipere, excepi, exceptus // welcome +  ​* ​//valeo, valere, valui, valitus// be well, be strong, be able (+ inf) 
-//insto, instare, institi, &​mdash;//​ urge, threaten (+ dat) +  ​* ​//videor, videri, ​-- visus sum// be seen, seem (+ inf) 
-//inhaereo, inhaerere, inhaesi, inhaesus // cling to, adhere (+ dat) +  ​* ​//desino, desinere, desii, desitus // cease (+ inf) 
-//​deprecatio,​ deprecationis//​ f earnest prayer +  ​* ​//excipio, excipere, excepi, exceptus // welcome 
-//​particeps,​ participis // m. f. participant +  ​* ​//insto, instare, institi, &​mdash;//​ urge, threaten (+ dat) 
-//caligo, caliginis // f. mist, gloom +  ​* ​//inhaereo, inhaerere, inhaesi, inhaesus // cling to, adhere (+ dat) 
-//fundo, fundere, fudi, fusus // pour +  ​* ​//​deprecatio,​ deprecationis//​ f earnest prayer 
-//​confundo//​ confound, put to shame, in passive, it is be ashamed of (+ acc) +  ​* ​//​particeps,​ participis // m. f. participant 
-//scando, scandere, scandi, scansus // climb, mount +  ​* ​//caligo, caliginis // f. mist, gloom 
-//memor // mindful of (+ gen) +  ​* ​//fundo, fundere, fudi, fusus // pour 
-//intereo, interire, interivi, interitus// perish, die +  ​* ​//​confundo//​ confound, put to shame, in passive, it is be ashamed of (+ acc) 
-//obeo, obire, obivi, obitus// go to meet, die +  ​* ​//scando, scandere, scandi, scansus // climb, mount 
-//pereo, perire, perivi, peritus// perish, die, be lost +  ​* ​//memor // mindful of (+ gen) 
-//adsum, adesse, affui, &​mdash;//​ be present +  ​* ​//intereo, interire, interivi, interitus// perish, die 
-//prosum, prodesse, profui, &​mdash;//​ avail, profit, be advantageous to (+ dat) +  ​* ​//obeo, obire, obivi, obitus// go to meet, die 
-//incido, incidere, incidi // fall into, happen +  ​* ​//pereo, perire, perivi, peritus// perish, die, be lost 
-//prex, precis // f. entreaty, prayer +  ​* ​//adsum, adesse, affui, &​mdash;//​ be present 
-//precor, precari, precatus sum // ask, pray beseech (also deprecor...) +  ​* ​//prosum, prodesse, profui, &​mdash;//​ avail, profit, be advantageous to (+ dat) 
-//scelus, sceleris// n. crime, sin +  ​* ​//incido, incidere, incidi // fall into, happen 
-//dignor, dignare, ​&​mdash;, ​dignatus sum// consider worthwhile //​dedignor//​ distain +  ​* ​//prex, precis // f. entreaty, prayer 
-//judico, judicare, judicavi, judicatus// judge //dejudico //discern +  ​* ​//precor, precari, precatus sum // ask, pray beseech (also deprecor...) 
-//jubeo, jubere, jussi, jussus// command, request with accusative and infinitive. +  ​* ​//scelus, sceleris// n. crime, sin 
-//utor, uti, &​mdash;, ​usus sum// +abl. use, enjoy, be friends with +  ​* ​//dignor, dignare, ​-- dignatus sum// consider worthwhile //​dedignor//​ distain 
-//antistes, antistitis//​ m. bishop +  ​* ​//judico, judicare, judicavi, judicatus// judge //dejudico //discern 
-//planctus, -us// m. mourning +  ​* ​//jubeo, jubere, jussi, jussus// command, request with accusative and infinitive. 
-//tueor, tueri, ​&​mdash;, ​tuitus sum// watch, protect, uphold +  ​* ​//utor, uti, -- usus sum// +abl. use, enjoy, be friends with 
-//labor, labi, &​mdash;, ​lapsus sum// slide, fall (backslide) +  ​* ​//antistes, antistitis//​ m. bishop 
-//talis, tale// such, of such a sort +  ​* ​//planctus, -us// m. mourning 
-//tantus, -a, -um// so much, so great +  ​* ​//tueor, tueri, ​-- tuitus sum// watch, protect, uphold 
-//cano, canere, cecini, cantus// Sing prophesy +  ​* ​//labor, labi, -- lapsus sum// slide, fall (backslide) 
-//accendo, accendere, accendi, accensus// kindle, set on fire. +  ​* ​//talis, tale// such, of such a sort 
-//consors, consortis, consortium//​ sharer +  ​* ​//tantus, -a, -um// so much, so great 
-//​praestolor,​ praestolari, ​&​mdash;, ​praestolatus sum// +dat. wait for, perform +  ​* ​//cano, canere, cecini, cantus// Sing prophesy 
-//fateor, fateri, ​&​mdash;, ​fassus sum// admit, confess + acc. praise +dat. +  ​* ​//accendo, accendere, accendi, accensus// kindle, set on fire. 
-//pasco, pascere, pavi, pastus// feed +  ​* ​//consors, consortis, consortium//​ sharer 
-//statuo, statuere, statui, statutus// establish, appoint, determine +  ​* ​//​praestolor,​ praestolari, ​-- praestolatus sum// +dat. wait for, perform 
-//ardeo, ardere, arsi, arsus// burn +  ​* ​//fateor, fateri, ​-- fassus sum// admit, confess + acc. praise +dat. 
-//inficio, inficere, infeci, infectus// infect, polute +  ​* ​//pasco, pascere, pavi, pastus// feed 
-//proficio, proficere, profeci, profectus// avail, prevail +  ​* ​//statuo, statuere, statui, statutus// establish, appoint, determine 
-//reficio, reficere, refeci, refectus// refresh, repair +  ​* ​//ardeo, ardere, arsi, arsus// burn 
-//existimo, existimare, existimavi, existimatus//​ think, judge +  ​* ​//inficio, inficere, infeci, infectus// infect, polute 
-//liquo, liquare, liquavi, liquatus// melt +  ​* ​//proficio, proficere, profeci, profectus// avail, prevail 
-//​illucesco,​ illucescere,​ illuxi// shine (upon), become light. +  ​* ​//reficio, reficere, refeci, refectus// refresh, repair 
-//​adpropinquo,​ -are, -avi, -atus// draw near (+dat) ​+  ​* ​//existimo, existimare, existimavi, existimatus//​ think, judge 
 +  ​* ​//liquo, liquare, liquavi, liquatus// melt 
 +  ​* ​//​illucesco,​ illucescere,​ illuxi// shine (upon), become light. 
 +  ​* ​//​adpropinquo,​ -are, -avi, -atus// draw near (+dat) ​
  
 ==Conjunctions,​ Prepositions and Adverbs== ==Conjunctions,​ Prepositions and Adverbs==
-<p id="​l130">​ 
-http://​en.wikibooks.org/​wiki/​Latin/​Lesson_4-Adverbs_and_Prepositions"><​img class="​borderless"​ src="​http://​wikispot.org/​wiki/​eggheadbeta/​img/​sycamore-www.png"​ alt="​[WWW]"​ height="​7"​ width="​13">​Adverbs,​ Conjunctions and Prepositions (resource)</​a>​Conjunctions are indeclinable particles that join clauses together to form sentences. Examples of forms of conjunctions in English are: and, but and so. Conjunctions are either coordinating (joining two main clauses) or subordinating (joing a subclause to a main clause).**Coordinating Conjunctions **//atque// and//aut// or//​aut...aut//​ either...or//​autem//​ but, and - depends on context, may not need to be translated//​enim//​ (usually placed second in sentence) for//ergo// and so, therefore//​et//​ and//​et...et//​ both...and//​igitur//​ therefore//​itaque//​ and so//nam// for//​nec/​necque//​ and not, nor//​nec/​necque...nec/​necque//​ neither...nor//​prout//​ according as//quam// than (adv: how, how much)//​quapropter//​ wherefore, therefore//​-que//​* and//sed// but//​tamen//​ (usually placed second in a sentence) however//​vel//​ or (if you prefer)**Subordinating Conjunctions**//​antequam//​ before,//​cum//​ when, after + ind.; under the circumstances,​ although, since + subj.//​donec//​ while, as long as, till//dum// while, for the time//​etsi//​ although, even, if//​licet//​although (with indicative or subjunctive) - properly a verb//ne// in order that ... not, that ... not, introducing negative purpose, or direct command, with subj.//​nisi//​ unless, except//​quamquam//​ however//​quia,​ quod, quoniam// because - sometimes //eo quod////​priusquam//​ before (with indicative or subjunctive)//​si//​ if//sive, seu// or if, //​sive...sive//​ if ... or if, whether ... or.//simul ac// as soon as//ubi// when, as soon as, (where - adverb)//​ut//​ when, as/with result clauses: in order to, so, to, that, introducing negative purpose, or direct command, with subj. (with postulo, rogo, peto, oro, precor, moneo + subjunctive or acc. + inf; or dico ut + subjunctive)//​utinam//​ as/with result clauses: in order to, so, to//​postquam//​ after, //postquam puerum vidit// ​ 
  
-<p id="​l173">​ +Conjunctions are indeclinable particles that join clauses together ​to form sentences. Examples ​of forms of conjunctions ​in English are: andbut and so. Conjunctions are either coordinating (joining two main clauses) or subordinating (joing a subclause ​to a main clause).
-**Prepositions**  +
-<div class="​wikitable">​ +
-<table border="​1">​ +
-<tr id="​l174">​ +
-<td colspan="​2"​ align="​center">​ +
- With the <​u>​accusative</​u>​ case: </​td>​ +
-<td colspan="​2"​ align="​center">​ +
-With the <​u>​ablative</​u>​ case</​td>​ +
-<td colspan="​2"​ align="​center">​ +
-With <​u>​genitive</​u>​ </​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-<tr id="​l175">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-//ad //  | +
-to   | +
-//​a/​ab// ​ | +
-from  | +
-//​causa// ​ | +
-  improper preposition for the sake of, by reason ​of</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-<tr id="​l176">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-//adversu -s/-m //  | +
-opposite ​  | +
-   | +
-   | +
-//​gratia// ​  | +
- </​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-<tr id="​l177">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-//​ante// ​ | +
-before ​  | +
-//​cum// ​ | +
- ​with ​ | +
-//​vice// ​  | +
- </​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-<tr id="​l178">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-//apud //  | +
-among, at the house of//  | +
-//​de// ​ | +
-of, concerning ​ | +
-   | +
- </​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-<tr id="​l179">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-//​circa// ​ | +
-around ​ | +
-   | +
-   | +
-   | +
- </​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-<tr id="​l180">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-//​cis// ​ | +
-before ​ | +
-   | +
-   | +
-   | +
- </​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-<tr id="​l181">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-//​circum// ​ | +
-around ​  | +
-//​e/​ex// ​ | +
-from, out of  | +
-   | +
- </​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-<tr id="​l182">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-//​contra// ​ | +
-against ​  | +
-//​coram// ​ | +
-in the presence of   | +
-   | +
- </​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-<tr id="​l183">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-//​extra// ​ | +
-beyondoutside ​  | +
-   | +
-   | +
-   | +
- </​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-<tr id="​l184">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-//​in// ​ | +
-into   | +
-//​in// ​ | +
-in   | +
-   | +
- </​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-<tr id="​l185">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-//​inter// ​ | +
-between, among   | +
-   | +
-   | +
-   | +
- </​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-<tr id="​l186">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-//​intra// ​ | +
-within, among   | +
-   | +
-   | +
-   | +
- </​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-<tr id="​l187">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-//​iuxta// ​ | +
-beside ​ | +
-   | +
-   | +
-   | +
- </​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-<tr id="​l188">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-//ob //  | +
-because of  | +
-   | +
-   | +
-   | +
- </​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-<tr id="​l189">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-//​per// ​ | +
-through ​  | +
-//​prae// ​ | +
- ​before,​ in preference ​to, comparison with, consequence of,   | +
-   | +
- </​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-<tr id="​l190">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-//post, pone// ​ | +
-behind, after   | +
-//​pro// ​  | +
- on behalf of, in front of, according to  | +
-   | +
- </​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-<tr id="​l191">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-//​prope// ​ | +
-near   | +
-//​palam// ​ | +
-in the presense of  | +
-   | +
- </​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-<tr id="​l192">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-//​propter// ​ | +
-near   | +
-//​sine// ​ | +
-without ​ | +
-   | +
- </​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-<tr id="​l193">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-//​praeter// ​ | +
-beyond ​ | +
-   | +
-   | +
-   | +
- </​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-<tr id="​l194">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-//​secundum// ​ | +
-according to   | +
-//​sub// ​ | +
-under  | +
-   | +
- </​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-<tr id="​l195">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-//​secus// ​ | +
-beside ​ | +
-   | +
-   | +
-   | +
- </​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-<tr id="​l196">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-//​super// ​ | +
- upon, over, above   | +
-//​super// ​ | +
-concerning, about, above  | +
-   | +
- </​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-<tr id="​l197">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-//​trans// ​ | +
-across ​  | +
-   | +
-   | +
-   | +
- </​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-<tr id="​l198">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-//​usque// ​ | +
-up to  | +
-   | +
-   | +
-   | +
- </​td>​ +
-</tr>+
  
 +**Coordinating Conjunctions **
  
-</table> +  * //atque/and 
-</div> +  ​* ​//aut// or 
-<p id="​l200">​ +  * //​aut...aut//​ either...or 
-**Adverbs**+  //autem// but, and - depends on context, may not need to be translated 
 +  ​//enim// (usually placed second in sentence) for 
 +  ​//ergo// and so, therefore 
 +  ​//et// and 
 +  * //et...et// both...and 
 +  * //igitur// therefore 
 +  * //itaque// and so 
 +  * //nam// for 
 +  * //​nec/​necque//​ and not, nor 
 +  * //​nec/​necque...nec/​necque//​ neither...nor 
 +  * //prout// according as 
 +  * //quam// than (adv: how, how much) 
 +  * //​quapropter//​ wherefore, therefore 
 +  * //-que//* and 
 +  * //sed// but 
 +  * //tamen// (usually placed second in a sentence) however 
 +  * //vel// or (if you prefer) 
 +**Subordinating Conjunctions** 
 +  * //​antequam//​ before, 
 +  * //cum// when, after + ind.; under the circumstances,​ although, since + subj. 
 +  * //donec// while, as long as, till 
 +  * //dum// while, for the time 
 +  * //etsi// although, even, if 
 +  * //​licet//​although (with indicative or subjunctive) - properly a verb 
 +  * //ne// in order that ... not, that ... not, introducing negative purpose, or direct command, with subj. 
 +  * //nisi// unless, except 
 +  * //​quamquam//​ however 
 +  * //quia, quod, quoniam// because - sometimes  
 +  * //eo quod////​priusquam//​ before (with indicative or subjunctive) 
 +  * //si// if 
 +  * //sive, seu// or if,  
 +  * //​sive...sive//​ if ... or if, whether ... or. 
 +  * //simul ac// as soon as 
 +  * //ubi// when, as soon as, (where - adverb) 
 +  * //ut// when, as/with result clauses: in order to, so, to, that, introducing negative purpose, or direct command, with subj. (with postulo, rogo, peto, oro, precor, moneo + subjunctive or acc. + inf; or dico ut + subjunctive) 
 +  * //utinam// as/with result clauses: in order to, so, to 
 +  * //​postquam//​ after,  
 +  * //postquam puerum vidit// ​
  
 +**Prepositions** ​
  
-    <ul>+| With the __accusative__ case:  ||With the __ablative__ case  ||With __genitive__ ​ || 
 +|//ad //  |to   ​|//​a/​ab// ​ |from  |//​causa// ​ |  improper preposition for the sake of, by reason of  | 
 +|//adversu -s/-m //  |opposite ​  ​| ​  ​| ​  ​|//​gratia// ​  | 
 +|//​ante// ​ |before ​  ​|//​cum// ​ | with  |//​vice// ​  | 
 +|//apud //  |among, at the house of//  |//​de// ​ |of, concerning ​ |   | 
 +|//​circa// ​ |around ​ |   ​| ​  ​| ​  | 
 +|//​cis// ​ |before ​ |   ​| ​  ​| ​  | 
 +|//​circum// ​ |around ​  ​|//​e/​ex// ​ |from, out of  |   | 
 +|//​contra// ​ |against ​  ​|//​coram// ​ |in the presence of   ​| ​  | 
 +|//​extra// ​ |beyond, outside ​  ​| ​  ​| ​  ​| ​  | 
 +|//​in// ​ |into   ​|//​in// ​ |in   ​| ​  | 
 +|//​inter// ​ |between, among   ​| ​  ​| ​  ​| ​  | 
 +|//​intra// ​ |within, among   ​| ​  ​| ​  ​| ​  | 
 +|//​iuxta// ​ |beside ​ |   ​| ​  ​| ​  | 
 +|//ob //  |because of  |   ​| ​  ​| ​  | 
 +|/?​per// ​ |through ​  ​|//​prae// ​ | before, in preference to, comparison with, consequence of,   ​| ​  | 
 +|//post, pone// ​ |behind, after   ​|//​pro// ​  | on behalf of, in front of, according to  |   | 
 +|//​prope// ​ |near   ​|//​palam// ​ |in the presense of  |   | 
 +|//​propter// ​ |near   ​|//​sine// ​ |without ​ |   | 
 +|//​praeter// ​ |beyond ​ |   ​| ​  ​| ​  | 
 +|//​secundum// ​ |according to   ​|//​sub// ​ |under ​ |   | 
 +|//​secus// ​ |beside ​ |   ​| ​  ​| ​  | 
 +|//​super// ​ | upon, over, above   ​|//​super// ​ |concerning,​ about, above  |   | 
 +|//​trans// ​ |across ​  ​| ​  ​| ​  ​| ​  | 
 +|//​usque// ​ |up to  |   ​| ​  ​| ​  |
  
-    <​li>​ +**Adverbs**
-<p id="​l201">​ +
-//adhunc// so far +
-  |<p id="​l202">​ +
-//​confestim//​ immediately +
-  |<p id="​l203">​ +
-//deinde// then, next +
-  |<p id="​l204">​ +
-//donec, dum// while, as long as +
-  |<p id="​l205">​ +
-//etiam// even also (intensifying) +
-  |<p id="​l206">​ +
-//​forsitan//​ perhaps +
-  |<p id="​l207">​ +
-//hinc// from here +
-  |<p id="​l208">​ +
-//iam// already +
-  |<p id="​l209">​ +
-//ideo// therefore, on that account +
-  |<p id="​l210">​ +
-//inde// from there, from then +
-  |<p id="​l211">​ +
-//invicem// in turn; as reflecive pronoun: one another. +
-  |<p id="​l212">​ +
-//ita// so, thus, with adverbs, adjectives and verbs. +
-  |<p id="​l213">​ +
-//itaque// therefore +
-  |<p id="​l214">​ +
-//jam// already (with past), now (with present), soon (with future) +
-  |<p id="​l215">​ +
-//mox// presently +
-  |<p id="​l216">​ +
-//nimis// too, too much +
-  |<p id="​l217">​ +
-//nondum// not yet +
-  |<p id="​l218">​ +
-//nonne// introduces question expecting yes +
-  |<p id="​l219">​ +
-//numquid// introduces question expecting no +
-  |<p id="​l220">​ +
-//palam// openly +
-  |<p id="​l221">​ +
-//postea// afterward +
-  |<p id="​l222">​ +
-//quam// how, how much (conj: than) +
-  |<p id="​l223">​ +
-//quando // when? +
-  |<p id="​l224">​ +
-//quare// why +
-  |<p id="​l225">​ +
-//​quemadmodo//​ how? just as +
-  |<p id="​l226">​ +
-//quid// why? how? //ut quid// +
-  |<p id="​l227">​ +
-//quidem// indeed, at any rate +
-  |<p id="​l228">​ +
-//quo// to where (?) +
-  |<p id="​l229">​ +
-//quomodo// how? +
-  |<p id="​l230">​ +
-//sic// so, thus, with verbs only +
-  |<p id="​l231">​ +
-//sicut// like, as +
-  |<p id="​l232">​ +
-//simul// together, atthe same time +
-  |<p id="​l233">​ +
-//sursum// upward +
-  |<p id="​l234">​ +
-//talis// such +
-  |<p id="​l235">​ +
-//tam// so, to such a degree, with adverbs and adjectives only +
-  |<p id="​l236">​ +
-//tamen// nevertheless +
-  |<p id="​l237">​ +
-//tantum// only +
-  |<p id="​l238">​ +
-//tum// then +
-  |<p id="​l239">​ +
-//tunc// then +
-  |<p id="​l240">​ +
-//ultro// on the other side, besides +
-  |<p id="​l241">​ +
-//unde// from where +
-  |<p id="​l242">​ +
-//usque // as far as, all the way +
-  |<p id="​l243">​ +
-//utinam// if only +
-  |<p id="​l244">​ +
-//utique// certainly, at any rate +
-  |<p id="​l245">​ +
-//valdo// very +
-  |<p id="​l246">​ +
-//velut// just as, as if +
-  |<p id="​l247">​ +
-//vero// truly+
  
-</li>+  * //adhunc// so far 
 +  * //​confestim//​ immediately 
 +  * //deinde// then, next 
 +  * //donec, dum// while, as long as 
 +  * //etiam// even also (intensifying) 
 +  * //​forsitan//​ perhaps 
 +  * //hinc// from here 
 +  * //iam// already 
 +  * //ideo// therefore, on that account 
 +  * //inde// from there, from then 
 +  * //invicem// in turn; as reflecive pronoun: one another. 
 +  * //ita// so, thus, with adverbs, adjectives and verbs. 
 +  * //itaque// therefore 
 +  * //jam// already (with past), now (with present), soon (with future) 
 +  * //mox// presently 
 +  * //nimis// too, too much 
 +  * //nondum// not yet 
 +  * //nonne// introduces question expecting yes 
 +  * //numquid// introduces question expecting no 
 +  * //palam// openly 
 +  * //postea// afterward 
 +  * //quam// how, how much (conj: than) 
 +  * //quando // when? 
 +  * //quare// why 
 +  * //​quemadmodo//​ how? just as 
 +  * //quid// why? how? //ut quid// 
 +  * //quidem// indeed, at any rate 
 +  * //quo// to where (?) 
 +  * //quomodo// how? 
 +  * //sic// so, thus, with verbs only 
 +  * //sicut// like, as 
 +  * //simul// together, atthe same time 
 +  * //sursum// upward 
 +  * //talis// such 
 +  * //tam// so, to such a degree, with adverbs and adjectives only 
 +  * //tamen// nevertheless 
 +  * //tantum// only 
 +  * //tum// then 
 +  * //tunc// then 
 +  * //ultro// on the other side, besides 
 +  * //unde// from where 
 +  * //usque // as far as, all the way 
 +  * //utinam// if only 
 +  * //utique// certainly, at any rate 
 +  * //valdo// very 
 +  * //velut// just as, as if 
 +  * //vero// truly
  
-    </ul> 
  
 +Some Adverbs of Time:
 +  * iam pridem long ago
 +  * primum first
 +  * postremo finally
 +  * postquam as soon as
 +  * numquam never
 +  * saepe often
 +  * cotidie every day
 +  * nondum not yet
 +  * crebro frequently
 +  * pridie the day before
 +  * umqam ever
 +  * denique at last 
  
-<p id="​l248">​ +Adverbs of Place: 
-Some Adverbs of Time:iam pridem long agoprimum firstpostremo finallypostquam as soon asnumquam neversaepe oftencotidie every daynondum not yetcrebro frequentlypridie ​the day beforeumqam everdenique at last +  * hic here 
 +  * huc hither 
 +  * hinc from here 
 +  * ibi thereeo thither, to there 
 +  * illic therequo whitherunde whence 
 +  * ubi whereundique from everywhere 
 +  * ibidem in the same placee 
 +  * odem to the same place 
 +  * quovis anywhere 
 +  * usque all the way to 
 +  * intro inwardly 
 +  * nusquam nowhere 
 +  * porro further on 
 +  * citro to this side 
  
-<p id="​l262">​ +Adverbs of Manner, Degree, or Cause: 
-Adverbs of Place:hic herehuc hitherhinc from hereibi thereeo thitherto thereillic therequo whitherunde whenceubi whereundique from everywhereibidem in the same placeeodem to the same placequovis anywhereusque all the way tointro inwardlynusquam nowhereporro further oncitro to this side +  * quam how 
 +  * astam so 
 +  * quamvis however much 
 +  * magis more 
 +  * paene almost 
 +  * valde greatly 
 +  * cur why 
 +  * quare why 
 +  * ergo therefore 
 +  * propterea because, on this account 
 +  * ita so 
 +  * sic so 
 +  * ut as, how 
 +  * vix hardly ​
  
-<p id="​l282">​ +Interrogative Particles: 
-Adverbs of Manner, Degree, or Cause:quam how, astam soquamvis however muchmagis morepaene almostvalde greatlycur whyquare whyergo thereforepropterea because, on this accountita sosic sout as, howvix hardly  +  * whether: an, -ne, utrum, utrumne, ​num 
- +  * whether ​not nonne, ​annon 
-<p id="​l298">​ +  * whether ​at all numquid, ​ecquid 
-Interrogative Particles:​whether:​ an, -ne, utrum, utrumne, ​numwhether ​not nonne, ​annonwhether ​at all numquid, ​ecquidNegative ​Particles:​not non, haud, minime, ne, neclest nenor neque, ​necnot ​only ... but also non modo ... verum/​sed ​etiamnot ​only not ... but not even non modo ... sed ne ... quidemnot ​even ne ... quidemif ​not si minusso ​as not quo minus, ​quominuswhy ​not? quin+  * Negative ​Particles:​not non, haud, minime, ne, neclest nenor neque, ​nec 
 +  * not only ... but also non modo ... verum/​sed ​etiam 
 +  * not only not ... but not even non modo ... sed ne ... quidem 
 +  * not even ne ... quidem 
 +  * if not si minus 
 +  * so as not quo minus, ​quominus 
 +  * why not? quin
  
 ====Latin in the Code==== ====Latin in the Code====
-<p id="​l313">​ +This chart gives all the words that occur in the Code of Canon Law more than 100 times, the English translation,​ then parses the term. Knowing these words cold will help your reading of the code.  
-This chart gives all the words that occur in the Code more than 100 times, the English translation,​ then parses the term. Knowing these words cold will help your reading of the code.  +|Times in Code  |Latin ​ |English ​ |  Grammar ​ | 
-<div class="​wikitable">​ +|2139  |in  |in  |prep with acc or abl  | 
-<table border="​1">​ +|1797  |et  |and  |conj  | 
-<tr id="​l314">​ +|1449  |ad  |to  |prep + acc  | 
-<​td>​ +|1132  |de  |of  |prep + abl  | 
-Times in Code  | +|1019  |vel  |or  |ADV: even, actually; or even, in deed; CONJ or;  | 
-Latin  | +|718  |aut  |or  |conj  | 
-English ​ | +|682  |si  |if  |subordinating conj  | 
-Grammar</​td>​ +|663  |qui  |which, that  |n.s or n.p pronoun anyone, anything: qui, quae, quod  | 
-</​tr>​ +|589  |est  |is  |3s pai  | 
-<tr id="​l315">​ +|586  |non  |not|  | 
-<td> +|555  |a  |from, by  |prep, ablative ​ | 
-2139  | +|549  |ut  |to / that  |conj + subj  | 
-in  | +|536  |quae  |which, that  |n.s or n.p or acc.p pronoun anyone, anything: qui, quae, quod  | 
-in  | +|518  |ab  |from, by  |prep + abl  | 
-prep with acc or abl</​td>​ +|467  |nisi  |unless ​ |conj  | 
-</​tr>​ +|453  |potest ​ |it can  |3s pai  | 
-<tr id="​l316">​ +|316  |cum  |with; when  |prep + abl; or adverb: when  | 
-<td> +|314  |per  |through, by  |prep + acc  | 
-1797  | +|313  |sit  |it would be  |3s pas  | 
-et  | +|309  |ex  |from  |prep + abl  | 
-and  | +|286  |etiam ​ |also  |conj  | 
-conj</​td>​ +|274  |sive  |or if, or  |conj  | 
-</​tr>​ +|273  |quibus ​ |which, that  |dat/abl.p pronoun anyone, anything: qui, quae, quod| 
-<tr id="​l317">​ +|272  |iure  |by right  |adv  | 
-<td> +|268  |normam ​ |standard ​ |acc.s| 
-1449  | +|254  |ecclesiae ​ |church ​ |gen.s. dat.s, nom.p  | 
-ad  | +|253  |sunt  |they are  |3p pai  | 
-to  | +|250  |pro  |for  |prep + abl  | 
-prep + acc</​td>​ +|239  |quo  |which, that  |abl.s pronoun anyone, anything: qui, quae, quod  | 
-</​tr>​ +|233  |atque ​ |and  |conj  | 
-<tr id="​l318">​ +|218  |iuris ​ |law, right  |gen.s ​ | 
-<td> +|215  |episcopus ​ |bishop ​ |n.s  | 
-1132  | +|211  |quod  |which, that  |nom/acc.s pronoun anyone, anything: qui, quae, quod  | 
-de  | +|179  |loci  |place ​ |gen.s nom.p  | 
-of  | +|177  |causa ​ |cause, case / because ​ |n.s abl.s / prep + abl (false prep)  | 
-prep + abl</​td>​ +|175  |ecclesia ​ |church ​ |n.s abl.s   | 
-</​tr>​ +|170  |episcoporum ​ |bishop ​ |gen.p ​ | 
-<tr id="​l319">​ +|169  |debet ​ |owe, ought  |3s pai  | 
-<td> +|167  |episcopo ​ |bishop ​ |dat.s abl.s  | 
-1019  | +|166  |possunt ​ |they can  |3p pai  | 
-vel  | +|161  |tamen ​ |yet, still  |adv  | 
-or  | +|151  |ius  |law  |n.s, acc.s  | 
-ADV: even, actually; or even, in deed; CONJ or;</​td>​ +|150  |episcopi ​ |bishops ​ |n.p, gen.s  | 
-</​tr>​ +|147  |iudex ​ |judge ​ |n.s  | 
-<tr id="​l320">​ +|147  |se  |itself ​ |abl acc pronoun ​ | 
-<td> +|146  |ne  |lest / not  |conj + imp / adv  | 
-718  | +|143  |qua  |which, that  |nom/acc.s nom/acc.p pronoun anyone, anything: qui, quae, quod  | 
-aut  | +|140  |autem ​ |but  |conj  | 
-or  | +|140  |sint  |they would be  |3p pas  | 
-conj</​td>​ +|135  |caput ​ |chapter ​ |n  | 
-</​tr>​ +|135  |vitae ​ |life  |n  | 
-<tr id="​l321">​ +|134  |instituti ​ |institute ​ |n  | 
-<td> +|128  |necnon ​ |nor  |adv  | 
-682  | +|127  |id  |he, she, it, that  |pron n.s, acc.s  | 
-si  | +|125  |aliud ​ |other ​ |adj n.s, acc.s  | 
-if  | +|116  |eius  |he, she, it, that  |pron g.s  | 
-subordinating conj</​td>​ +|115  |diocesano ​ |diocesan ​ |adj  | 
-</​tr>​ +|115  |saltem ​ |at least  |adv  | 
-<tr id="​l322">​ +|114  |ac  |and  |conj  | 
-<td> +|114  |intra ​ |within ​ |prep + acc, adv  | 
-663  | +|114  |tantum ​ |so much, only   |adv, adj  | 
-qui  | +|112  |eadem ​ |same, same time / way  |adv, adj  | 
-which, that  | +|112  |vero  |truly, really, truth  |adv  | 
-n.s or n.p pronoun anyone, anything: qui, quae, quod</​td>​ +|111  |auctoritate ​ |authority ​ |n  | 
-</​tr>​ +|110  |fuerit ​ |will, would have been  |perf as; futp ai  | 
-<tr id="​l323">​ +|109  |ipso  |himself ​ |abl.s ​ | 
-<td> +|109  |legitime ​ |lawful ​ |adv, adj  | 
-589  | +|108  |dioecesanus ​ |diocesan ​ |adj  | 
-est  | +|107  |apostolicae ​ |apostolic ​ |adj  | 
-is  | +|105  |dioecesani ​ |diocesan ​ |adj  | 
-3s pai</​td>​ +|105  |quam  |which, that  |acc.s pronoun anyone, anything: qui, quae, quod  | 
-</​tr>​ +|103  |inter ​ |between, during ​ |prep + acc  | 
-<tr id="​l324">​ +|102  |omnes ​ |all  |adj  | 
-<td> +|101  |sibi  |he, she, it, that  |pron dative ​ |
-586  | +
-non  | +
-not</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-<tr id="​l325">​ +
-<td> +
-555  | +
-a  | +
-from, by  | +
-prep, ablative</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-<tr id="​l326">​ +
-<td> +
-549  | +
-ut  | +
-to / that  | +
-conj + subj</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-<tr id="​l327">​ +
-<td> +
-536  | +
-quae  | +
-which, that  | +
-n.s or n.p or acc.p pronoun anyone, anything: qui, quae, quod</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-<tr id="​l328">​ +
-<td> +
-518  | +
-ab  | +
-from, by  | +
-prep + abl</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-<tr id="​l329">​ +
-<td> +
-467  | +
-nisi  | +
-unless ​ | +
-conj</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-<tr id="​l330">​ +
-<td> +
-453  | +
-potest ​ | +
-it can  | +
-3s pai</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-<tr id="​l331">​ +
-<td> +
-316  | +
-cum  | +
-with; when  | +
-prep + abl; or adverb: when</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-<tr id="​l332">​ +
-<td> +
-314  | +
-per  | +
-through, by  | +
-prep + acc</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-<tr id="​l333">​ +
-<td> +
-313  | +
-sit  | +
-it would be  | +
-3s pas</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-<tr id="​l334">​ +
-<td> +
-309  | +
-ex  | +
-from  | +
-prep + abl</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-<tr id="​l335">​ +
-<td> +
-286  | +
-etiam  | +
-also  | +
-conj</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-<tr id="​l336">​ +
-<td> +
-274  | +
-sive  | +
-or if, or  | +
-conj</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-<tr id="​l337">​ +
-<td> +
-273  | +
-quibus ​ | +
-which, that  | +
-dat/abl.p pronoun anyone, anything: qui, quae, quod</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-<tr id="​l338">​ +
-<td> +
-272  | +
-iure  | +
-by right  | +
-adv</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-<tr id="​l339">​ +
-<td> +
-268  | +
-normam ​ | +
-standard ​ | +
-acc.s</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-<tr id="​l340">​ +
-<td> +
-254  | +
-ecclesiae ​ | +
-church ​ | +
-gen.s. dat.s, nom.p</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-<tr id="​l341">​ +
-<td> +
-253  | +
-sunt  | +
-they are  | +
-3p pai</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-<tr id="​l342">​ +
-<td> +
-250  | +
-pro  | +
-for  | +
-prep + abl</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-<tr id="​l343">​ +
-<td> +
-239  | +
-quo  | +
-which, that  | +
-abl.s pronoun anyone, anything: qui, quae, quod</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-<tr id="​l344">​ +
-<td> +
-233  | +
-atque  | +
-and  | +
-conj</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-<tr id="​l345">​ +
-<td> +
-218  | +
-iuris  | +
-law, right  | +
-gen.s</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-<tr id="​l346">​ +
-<td> +
-215  | +
-episcopus ​ | +
-bishop ​ | +
-n.s</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-<tr id="​l347">​ +
-<td> +
-211  | +
-quod  | +
-which, that  | +
-nom/acc.s pronoun anyone, anything: qui, quae, quod</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-<tr id="​l348">​ +
-<td> +
-179  | +
-loci  | +
-place  | +
-gen.s nom.p</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-<tr id="​l349">​ +
-<td> +
-177  | +
-causa  | +
-cause, case / because ​ | +
-n.s abl.s / prep + abl (false prep)</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-<tr id="​l350">​ +
-<td> +
-175  | +
-ecclesia ​ | +
-church ​ | +
-n.s abl.s </​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-<tr id="​l351">​ +
-<td> +
-170  | +
-episcoporum ​ | +
-bishop ​ | +
-gen.p</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-<tr id="​l352">​ +
-<td> +
-169  | +
-debet  | +
-owe, ought  | +
-3s pai</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-<tr id="​l353">​ +
-<td> +
-167  | +
-episcopo ​ | +
-bishop ​ | +
-dat.s abl.s</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-<tr id="​l354">​ +
-<td> +
-166  | +
-possunt ​ | +
-they can  | +
-3p pai</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-<tr id="​l355">​ +
-<td> +
-161  | +
-tamen  | +
-yet, still  | +
-adv</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-<tr id="​l356">​ +
-<td> +
-151  | +
-ius  | +
-law  | +
-n.s, acc.s</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-<tr id="​l357">​ +
-<td> +
-150  | +
-episcopi ​ | +
-bishops ​ | +
-n.p, gen.s</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-<tr id="​l358">​ +
-<td> +
-147  | +
-iudex  | +
-judge  | +
-n.s</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-<tr id="​l359">​ +
-<td> +
-147  | +
-se  | +
-itself ​ | +
-abl acc pronoun</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-<tr id="​l360">​ +
-<td> +
-146  | +
-ne  | +
-lest / not  | +
-conj + imp / adv</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-<tr id="​l361">​ +
-<td> +
-143  | +
-qua  | +
-which, that  | +
-nom/acc.s nom/acc.p pronoun anyone, anything: qui, quae, quod</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-<tr id="​l362">​ +
-<td> +
-140  | +
-autem  | +
-but  | +
-conj</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-<tr id="​l363">​ +
-<td> +
-140  | +
-sint  | +
-they would be  | +
-3p pas</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-<tr id="​l364">​ +
-<td> +
-135  | +
-caput  | +
-chapter ​ | +
-n</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-<tr id="​l365">​ +
-<td> +
-135  | +
-vitae  | +
-life  | +
-n</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-<tr id="​l366">​ +
-<td> +
-134  | +
-instituti ​ | +
-institute ​ | +
-n</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-<tr id="​l367">​ +
-<td> +
-128  | +
-necnon ​ | +
-nor  | +
-adv</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-<tr id="​l368">​ +
-<td> +
-127  | +
-id  | +
-he, she, it, that  | +
-pron n.s, acc.s</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-<tr id="​l369">​ +
-<td> +
-125  | +
-aliud  | +
-other  | +
-adj n.s, acc.s</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-<tr id="​l370">​ +
-<td> +
-116  | +
-eius  | +
-he, she, it, that  | +
-pron g.s</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-<tr id="​l371">​ +
-<td> +
-115  | +
-diocesano ​ | +
-diocesan ​ | +
-adj</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-<tr id="​l372">​ +
-<td> +
-115  | +
-saltem ​ | +
-at least  | +
-adv</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-<tr id="​l373">​ +
-<td> +
-114  | +
-ac  | +
-and  | +
-conj</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-<tr id="​l374">​ +
-<td> +
-114  | +
-intra  | +
-within ​ | +
-prep + acc, adv</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-<tr id="​l375">​ +
-<td> +
-114  | +
-tantum ​ | +
-so much, only   | +
-adv, adj</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-<tr id="​l376">​ +
-<td> +
-112  | +
-eadem  | +
-same, same time / way  | +
-adv, adj</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-<tr id="​l377">​ +
-<td> +
-112  | +
-vero  | +
-truly, really, truth  | +
-adv</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-<tr id="​l378">​ +
-<td> +
-111  | +
-auctoritate ​ | +
-authority ​ | +
-n</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-<tr id="​l379">​ +
-<td> +
-110  | +
-fuerit ​ | +
-will, would have been  | +
-perf as; futp ai</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-<tr id="​l380">​ +
-<td> +
-109  | +
-ipso  | +
-himself ​ | +
-abl.s</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-<tr id="​l381">​ +
-<td> +
-109  | +
-legitime ​ | +
-lawful ​ | +
-adv, adj</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-<tr id="​l382">​ +
-<td> +
-108  | +
-dioecesanus ​ | +
-diocesan ​ | +
-adj</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-<tr id="​l383">​ +
-<td> +
-107  | +
-apostolicae ​ | +
-apostolic ​ | +
-adj</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-<tr id="​l384">​ +
-<td> +
-105  | +
-dioecesani ​ | +
-diocesan ​ | +
-adj</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-<tr id="​l385">​ +
-<td> +
-105  | +
-quam  | +
-which, that  | +
-acc.s pronoun anyone, anything: qui, quae, quod</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-<tr id="​l386">​ +
-<td> +
-103  | +
-inter  | +
-between, during ​ | +
-prep + acc</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-<tr id="​l387">​ +
-<td> +
-102  | +
-omnes  | +
-all  | +
-adj</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-<tr id="​l388">​ +
-<td> +
-101  | +
-sibi  | +
-he, she, it, that  | +
-pron dative</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-</​table>​ +
-</​div>​+
  
  
-====Collins Ecclesiastical Latin====+=====Collins Ecclesiastical Latin=====
 ===Unit 4 - Adjectival declensions=== ===Unit 4 - Adjectival declensions===
 +|Nom.   ​|bona ​  ​|bonus ​  ​|bonum ​ |
 +|Gen.   ​|bonae ​  ​|boni ​ |boni  |
 +|Dat.   ​|bonae ​  ​|bono ​ |bono  |
 +|Acc.  |bonam ​  ​|bonum ​  ​|bonum ​ |
 +|Abl.  | bona  |bono  |bono  |
 +|Voc.   ​|bona ​  ​|bone ​  ​|bonum ​ |
 +|Nom.  |bonae ​ |boni  |bona  |
 +|Gen.  |bonarum ​ |bonorum ​ |bonorum ​ |
 +|Dat.  |bonis ​ |bonis ​ |bonis ​ |
 +|Acc.  |bonas ​ |bonos ​ |bona  |
 +|Abl.  |bonis ​ |bonis ​ |bonis ​ |
  
-    <ul>+  * Nominative sing and pleural always the same in all declensions in neuter. 
 +  * You can tell from the dictionary the gender - context may be misleading. 
 +  * Petrus erat bonus -Peter was good - copula takes same case, gender, number 
 +  * Petrus erat bonus papa. Peter erat bonus agricola. Check the dictionary. 
 +  * Papa - father, teacher, bishop, pope. Then in 5th C became reserved for bishop of Rome. At that time pope got more political power as other political powers collapsed. 
 +  * Brevitas is a virtue in Latin. Gravitas. Plautus - only latin humorist. Brevitas atque Gravitas. Latin like mathmatics. Can't make mistakes against Latin. Up to the middle ages, the personal pronouns were seldom used. With the coming of the middle ages came national languages. Thus latin wasn't known. Erasmus destroyed latin as official political language by desire to reestablishing the 'good old days'. Older latin was more difficult thus the study was impeded. Same is true for greek. 
 +  * Royal Chair for Exegesis was founded by Charles V - 1560 - this is a proof that Catholics considered the study of the bible impt. 1548 first complete dutch Nikolaus van Winghe - by a leuven professor. But it was so colloquial that in five years it was revived. KUL also promoted lay reading of the bible, though there was debate.
  
- 
-<div class="​wikitable">​ 
-<table border="​1">​ 
- <​tr id="​l391">​ 
-<td> 
-Nom.   | 
-bona   | 
-bonus   | 
-bonum</​td>​ 
-</tr> 
- <​tr id="​l392">​ 
-<td> 
-Gen.   | 
-bonae   | 
-boni  | 
-boni</​td>​ 
-</tr> 
- <​tr id="​l393">​ 
-<td> 
-Dat.   | 
-bonae   | 
-bono  | 
-bono</​td>​ 
-</tr> 
- <​tr id="​l394">​ 
-<td> 
-Acc.  | 
-bonam   | 
-bonum   | 
-bonum</​td>​ 
-</tr> 
- <​tr id="​l395">​ 
-<td> 
-Abl.  | 
- ​bona ​ | 
-bono  | 
-bono</​td>​ 
-</tr> 
- <​tr id="​l396">​ 
-<td> 
-Voc.   | 
-bona   | 
-bone   | 
-bonum</​td>​ 
-</tr> 
- <​tr id="​l397">​ 
-<td> 
-Nom.  | 
-bonae  | 
-boni  | 
-bona</​td>​ 
-</tr> 
- <​tr id="​l398">​ 
-<td> 
-Gen.  | 
-bonarum ​ | 
-bonorum ​ | 
-bonorum</​td>​ 
-</tr> 
- <​tr id="​l399">​ 
-<td> 
-Dat.  | 
-bonis  | 
-bonis  | 
-bonis</​td>​ 
-</tr> 
- <​tr id="​l400">​ 
-<td> 
-Acc.  | 
-bonas  | 
-bonos  | 
-bona</​td>​ 
-</tr> 
- <​tr id="​l401">​ 
-<td> 
-Abl.  | 
-bonis  | 
-bonis  | 
-bonis</​td>​ 
-</tr> 
-</​table>​ 
-</​div>​ 
-    <li class="​gap">​ 
-<p id="​l403">​ 
-Nominative sing and pleural always the same in all declensions in neuter. 
-  |<p id="​l404">​ 
-You can tell from the dictionary the gender - context may be misleading. 
-  |<p id="​l405">​ 
-Petrus erat bonus -Peter was good - copula takes same case, gender, number 
-  |<p id="​l406">​ 
-Petrus erat bonus papa. Peter erat bonus agricola. Check the dictionary. 
-  |<p id="​l407">​ 
-Papa - father, teacher, bishop, pope. Then in 5<​sup>​th</​sup>​ C became reserved for bishop of Rome. At that time pope got more political power as other political powers collapsed. 
-  |<p id="​l408">​ 
-Brevitas is a virtue in Latin. Gravitas. Plautus - only latin humorist. Brevitas atque Gravitas. Latin like mathmatics. Can't make mistakes against Latin. Up to the middle ages, the personal pronouns were seldom used. With the coming of the middle ages came national languages. Thus latin wasn't known. Erasmus destroyed latin as official political language by desire to reestablishing the 'good old days'. Older latin was more difficult thus the study was impeded. Same is true for greek. 
-  |<p id="​l409">​ 
-Royal Chair for Exegesis was founded by Charles V - 1560 - this is a proof that Catholics considered the study of the bible impt. 1548 first complete dutch Nikolaus van Winghe - by a leuven professor. But it was so colloquial that in five years it was revived. KUL also promoted lay reading of the bible, though there was debate. 
- 
-</li> 
- 
-    </ul> 
- 
- 
-<p id="​l410">​ 
 **Order of translation:​ Subject, Verb, Direct Object always in the accusative, Indirect, etc.** ​ **Order of translation:​ Subject, Verb, Direct Object always in the accusative, Indirect, etc.** ​
  
 ===Unit 5 - Verbs=== ===Unit 5 - Verbs===
-<p id="​l413">​+
 Amo - present indicative active first person singular - amare 1<​sup>​st</​sup>​ conjugation ​ Amo - present indicative active first person singular - amare 1<​sup>​st</​sup>​ conjugation ​
  
 +|  |Tense ​  ​||Mood ​ |Voice ​ |Person ​ |Number ​ |
 +|Amo  |Present ​ |I love  |Indicative ​ |Active ​ |1st  |Singular ​ |
 +|   ​|Imperfect ​ |I love  |Subjunctive ​ |Passive ​ |2nd  |Plural ​ |
 +|   ​|Future ​ |I will love  |Imperative Love!  |(Medial - in gk)  |3rd  |.  |
 +|   ​|Perfect ​ |I loved   |||||
 +|   ​|Pluperfect ​ |I had loved  |||||
 +|   ​|Future perfect ​ |I will have loved  |||||
  
-    <ul>+Participle - present, past, future, active and passive 
 +  * Amare &lt; Ama - re 
 +  * Ama-o but the o is strong and it contracts with a so that ao = o so amo. 
 +  * Amo, amare, amavi, amatus - 
 +  * Amavi gives you perfect tenses p, pp, fp. If there is  **u**, ​ **v** or **x** think perfect. 
 +  * Amatus gives you passive perfect tenses ​
  
 +|   ​| ​  | Aspect ​ |||
 +|   ​| ​  ​|Simple ​ |Progressive ​ |Completed ​ |
 +|Time  |Present ​ |Video ​ |Video ​ |Vidi  |
 +|  |   |I see  |I am seeing ​ |I have seen  |
 +|   ​| ​  ​|Present ​ |Present ​ |Perfect ​ |
 +|   ​|Past ​ |Vidi  |Videbam ​ |Videram ​ |
 +|   ​| ​  |I saw  |I was seeing ​ |I had seen  |
 +|   ​| ​  ​|perfect ​ |imperfect ​ |pluperfect ​ |
 +|   ​|future ​ |videbo ​ |videbo ​ |videro ​ |
 +|   ​| ​  | I will see  |I will be seeing ​ |I will have seen  |
 +|   ​| ​  ​|future ​ |future ​ |future perfect ​ |
  
-<div class="​wikitable">​ +**Word order is irrelevant** 
-<table border="​1">​ +  ​* Das librum discipulo - indirect object is in dative 
- <​tr id="​l414">​ +  ​* Dominus servos malo liberat - The lord sets the servant free from evil 
-<​td>​ +  ​* Dominus servos **a malo liberat** ... from **the evil one.** 
- </​td>​ +  ​* Later periods no longer make that distinctions - leaves us free to translate. 
-<td colspan="​2"​ align="​center">​ +  ​* Consecrare and sacrare - through the development of the language, there is a birth of new compound verbs, sometimes meaning the same. Esp. in ecclesiastical Latin. Also associated with decline of knowledge of latin. 
-Tense   | +  ​* Sanctus - holy, sanctified - he is dead. Sanctus Cicero - means he is dead. That was the first meaning of the word. There is a development of meaning when Xns take over the meaning. Voluptas, Libido, but in Xn will use concupiscentia. From augustine onwards this is used for sexual desire. 
-Mood  | +  ​* You have to translate being aware of the period in which the text was written. It makes a huge difference. 
-Voice  | +  ​* E.g. res religiosa ​religious case, religious thing in Roman. 
-Person ​ +  ​* Translated state affair. In roman times, church and state was the same
-Number</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
- <​tr id="​l415">​ +
-<td> +
-Amo  | +
-Present ​ | +
-I love  | +
-Indicative ​ | +
-Active ​ +
-1st  | +
-Singular</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
- <​tr id="​l416">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-   | +
-Imperfect ​ | +
-I love  | +
-Subjunctive ​ | +
-Passive ​ | +
-2nd  | +
-Plural</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
- <​tr id="​l417">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-   | +
-Future ​ | +
-I will love  | +
-Imperative Love!  | +
-(Medial ​- in gk)  | +
-3rd  +
-.</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
- <​tr id="​l418">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-   | +
-Perfect ​ | +
-I loved </​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
- <​tr id="​l419">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-   | +
-Pluperfect ​ | +
-I had loved</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
- <​tr id="​l420">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-   | +
-Future perfect ​ | +
-I will have loved</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-</​table>​ +
-</​div>​+
  
-    </ul>+===Unit 6 - Present indicative active===
  
- 
-<p id="​l422">​ 
-Participle - present, past, future, active and passiveAmare &lt; Ama - reAma-o but the o is strong and it contracts with a so that ao = o so amo.Amo, amare, amavi, amatus -Amavi gives you perfect tenses p, pp, fp. If there is  **u**, ​ **v** or **x** think perfect.Amatus gives you passive perfect tenses ​ 
- 
- 
-    <ul> 
- 
- 
-<div class="​wikitable">​ 
-<table border="​1">​ 
- <​tr id="​l429">​ 
-<td> 
-   | 
- </​td>​ 
-<td colspan="​3"​ align="​center">​ 
- ​Aspect</​td>​ 
-</tr> 
- <​tr id="​l430">​ 
-<td> 
-   | 
-   | 
-Simple ​ | 
-Progressive ​ | 
-Completed</​td>​ 
-</tr> 
- <​tr id="​l431">​ 
-<td> 
-Time  | 
-Present ​ | 
-Video  | 
-Video  | 
-Vidi</​td>​ 
-</tr> 
- <​tr id="​l432">​ 
-<td> 
-   | 
-   | 
-I see  | 
-I am seeing ​ | 
-I have seen</​td>​ 
-</tr> 
- <​tr id="​l433">​ 
-<td> 
-   | 
-   | 
-Present ​ | 
-Present ​ | 
-Perfect</​td>​ 
-</tr> 
- <​tr id="​l434">​ 
-<td> 
-   | 
-Past  | 
-Vidi  | 
-Videbam ​ | 
-Videram</​td>​ 
-</tr> 
- <​tr id="​l435">​ 
-<td> 
-   | 
-   | 
-I saw  | 
-I was seeing ​ | 
-I had seen</​td>​ 
-</tr> 
- <​tr id="​l436">​ 
-<td> 
-   | 
-   | 
-perfect ​ | 
-imperfect ​ | 
-pluperfect</​td>​ 
-</tr> 
- <​tr id="​l437">​ 
-<td> 
-   | 
-future ​ | 
-videbo ​ | 
-videbo ​ | 
-videro</​td>​ 
-</tr> 
- <​tr id="​l438">​ 
-<td> 
-   | 
-   | 
- I will see  | 
-I will be seeing ​ | 
-I will have seen</​td>​ 
-</tr> 
- <​tr id="​l439">​ 
-<td> 
-   | 
-   | 
-future ​ | 
-future ​ | 
-future perfect</​td>​ 
-</tr> 
-</​table>​ 
-</​div>​ 
- 
-    </ul> 
- 
- 
-<p id="​l441">​ 
-**Word order is irrelevant**Das librum discipulo - indirect object is in dativeDominus servos malo liberat - The lord sets the servant free from evilDominus servos **a malo liberat** ... from **the evil one.**Later periods no longer make that distinctions - leaves us free to translate.Consecrare and sacrare - through the development of the language, there is a birth of new compound verbs, sometimes meaning the same. Esp. in ecclesiastical Latin. Also associated with decline of knowledge of latin.Sanctus - holy, sanctified - he is dead. Sanctus Cicero - means he is dead. That was the first meaning of the word. There is a development of meaning when Xns take over the meaning. Voluptas, Libido, but in Xn will use concupiscentia. From augustine onwards this is used for sexual desire.You have to translate being aware of the period in which the text was written. It makes a huge difference.E.g. res religiosa - religious case, religious thing in Roman.Translated state affair. In roman times, church and state was the same.  
- 
-===Unit 6 - Present indicative active=== 
-<p id="​l453">​ 
 Present, ind, act worth studying these endings by heart. ​ Present, ind, act worth studying these endings by heart. ​
  
 +|1st  |Amare ​ |a  |Amo  |amas  |amat  |amamus ​ |amatis ​ |amant ​ |
 +|2nd  |Monere ​ |e  |moneo ​ |mones ​ |monet ​ |monemus ​ |monetis ​ |monent ​ |
 +|3rd  |Ducere ​ |e  |duco  |ducis ​ |ducit ​ |ducimus ​ |ducitis ​ |ducunt ​ |
 +|5th or 3b  |Capere ​ |io  |capio ​ |capis ​ |capit ​ |capimus ​ |capitis ​ |capiunt ​ |
 +|4th  |Audire ​ |i  |audio ​ |audis ​ |audit ​ |audimus ​ |auditis ​ |audiunt ​ |
  
-    <ul>+//Vocatne Petrus discipulum//​ - anclitical //ne// indicates a question. Later latin didn't use the anclitic, once it was written more than spoken. 
 +__Ablative of Separation__ ​ separation, freedom, deprivation,​ often uses //a, ab, ex//. 
 +__Ablative of Means__ (middel) and __of Manner__ (wijsen) In both cases you can present a correct translation whether it is abl of means of manner.
  
 +  * Means is concrete. //Dominus psalmis laudamus.// //Justi in gladio regnant.//
 +  * Manner is abstract; and may use //cum//. or //Dominum magno cum gaudio laudamus.// ​
  
-<div class="​wikitable">​ +**Exercises** ​1. Pro Hebraeis Dominus Aegyptios fugat. For hebrew the Lord fight with Egyptian. 2. Deo Gratias semper agimus. Thanks God for his conduct always. 3. Aeternis praeceptis Dominus populum ​monet.4. Maria natum in templo invenit.Maria finds her son in the temple. 5. Episcopus populum in ecclesiam inducit.Bishops lead the people in the church. 6. Petrus cum discipulis ad domum advenit.Peter with (the other) disciples arrive at the hourse. 7. Cum gaudio vinum vitae bibimus? 8. Quare apostolus Christum malis tradit? 9. Famulus malus puerum auro seducit. 10. In gloria Christus populum conjungit.In the glory Christ unites the people. ​
-<table border="​1">​ +
- <​tr id="​l454">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-1st  | +
-Amare  | +
-a  | +
-Amo  | +
-amas  | +
-amat  | +
-amamus ​ | +
-amatis ​ | +
-amant</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
- <​tr id="​l455">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-2nd  | +
-Monere ​ | +
-e  | +
-moneo  | +
-mones  | +
-monet  | +
-monemus ​ | +
-monetis ​ | +
-monent</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
- <​tr id="​l456">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-3rd  | +
-Ducere ​ | +
-e  | +
-duco  | +
-ducis  | +
-ducit  | +
-ducimus ​ | +
-ducitis ​ | +
-ducunt</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
- <​tr id="​l457">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-5th or 3b  | +
-Capere ​ | +
-io  | +
-capio  | +
-capis  | +
-capit  | +
-capimus ​ | +
-capitis ​ | +
-capiunt</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
- <​tr id="​l458">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-4th  | +
-Audire ​ | +
-i  | +
-audio  | +
-audis  | +
-audit  | +
-audimus ​ | +
-auditis ​ | +
-audiunt</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-</​table>​ +
-</​div>​+
  
-    </ul>+===Unit 7 - Present Indicative Passive===
  
- 
-<p id="​l460">​ 
-//Vocatne Petrus discipulum//​ - anclitical //ne// indicates a question. Later latin didn't use the anclitic, once it was written more than spoken.<​u>​Ablative of Separation</​u> ​ separation, freedom, deprivation,​ often uses //a, ab, ex//​.<​u>​Ablative of Means</​u>​ (middel) and <u>of Manner</​u>​ (wijsen) In both cases you can present a correct translation whether it is abl of means of manner. 
- 
- 
-    <ul> 
- 
-    <li> 
-<p id="​l463">​ 
-Means is concrete. //Dominus psalmis laudamus.// //Justi in gladio regnant.// 
-  |<p id="​l464">​ 
-Manner is abstract; and may use //cum//. or //Dominum magno cum gaudio laudamus.// ​ 
- 
-</li> 
- 
-    </ul> 
- 
- 
-<p id="​l466">​ 
-**Exercises**1. Pro Hebraeis Dominus Aegyptios fugat.For hebrew the Lord fight with Egyptian.2. Deo Gratias semper agimus.Thanks God for his conduct always.3. Aeternis praeceptis Dominus populum monet.4. Maria natum in templo invenit.Maria finds her son in the temple.5. Episcopus populum in ecclesiam inducit.Bishops lead the people in the church.6. Petrus cum discipulis ad domum advenit.Peter with (the other) disciples arrive at the hourse.7. Cum gaudio vinum vitae bibimus?8. Quare apostolus Christum malis tradit?9. Famulus malus puerum auro seducit.10. In gloria Christus populum conjungit.In the glory Christ unites the people. ​ 
- 
-===Unit 7 - Present Indicative Passive=== 
-<p id="​l485">​ 
 **Best to learn by heart** Any transitive verb can be passive. Present stem + passive endings (with adjustments). ​ **Best to learn by heart** Any transitive verb can be passive. Present stem + passive endings (with adjustments). ​
  
 +|-r   ​|-ris ​  ​|-tur ​  ​|-mur ​  ​|-mini ​  ​|-ntur ​ |
 +|Amor   ​|amaris -re   ​|amatur ​  ​|amamur ​  ​|amamini ​  ​|amantur ​ |
 +|Moneor ​  ​|moneris -re   ​|monetur ​  ​|monemur ​ |monemini ​ |monentur ​ |
 +|Ducor ​  ​|duceris -re  |ducitur ​  ​|ducimur ​  ​|ducimini ​  ​|ducuntur ​ |
 +|Capior ​  ​|caperis -re  |capitur ​  ​|capimur ​  ​|capimini ​  ​|capiuntur ​ |
 +|Audior ​  ​|audiris -re  |auditur ​  ​|audimur ​  ​|audimini ​  ​|audiuntur ​ |
  
-    <ul> 
- 
- 
-<div class="​wikitable">​ 
-<table border="​1">​ 
- <​tr id="​l486">​ 
-<td> 
--r   | 
--ris   | 
--tur   | 
--mur   | 
--mini   | 
--ntur</​td>​ 
-</tr> 
- <​tr id="​l487">​ 
-<td> 
-Amor   | 
-amaris -re   | 
-amatur ​  | 
-amamur ​  | 
-amamini ​  | 
-amantur</​td>​ 
-</tr> 
- <​tr id="​l488">​ 
-<td> 
-Moneor ​  | 
-moneris -re   | 
-monetur ​  | 
-monemur ​ | 
-monemini ​ | 
-monentur</​td>​ 
-</tr> 
- <​tr id="​l489">​ 
-<td> 
-Ducor   | 
-duceris -re  | 
-ducitur ​  | 
-ducimur ​  | 
-ducimini ​  | 
-ducuntur</​td>​ 
-</tr> 
- <​tr id="​l490">​ 
-<td> 
-Capior ​  | 
-caperis -re  | 
-capitur ​  | 
-capimur ​  | 
-capimini ​  | 
-capiuntur</​td>​ 
-</tr> 
- <​tr id="​l491">​ 
-<td> 
-Audior ​  | 
-audiris -re  | 
-auditur ​  | 
-audimur ​  | 
-audimini ​  | 
-audiuntur</​td>​ 
-</tr> 
-</​table>​ 
-</​div>​ 
- 
-        <ul> 
- 
-        <li> 
-<p id="​l492">​ 
 note the second person present passive INDICATIVE is also the second person present passive IMPERATIVE (Chapter 19) note the second person present passive INDICATIVE is also the second person present passive IMPERATIVE (Chapter 19)
  
-</​li>​ +  * Nostra peccata a Christo delentur - a christo - ablative of personal agency - a / ab 
- +  * Terra est gloria Dei plena. Some adjectives take an ablative rather than genitive, e.g. plena, dignus, indignus, etc. 
-        </​ul>​ +
- +
- +
- +
-    </​ul>​ +
- +
- +
-<p id="​l493">​ +
-Nostra peccata a Christo delentur - a christo - ablative of personal agency - a / abTerra ​est gloria Dei plena. Some adjectives take an ablative rather than genitive, e.g. plena, dignus, indignus, etc.  +
- +
-<p id="​l496">​ +
-**Exercises**2. Jesus Nazarenus dicitur Christus. +
- +
- +
-    <​ul>​ +
- +
-<p id="​l498">​ +
- Jesu of Nazarenus is called as christ.  +
  
-    </ul>+**Exercises**2. Jesus Nazarenus dicitur Christus. ​ Jesu of Nazarenus is called as christ. ​
  
 ===Unit 8 - Past Tenses - Imperfect=== ===Unit 8 - Past Tenses - Imperfect===
  
-    <ul>+|  **Imperfect Indicative Active** ​ ||||| 
 +|  Stem + //-ba-// + ending (stems ending //-io-// change to //​-ie-//​) ​  ​||||| 
 +|Ama-   ​|mone- ​  ​|dice- ​  ​|capie- ​  ​|audie- ​ | 
 +|Amabam ​  ​|Monebam ​  ​|Dicebam ​  ​|Capiebam ​  ​|Audiebam ​ | 
 +|Amabas ​  ​|Monebas ​  ​|Dicebas ​  ​|Capiebas ​  ​|Audiebas ​ | 
 +|Amabat ​  ​|Monebat ​  ​|Dicebat ​  ​|Capiebat ​  ​|Audiebat ​ | 
 +|Amabamus ​  ​|Monebamus ​  ​|Dicebamus ​  ​|Capiebamus ​  ​|Audiebamus ​ | 
 +|Amabatis ​  ​|Monebatis ​  ​|Dicebatis ​  ​|Capiebatis ​  ​|Audiebatis ​ | 
 +|Amabant ​  ​|Monebant ​  ​|Dicebant ​  ​|Capiebant ​  ​|Audiebant ​ | 
 +|  **Passive** ​ ||||| 
 +|Amabar ​  ​|Monebar ​  ​|Dicebar ​  ​|Capiebar ​  ​|Audiebar ​ | 
 +|Amabaris ​  ​|Monebaris ​  ​|Dicebaris ​  ​|Capiebaris ​  ​|Audiebatis ​ | 
 +|Amabatur ​  ​|Monebatur ​  ​|Dicebatur ​  ​|Capiebatur ​  ​|Audiebatur ​ | 
 +|Amabamur ​  ​|Monebamur ​  ​|Dicebamur ​  ​|Capiebamur ​  ​|Audiebamur ​ | 
 +|Amabamini ​  ​|Monebamini ​  ​|Dicebamini ​  ​|Capiebamini ​  ​|Audiebamini ​ | 
 +|Amabantur ​  ​|Monebantur ​  ​|Dicebantur ​  ​|Capiebantur ​  ​|Audiebantur ​ |
  
  
-<div class="​wikitable">​ 
-<table border="​1">​ 
- <​tr id="​l501">​ 
-<td colspan="​5"​ align="​center">​ 
-**Imperfect Indicative Active**</​td>​ 
-</tr> 
- <​tr id="​l502">​ 
-<td colspan="​5"​ align="​center">​ 
-Stem + //-ba-// + ending (stems ending //-io-// change to //-ie-//) </td> 
-</tr> 
- <​tr id="​l503">​ 
-<td> 
-//​Ama- ​  | 
-mone-   | 
-dice-   | 
-capie- ​  | 
-audie-</​td>​ 
-</tr> 
- <​tr id="​l504">​ 
-<td> 
-Amabam ​  | 
-Monebam ​  | 
-Dicebam ​  | 
-Capiebam ​  | 
-Audiebam</​td>​ 
-</tr> 
- <​tr id="​l505">​ 
-<td> 
-Amabas ​  | 
-Monebas ​  | 
-Dicebas ​  | 
-Capiebas ​  | 
-Audiebas</​td>​ 
-</tr> 
- <​tr id="​l506">​ 
-<td> 
-Amabat ​  | 
-Monebat ​  | 
-Dicebat ​  | 
-Capiebat ​  | 
-Audiebat</​td>​ 
-</tr> 
- <​tr id="​l507">​ 
-<td> 
-Amabamus ​  | 
-Monebamus ​  | 
-Dicebamus ​  | 
-Capiebamus ​  | 
-Audiebamus</​td>​ 
-</tr> 
- <​tr id="​l508">​ 
-<td> 
-Amabatis ​  | 
-Monebatis ​  | 
-Dicebatis ​  | 
-Capiebatis ​  | 
-Audiebatis</​td>​ 
-</tr> 
- <​tr id="​l509">​ 
-<td> 
-Amabant ​  | 
-Monebant ​  | 
-Dicebant ​  | 
-Capiebant ​  | 
-Audiebant//</​td>​ 
-</tr> 
- <​tr id="​l510">​ 
-<td colspan="​5"​ align="​center">​ 
-**Passive**</​td>​ 
-</tr> 
- <​tr id="​l511">​ 
-<td> 
-//​Amabar ​  | 
-Monebar ​  | 
-Dicebar ​  | 
-Capiebar ​  | 
-Audiebar</​td>​ 
-</tr> 
- <​tr id="​l512">​ 
-<td> 
-Amabaris ​  | 
-Monebaris ​  | 
-Dicebaris ​  | 
-Capiebaris ​  | 
-Audiebatis</​td>​ 
-</tr> 
- <​tr id="​l513">​ 
-<td> 
-Amabatur ​  | 
-Monebatur ​  | 
-Dicebatur ​  | 
-Capiebatur ​  | 
-Audiebatur</​td>​ 
-</tr> 
- <​tr id="​l514">​ 
-<td> 
-Amabamur ​  | 
-Monebamur ​  | 
-Dicebamur ​  | 
-Capiebamur ​  | 
-Audiebamur</​td>​ 
-</tr> 
- <​tr id="​l515">​ 
-<td> 
-Amabamini ​  | 
-Monebamini ​  | 
-Dicebamini ​  | 
-Capiebamini ​  | 
-Audiebamini</​td>​ 
-</tr> 
- <​tr id="​l516">​ 
-<td> 
-Amabantur ​  | 
-Monebantur ​  | 
-Dicebantur ​  | 
-Capiebantur ​  | 
-Audiebantur//</​td>​ 
-</tr> 
-</​table>​ 
-</​div>​ 
- 
-    </ul> 
- 
- 
-<p id="​l518">​ 
 //​Christianus sum. &​gt;&​gt;​ Dicebat quia christianus erat.// (Imp. Ind. Act.) **Quia, quod, quoniam** - that, because ​ //​Christianus sum. &​gt;&​gt;​ Dicebat quia christianus erat.// (Imp. Ind. Act.) **Quia, quod, quoniam** - that, because ​
  
-<p id="​l520">​ 
 Ellipsis - //Boni viri Deum laudant, sed mali (viri) non (laudant).//​ - omitting obvious words. ​ Ellipsis - //Boni viri Deum laudant, sed mali (viri) non (laudant).//​ - omitting obvious words. ​
  
-<p id="​l522">​ 
 **Exercises** ​ **Exercises** ​
  
 ===Unit 9 - Future=== ===Unit 9 - Future===
  
-    <​ul>​ +*****
  
 <div class="​wikitable">​ <div class="​wikitable">​
Line 1642: Line 529:
  <​tr id="​l526">​  <​tr id="​l526">​
 <td colspan="​2"​ align="​center">​ <td colspan="​2"​ align="​center">​
-Future Indicative Active - 1 & 2</td>+Future Indicative Active - 1 & 2  |
 <td colspan="​3"​ align="​center">​ <td colspan="​3"​ align="​center">​
-Future Indicative Active 3,4,5</td>+Future Indicative Active 3,4,5  |
 </tr> </tr>
  <​tr id="​l527">​  <​tr id="​l527">​
Line 1652: Line 539:
 Duce-  | Duce-  |
 Cape-  | Cape-  |
-Audi-</td>+Audi-  |
 </tr> </tr>
  <​tr id="​l528">​  <​tr id="​l528">​
Line 1660: Line 547:
 Ducam  | Ducam  |
 Faciam ​ | Faciam ​ |
-Audiam</td>+Audiam ​ |
 </tr> </tr>
  <​tr id="​l529">​  <​tr id="​l529">​
Line 1668: Line 555:
 Duces  | Duces  |
 Facies ​ | Facies ​ |
-Audies</td>+Audies ​ |
 </tr> </tr>
  <​tr id="​l530">​  <​tr id="​l530">​
Line 1676: Line 563:
 Ducet  | Ducet  |
 Faciet ​ | Faciet ​ |
-Audiet</td>+Audiet ​ |
 </tr> </tr>
  <​tr id="​l531">​  <​tr id="​l531">​
Line 1684: Line 571:
 Ducemus ​ | Ducemus ​ |
 Faciemus ​ | Faciemus ​ |
-Audiemus</td>+Audiemus ​ |
 </tr> </tr>
  <​tr id="​l532">​  <​tr id="​l532">​
Line 1692: Line 579:
 Ducetis ​ | Ducetis ​ |
 Facietis ​ | Facietis ​ |
-Audietis</td>+Audietis ​ |
 </tr> </tr>
  <​tr id="​l533">​  <​tr id="​l533">​
Line 1700: Line 587:
 Ducent ​ | Ducent ​ |
 Facient ​ | Facient ​ |
-Audient</td>+Audient ​ |
 </tr> </tr>
  <​tr id="​l534">​  <​tr id="​l534">​
 <td colspan="​2"​ align="​center">​ <td colspan="​2"​ align="​center">​
-Future Indicative Passive - 1 & 2</td>+Future Indicative Passive - 1 & 2  |
 <td colspan="​3"​ align="​center">​ <td colspan="​3"​ align="​center">​
-Future Indicative Passive 3,4,5</td>+Future Indicative Passive 3,4,5  |
 </tr> </tr>
  <​tr id="​l535">​  <​tr id="​l535">​
Line 1714: Line 601:
 Ducar  | Ducar  |
 Faciam ​ | Faciam ​ |
-Audiam</td>+Audiam ​ |
 </tr> </tr>
  <​tr id="​l536">​  <​tr id="​l536">​
Line 1722: Line 609:
 Duceris ​ | Duceris ​ |
 Facieris ​ | Facieris ​ |
-Audieris</td>+Audieris ​ |
 </tr> </tr>
  <​tr id="​l537">​  <​tr id="​l537">​
Line 1730: Line 617:
 Ducetur ​ | Ducetur ​ |
 Facietur ​ | Facietur ​ |
-Audietur</td>+Audietur ​ |
 </tr> </tr>
  <​tr id="​l538">​  <​tr id="​l538">​
Line 1738: Line 625:
 Ducemur ​ | Ducemur ​ |
 Faciemur ​ | Faciemur ​ |
-Audiemur</td>+Audiemur ​ |
 </tr> </tr>
  <​tr id="​l539">​  <​tr id="​l539">​
Line 1746: Line 633:
 Ducemini ​ | Ducemini ​ |
 Faciemini ​ | Faciemini ​ |
-Audiemini</td>+Audiemini ​ |
 </tr> </tr>
  <​tr id="​l540">​  <​tr id="​l540">​
Line 1754: Line 641:
 Ducentur ​ | Ducentur ​ |
 Facientur ​ | Facientur ​ |
-Audientur</td>+Audientur ​ |
 </tr> </tr>
 </​table>​ </​table>​
 </​div>​ </​div>​
  
-    </ul> 
  
  
 <p id="​l542">​ <p id="​l542">​
-<​u>​Infinitive ​as Subject</​u> ​- then use neuter singular as predicate adjective. //Bonum est invocare deum//<​u>​Ablative ​of Specification</​u> ​//Servus (n.s) domini (gen.s) animo (abl.s) beatus (n.s) est.// The servant of the Lord is happy //in (with respect to) spirit//​. ​+__Infinitive ​as Subject__ ​- then use neuter singular as predicate adjective. //Bonum est invocare deum//__Ablative ​of Specification__ ​//Servus (n.s) domini (gen.s) animo (abl.s) beatus (n.s) est.// The servant of the Lord is happy //in (with respect to) spirit//​. ​
  
 <p id="​l545">​ <p id="​l545">​
Line 1773: Line 659:
  
  
-    <ul> 
  
  
Line 1785: Line 670:
 laudavimus ​ | laudavimus ​ |
 laudavistis ​ | laudavistis ​ |
-laudaverunt</td>+laudaverunt ​ |
 </tr> </tr>
  <​tr id="​l551">​  <​tr id="​l551">​
Line 1794: Line 679:
 habuimus ​ | habuimus ​ |
 habuistis ​ | habuistis ​ |
-habuerunt</td>+habuerunt ​ |
 </tr> </tr>
  <​tr id="​l552">​  <​tr id="​l552">​
Line 1803: Line 688:
 misimus ​ | misimus ​ |
 misitis ​ | misitis ​ |
-miserunt</td>+miserunt ​ |
 </tr> </tr>
  <​tr id="​l553">​  <​tr id="​l553">​
Line 1812: Line 697:
 audivimus ​ | audivimus ​ |
 audivistis ​ | audivistis ​ |
-audiverunt</td>+audiverunt ​ |
 </tr> </tr>
  <​tr id="​l554">​  <​tr id="​l554">​
Line 1821: Line 706:
 diximus ​ | diximus ​ |
 dixistis ​ | dixistis ​ |
-dixerunt</td>+dixerunt ​ |
 </tr> </tr>
  <​tr id="​l555">​  <​tr id="​l555">​
Line 1830: Line 715:
 venimus* ​ | venimus* ​ |
 venistis ​ | venistis ​ |
-venerunt</td>+venerunt ​ |
 </tr> </tr>
  <​tr id="​l556">​  <​tr id="​l556">​
Line 1839: Line 724:
 fuimus ​ | fuimus ​ |
 fuistis ​ | fuistis ​ |
-fuerunt</td>+fuerunt ​ |
 </tr> </tr>
 </​table>​ </​table>​
 </​div>​ </​div>​
  
-    </ul> 
  
  
Line 1851: Line 735:
  
 <p id="​l559">​ <p id="​l559">​
-**qui quae quod**<​u>​Relative Pronoun</​u> ​Case follows use in the clause. Adjectival clauses //Deus, quem laudamus....//​ God whom we praise. Connective relative //Discipuli veniebant. Qui Jesum audiebant.//​ The disciples were coming, who (and they) gladly were listening to Jesus.<​u>​Interrogative Adjective</​u> ​Case follows the noun being modified. ​+**qui quae quod**__Relative Pronoun__ ​Case follows use in the clause. Adjectival clauses //Deus, quem laudamus....//​ God whom we praise. Connective relative //Discipuli veniebant. Qui Jesum audiebant.//​ The disciples were coming, who (and they) gladly were listening to Jesus.__Interrogative Adjective__ ​Case follows the noun being modified. ​
  
  
-    <ul> 
  
  
Line 1867: Line 750:
 Pl M  | Pl M  |
 Pl F  | Pl F  |
-Pl N</td>+Pl N  |
 </tr> </tr>
  <​tr id="​l563">​  <​tr id="​l563">​
Line 1877: Line 760:
 qui  | qui  |
 quae  | quae  |
-quae</td>+quae  |
 </tr> </tr>
  <​tr id="​l564">​  <​tr id="​l564">​
Line 1887: Line 770:
 quorum ​ | quorum ​ |
 quarum ​ | quarum ​ |
-quorum</td>+quorum ​ |
 </tr> </tr>
  <​tr id="​l565">​  <​tr id="​l565">​
Line 1897: Line 780:
 quibus ​ | quibus ​ |
 quibus ​ | quibus ​ |
-quibus</td>+quibus ​ |
 </tr> </tr>
  <​tr id="​l566">​  <​tr id="​l566">​
Line 1907: Line 790:
 quos  | quos  |
 quas  | quas  |
-quae</td>+quae  |
 </tr> </tr>
  <​tr id="​l567">​  <​tr id="​l567">​
Line 1917: Line 800:
 quibus ​ | quibus ​ |
 quibus ​ | quibus ​ |
-quibus</td>+quibus ​ |
 </tr> </tr>
 </​table>​ </​table>​
 </​div>​ </​div>​
  
-    </ul> 
  
  
 <p id="​l568">​ <p id="​l568">​
-<​u>​Suffixes</​u> ​+ //-cumque// whichever // //quocum// with whom // //quem propter// on account of // //qui quoniam// and because they...**Exercises:​**1. Gloria in excelsis deo.Glory to God inthe highest!2. Minister et servi oraverunt: Kyrie, eleison!Minister and sevants pra3. Dominus, qui est bonus, desideria populi semper scivit.4. Servus, quem scis, ministro et aquam et vinum dedit.5. Verba Christi, quae audimus, apostoli tradiderunt.6. Qui discipuli in Galilaea sciverunt quod Jesus Nazarenus erat filius unigenitus Dei?7. Secundum tua verba perenniter operavimus et oravimus.8. Cui servo non carus fuit dominus?9. Per unigenitum Filium Deus debita nostrorum peccatorum solvit.10. Agnus Dei, qui tollit peccata mundi, a populo semper laudatur.11. Hodie(adv) Dominus(Ns) Deus(Ns) Filium(Ac.s) unigenitum(Ac.s) semper(adv) cunctos(Ac.pl) in caelo(ab.s.locative) et in terra(ab.s.locative) extulit(3s. perf.act.ind). Alleluja.Today the Lord God always lifts up the only Son in heaven and earth +__Suffixes__ ​+ //-cumque// whichever // //quocum// with whom // //quem propter// on account of // //qui quoniam// and because they...**Exercises:​**1. Gloria in excelsis deo.Glory to God inthe highest!2. Minister et servi oraverunt: Kyrie, eleison!Minister and sevants pra3. Dominus, qui est bonus, desideria populi semper scivit.4. Servus, quem scis, ministro et aquam et vinum dedit.5. Verba Christi, quae audimus, apostoli tradiderunt.6. Qui discipuli in Galilaea sciverunt quod Jesus Nazarenus erat filius unigenitus Dei?7. Secundum tua verba perenniter operavimus et oravimus.8. Cui servo non carus fuit dominus?9. Per unigenitum Filium Deus debita nostrorum peccatorum solvit.10. Agnus Dei, qui tollit peccata mundi, a populo semper laudatur.11. Hodie(adv) Dominus(Ns) Deus(Ns) Filium(Ac.s) unigenitum(Ac.s) semper(adv) cunctos(Ac.pl) in caelo(ab.s.locative) et in terra(ab.s.locative) extulit(3s. perf.act.ind). Alleluja.Today the Lord God always lifts up the only Son in heaven and earth 
  
 ===Unit 11 - Pluperfect=== ===Unit 11 - Pluperfect===
  
-    <ul> 
  
  
Line 1937: Line 818:
  <​tr id="​l586">​  <​tr id="​l586">​
 <td colspan="​6"​ align="​center">​ <td colspan="​6"​ align="​center">​
-**Pluperfect Active Indicative** = Perfect stem + Imperfect of **esse**</td>+**Pluperfect Active Indicative** = Perfect stem + Imperfect of **esse** ​ |
 </tr> </tr>
  <​tr id="​l587">​  <​tr id="​l587">​
Line 1946: Line 827:
  I had ruled   |  I had ruled   |
 I had taken   | I had taken   |
-I had heard</td>+I had heard  |
 </tr> </tr>
  <​tr id="​l588">​  <​tr id="​l588">​
 <td colspan="​6"​ align="​center">​ <td colspan="​6"​ align="​center">​
-Singular</td>+Singular ​ |
 </tr> </tr>
  <​tr id="​l589">​  <​tr id="​l589">​
Line 1959: Line 840:
 rexeram ​    | rexeram ​    |
 ceperam ​    | ceperam ​    |
-audiveram</td>+audiveram ​ |
 </tr> </tr>
  <​tr id="​l590">​  <​tr id="​l590">​
Line 1968: Line 849:
 rexeras ​    | rexeras ​    |
 ceperas ​    | ceperas ​    |
-audiveras</td>+audiveras ​ |
 </tr> </tr>
  <​tr id="​l591">​  <​tr id="​l591">​
Line 1977: Line 858:
 rexerat ​    | rexerat ​    |
 ceperat ​    | ceperat ​    |
-audiverat</td>+audiverat ​ |
 </tr> </tr>
  <​tr id="​l592">​  <​tr id="​l592">​
 <td colspan="​6"​ align="​center">​ <td colspan="​6"​ align="​center">​
-PLURAL</td>+PLURAL ​ |
 </tr> </tr>
  <​tr id="​l593">​  <​tr id="​l593">​
Line 1990: Line 871:
 rexeramus ​   | rexeramus ​   |
 ceperamus ​   | ceperamus ​   |
-audiveramus</td>+audiveramus ​ |
 </tr> </tr>
  <​tr id="​l594">​  <​tr id="​l594">​
Line 1999: Line 880:
 rexeratis ​   | rexeratis ​   |
 ceperatis ​   | ceperatis ​   |
-audiveratis</td>+audiveratis ​ |
 </tr> </tr>
  <​tr id="​l595">​  <​tr id="​l595">​
Line 2008: Line 889:
 rexerant ​   | rexerant ​   |
 ceperant ​   | ceperant ​   |
-audiverant</td>+audiverant ​ |
 </tr> </tr>
  <​tr id="​l596">​  <​tr id="​l596">​
 <td colspan="​6"​ align="​center">​ <td colspan="​6"​ align="​center">​
-**Future Perfect Active Indicative** = Perfect stem + future.act.ind of **esse**</td>+**Future Perfect Active Indicative** = Perfect stem + future.act.ind of **esse** ​ |
 </tr> </tr>
  <​tr id="​l597">​  <​tr id="​l597">​
 <td colspan="​6"​ align="​center">​ <td colspan="​6"​ align="​center">​
-SINGULAR</td>+SINGULAR ​ |
 </tr> </tr>
  <​tr id="​l598">​  <​tr id="​l598">​
Line 2024: Line 905:
 I shall have ruled  | I shall have ruled  |
 I shall have taken  | I shall have taken  |
-I shall have heard</td>+I shall have heard  |
 </tr> </tr>
  <​tr id="​l599">​  <​tr id="​l599">​
Line 2033: Line 914:
 rexero ​   | rexero ​   |
 cepero ​   | cepero ​   |
-audivero</td>+audivero ​ |
 </tr> </tr>
  <​tr id="​l600">​  <​tr id="​l600">​
Line 2042: Line 923:
 rexeris ​    | rexeris ​    |
 ceperis ​    | ceperis ​    |
-audiveris</td>+audiveris ​ |
 </tr> </tr>
  <​tr id="​l601">​  <​tr id="​l601">​
Line 2051: Line 932:
 rexerit ​    | rexerit ​    |
 ceperit ​    | ceperit ​    |
-audiverit</td>+audiverit ​ |
 </tr> </tr>
  <​tr id="​l602">​  <​tr id="​l602">​
 <td colspan="​6"​ align="​center">​ <td colspan="​6"​ align="​center">​
-PLURAL</td>+PLURAL ​ |
 </tr> </tr>
  <​tr id="​l603">​  <​tr id="​l603">​
Line 2064: Line 945:
 rexerimus ​   | rexerimus ​   |
 ceperimus ​   | ceperimus ​   |
-audiverimus</td>+audiverimus ​ |
 </tr> </tr>
  <​tr id="​l604">​  <​tr id="​l604">​
Line 2073: Line 954:
 rexeritis ​   | rexeritis ​   |
 ceperitis ​   | ceperitis ​   |
-audiveritis</td>+audiveritis ​ |
 </tr> </tr>
  <​tr id="​l605">​  <​tr id="​l605">​
Line 2082: Line 963:
 rexerint ​    | rexerint ​    |
 ceperint ​    | ceperint ​    |
-audiverint</td>+audiverint ​ |
 </tr> </tr>
 </​table>​ </​table>​
 </​div>​ </​div>​
  
-    </ul> 
  
  
 <p id="​l606">​ <p id="​l606">​
-<​u>​Ablative ​of cause</​u> ​- with or without the preposition e.+__Ablative ​of cause__ ​- with or without the preposition e.
  
  
-    <ul> 
  
 <p id="​l607">​ <p id="​l607">​
Line 2100: Line 979:
  
  
-    </ul> 
  
  
 <p id="​l608">​ <p id="​l608">​
-<​u>​Direct quotations</​u> ​may have no change, or quia(quoniam) following dixit. It may have a comma. Tense in a quote needn'​t match //​dixit// ​+__Direct quotations__ ​may have no change, or quia(quoniam) following dixit. It may have a comma. Tense in a quote needn'​t match //​dixit// ​
  
 <p id="​l610">​ <p id="​l610">​
Line 2111: Line 989:
 ===Unit 12  - Possum=== ===Unit 12  - Possum===
  
-    <ul> 
  
  
Line 2125: Line 1002:
 possumus ​ | possumus ​ |
 potestis ​ | potestis ​ |
-possunt</td>+possunt ​ |
 </tr> </tr>
  <​tr id="​l668">​  <​tr id="​l668">​
Line 2136: Line 1013:
 poseramus ​ | poseramus ​ |
 poteratis ​ | poteratis ​ |
-poterant</td>+poterant ​ |
 </tr> </tr>
  <​tr id="​l669">​  <​tr id="​l669">​
Line 2147: Line 1024:
 poterimus ​ | poterimus ​ |
 poteritis ​ | poteritis ​ |
-poterunt</td>+poterunt ​ |
 </tr> </tr>
  <​tr id="​l670">​  <​tr id="​l670">​
Line 2158: Line 1035:
 potuimus ​ | potuimus ​ |
 potuistis ​  | potuistis ​  |
-potuerunt ​</td>+potuerunt ​  |
 </tr> </tr>
  <​tr id="​l671">​  <​tr id="​l671">​
Line 2169: Line 1046:
 potueramus ​ | potueramus ​ |
 potuatis ​ | potuatis ​ |
-potuerant</td>+potuerant ​ |
 </tr> </tr>
  <​tr id="​l672">​  <​tr id="​l672">​
Line 2180: Line 1057:
 potuerimus ​ | potuerimus ​ |
 potueritis ​ | potueritis ​ |
-potuer**i**nt</td>+potuer**i**nt ​ |
 </tr> </tr>
 </​table>​ </​table>​
 </​div>​ </​div>​
  
-    </ul> 
  
  
Line 2192: Line 1068:
  
  
-    <ul> 
  
  
Line 2202: Line 1077:
 pluperfect passive, ​  | pluperfect passive, ​  |
 perfect passive and   | perfect passive and   |
-future perfect passive.</td>+future perfect passive. ​ |
 </tr> </tr>
  <​tr id="​l678">​  <​tr id="​l678">​
Line 2209: Line 1084:
  ​sum, ​  |  ​sum, ​  |
 eram,   | eram,   |
-ero</td>+ero  |
 </tr> </tr>
  <​tr id="​l679">​  <​tr id="​l679">​
Line 2216: Line 1091:
  have been   |  have been   |
 had been   | had been   |
-will have been</td>+will have been  |
 </tr> </tr>
 </​table>​ </​table>​
Line 2224: Line 1099:
  
  
-    </ul> 
  
  
Line 2231: Line 1105:
  
  
-    <ul> 
  
     <li>     <li>
Line 2247: Line 1120:
 </li> </li>
  
-    </ul> 
  
  
Line 2258: Line 1130:
  
  
-    <ul> 
  
  
Line 2265: Line 1136:
  <​tr id="​l761">​  <​tr id="​l761">​
 <td colspan="​2"​ align="​center">​ <td colspan="​2"​ align="​center">​
-Perfect Indicative Passive - have been</td>+Perfect Indicative Passive - have been  |
 </tr> </tr>
  <​tr id="​l762">​  <​tr id="​l762">​
 <td> <td>
 Ductus, a um sum  | Ductus, a um sum  |
-ducti ae a sumus</td>+ducti ae a sumus  |
 </tr> </tr>
  <​tr id="​l763">​  <​tr id="​l763">​
 <td> <td>
 Ductus, a um es  | Ductus, a um es  |
-ducti ae a estis</td>+ducti ae a estis  |
 </tr> </tr>
  <​tr id="​l764">​  <​tr id="​l764">​
 <td> <td>
 Ductus, a um est  | Ductus, a um est  |
-ducti ae a sunt</td>+ducti ae a sunt  |
 </tr> </tr>
  <​tr id="​l765">​  <​tr id="​l765">​
 <td colspan="​2"​ align="​center">​ <td colspan="​2"​ align="​center">​
-Pluperfect Indicative Passive - had been</td>+Pluperfect Indicative Passive - had been  |
 </tr> </tr>
  <​tr id="​l766">​  <​tr id="​l766">​
 <td> <td>
 Ductus, a um eram  | Ductus, a um eram  |
-ducti ae a eramus</td>+ducti ae a eramus ​ |
 </tr> </tr>
  <​tr id="​l767">​  <​tr id="​l767">​
 <td> <td>
 Ductus, a um eras  | Ductus, a um eras  |
-ducti ae a eratis</td>+ducti ae a eratis ​ |
 </tr> </tr>
  <​tr id="​l768">​  <​tr id="​l768">​
 <td> <td>
 Ductus, a um erat  | Ductus, a um erat  |
-ducti ae a erant</td>+ducti ae a erant  |
 </tr> </tr>
  <​tr id="​l769">​  <​tr id="​l769">​
 <td colspan="​2"​ align="​center">​ <td colspan="​2"​ align="​center">​
-Future Perfect Indicative Passive - Will have been</td>+Future Perfect Indicative Passive - Will have been  |
 </tr> </tr>
  <​tr id="​l770">​  <​tr id="​l770">​
 <td> <td>
 Ductus, a um ero  | Ductus, a um ero  |
-ducti ae a erimus</td>+ducti ae a erimus ​ |
 </tr> </tr>
  <​tr id="​l771">​  <​tr id="​l771">​
 <td> <td>
 Ductus, a um eris  | Ductus, a um eris  |
-ducti ae a eritis</td>+ducti ae a eritis ​ |
 </tr> </tr>
  <​tr id="​l772">​  <​tr id="​l772">​
 <td> <td>
 Ductus, a um erit  | Ductus, a um erit  |
-ducti ae a erunt</td>+ducti ae a erunt  |
 </tr> </tr>
 </​table>​ </​table>​
Line 2326: Line 1197:
  
  
-    </ul> 
  
  
 <p id="​l775">​ <p id="​l775">​
-<​u>​Ablative Absolute</​u> ​**Noun + Participle** ​ (here perfect passive participle) The ablative absolute influences the meaning of the main clause.+__Ablative Absolute__ ​**Noun + Participle** ​ (here perfect passive participle) The ablative absolute influences the meaning of the main clause.
  
  
-    <ul> 
  
 <p id="​l776">​ <p id="​l776">​
Line 2340: Line 1209:
  
  
-    </ul> 
  
  
 <p id="​l779">​ <p id="​l779">​
-<​u>​Temporal Clauses</​u> ​Cum (ubi, ut) Jesus surrexit, apolsoli erant laeti. ​+__Temporal Clauses__ ​Cum (ubi, ut) Jesus surrexit, apolsoli erant laeti. ​
  
 <p id="​l781">​ <p id="​l781">​
Line 2351: Line 1219:
 ===Unit 14 Third Declension=== ===Unit 14 Third Declension===
  
-    <ul> 
  
 <p id="​l830">​ <p id="​l830">​
- <​u>​Third ​Declension ​Nouns</​u> ​**-is** in the genitive singular: junk declention - anything that doesn'​t fit elsewhere comes here. Endings are always the same, but the stem changes. Genitive plural ending in -ium. Genitive plural in -um if number of syllables in nominitive is less than genitive, except those ending in -r. + __Third ​Declension ​Nouns__ ​**-is** in the genitive singular: junk declention - anything that doesn'​t fit elsewhere comes here. Endings are always the same, but the stem changes. Genitive plural ending in -ium. Genitive plural in -um if number of syllables in nominitive is less than genitive, except those ending in -r. 
 <div class="​wikitable">​ <div class="​wikitable">​
 <table border="​1">​ <table border="​1">​
Line 2361: Line 1228:
   |   |
 nom, gen, dat, acc, abl   | nom, gen, dat, acc, abl   |
- nom, gen, dat, acc, abl  </​td>​+ nom, gen, dat, acc, abl    |
 </tr> </tr>
  <​tr id="​l832">​  <​tr id="​l832">​
 <td> <td>
 masc. fem  | masc. fem  |
- &​mdash;, ​-is, -i, -em, -e   | + -- -is, -i, -em, -e   | 
- -es, -um, -ibus, -es, -ibus</td>+ -es, -um, -ibus, -es, -ibus  |
 </tr> </tr>
  <​tr id="​l833">​  <​tr id="​l833">​
Line 2373: Line 1240:
    |    |
 rex, regis, regi, regem, rege   | rex, regis, regi, regem, rege   |
- ​reges,​ regum, regibus, reges, regibus</td>+ ​reges,​ regum, regibus, reges, regibus ​ |
 </tr> </tr>
  <​tr id="​l834">​  <​tr id="​l834">​
Line 2379: Line 1246:
    |    |
 mater, matris, matri, matrem, matre   | mater, matris, matri, matrem, matre   |
- ​matres,​ matrum, matribus, matres, matribus</td>+ ​matres,​ matrum, matribus, matres, matribus ​ |
 </tr> </tr>
  <​tr id="​l835">​  <​tr id="​l835">​
 <td> <td>
 Neuter ​ | Neuter ​ |
- &​mdash;, ​-is, -i, &​mdash;, ​-e   | + -- -is, -i, -- -e   | 
- -a, -um, -ibus, -a, -ibus</td>+ -a, -um, -ibus, -a, -ibus  |
 </tr> </tr>
  <​tr id="​l836">​  <​tr id="​l836">​
Line 2391: Line 1258:
    |    |
 corpus, corporis, -pori, -pus, -pore   | corpus, corporis, -pori, -pus, -pore   |
- ​-pora,​ -porum, -poribus, -pora, -poribus</td>+ ​-pora,​ -porum, -poribus, -pora, -poribus ​ |
 </tr> </tr>
  <​tr id="​l837">​  <​tr id="​l837">​
 <td> <td>
  -ium masc. fem  |  -ium masc. fem  |
- &​mdash;, ​-is, -i, -em, -e   | + -- -is, -i, -em, -e   | 
- -es, -ium, -ibus, -es, -ibus</td>+ -es, -ium, -ibus, -es, -ibus  |
 </tr> </tr>
  <​tr id="​l838">​  <​tr id="​l838">​
Line 2403: Line 1270:
  -ium masc. fem  |  -ium masc. fem  |
  pars, partis, parti, partem, parte   |  pars, partis, parti, partem, parte   |
- ​partes,​ part**i**um,​ partibus, partes, partibus</td>+ ​partes,​ part**i**um,​ partibus, partes, partibus ​ |
 </tr> </tr>
  <​tr id="​l839">​  <​tr id="​l839">​
 <td> <td>
 Neuter ​ | Neuter ​ |
- &​mdash;, ​-is, -i, &​mdash;, ​-e   | + -- -is, -i, -- -e   | 
- -ia, -ium, -ibus, -ia, -ibus</td>+ -ia, -ium, -ibus, -ia, -ibus  |
 </tr> </tr>
  <​tr id="​l840">​  <​tr id="​l840">​
Line 2415: Line 1282:
 Neuter ​ | Neuter ​ |
  mare, maris, mari, mare, mari   |  mare, maris, mari, mare, mari   |
- ​mar**i**a,​ mar**i**um, maribus, mar**i**a, maribus</td>+ ​mar**i**a,​ mar**i**um, maribus, mar**i**a, maribus ​ |
 </tr> </tr>
  
Line 2422: Line 1289:
 </​div>​ </​div>​
 <p id="​l842">​ <p id="​l842">​
- <​u>​Genitive ​of Description</​u> ​describe a noun: people of mercy, people of joyful mind. //homines laeti animi// ​+ __Genitive ​of Description__ ​describe a noun: people of mercy, people of joyful mind. //homines laeti animi// ​
  
 <p id="​l844">​ <p id="​l844">​
- <​u>​Ablative ​of Description</​u> ​man of great soul //vir magna anima// ​+ __Ablative ​of Description__ ​man of great soul //vir magna anima// ​
  
 <p id="​l846">​ <p id="​l846">​
- <​u>​Subjective ​and Objective ​Genitive</​u> ​Genitive may be used as subject or object. //​Propter ​<​u>​Dei</​u> ​misericordiam ​<​u>​hominum</​u> ​gratias agimus.// We give thanks on account of God's pity toward humans. //Amor Dei// (love of God, or love for God) + __Subjective ​and Objective ​Genitive__ ​Genitive may be used as subject or object. //​Propter ​__Dei__ ​misericordiam ​__hominum__ ​gratias agimus.// We give thanks on account of God's pity toward humans. //Amor Dei// (love of God, or love for God) 
  
 <p id="​l848">​ <p id="​l848">​
- <​u>​Dative ​of Reference</​u> ​evil to my people: //mala meo populo// - dative of advantage or disadvantage. ​+ __Dative ​of Reference__ ​evil to my people: //mala meo populo// - dative of advantage or disadvantage. ​
  
 <p id="​l850">​ <p id="​l850">​
- <​u>​Apposition</​u> ​Noun in apposition - same number and case. + __Apposition__ ​Noun in apposition - same number and case. 
  
 <p id="​l852">​ <p id="​l852">​
- <​u>​Concessive Clauses</​u> ​Although //etsi, quamquam// ​+ __Concessive Clauses__ ​Although //etsi, quamquam// ​
  
 <p id="​l854">​ <p id="​l854">​
Line 2444: Line 1311:
  
  
-    </ul> 
  
  
Line 2452: Line 1318:
 ===Unit 15 Third Declension -i stem=== ===Unit 15 Third Declension -i stem===
  
-    <ul> 
  
 <p id="​l915">​ <p id="​l915">​
- ​Masculine and Feminine ​<u>-ium in genitive ​plural</​u> ​- this is indicated in the vocabulary. They either end in two consonants (2nd isn't **L** or **R**) or have equal number of syllables in nominative and genitive singular. Neuter -ium in genitive plural, also i in ablative singular and ia in nom and accusative plural. Most nominatives are in -e, -ar or -al. See table in Unit 14 above.<p id="​l916">​ + ​Masculine and Feminine ​__-ium in genitive ​plural__ ​- this is indicated in the vocabulary. They either end in two consonants (2nd isn't **L** or **R**) or have equal number of syllables in nominative and genitive singular. Neuter -ium in genitive plural, also i in ablative singular and ia in nom and accusative plural. Most nominatives are in -e, -ar or -al. See table in Unit 14 above.<p id="​l916">​ 
- <​u>​Partitive Genitive</​u> ​genitive indicates the whole after a word denoting a part: //multos discipulorum//​. The whole is in the genitive.<​p id="​l917">​ + __Partitive Genitive__ ​genitive indicates the whole after a word denoting a part: //multos discipulorum//​. The whole is in the genitive.<​p id="​l917">​ 
- <​u>​Dative ​with certain ​adjectives</​u> ​pleasing to, near to, dear to, similar to, dissimilar to, difficult to, easy to, useful, jucundus: Deo gratum. Similar to the dative of advantage or dative or disadvantage. Compound verbs quite often take the dative.<​p id="​l918">​ + __Dative ​with certain ​adjectives__ ​pleasing to, near to, dear to, similar to, dissimilar to, difficult to, easy to, useful, jucundus: Deo gratum. Similar to the dative of advantage or dative or disadvantage. Compound verbs quite often take the dative.<​p id="​l918">​ 
- <​u>​Predicate Accusative</​u> ​//Christus Jesus Petrum **apostolum** fecit.//<​p id="​l919">​ + __Predicate Accusative__ ​//Christus Jesus Petrum **apostolum** fecit.//<​p id="​l919">​ 
- <​u>​Cognate Accusative</​u> ​//Vitam// bonam //vixit//. = Bene vixit. ​+ __Cognate Accusative__ ​//Vitam// bonam //vixit//. = Bene vixit. ​
  
  
-    </ul> 
  
  
Line 2470: Line 1334:
 ===Unit 16 Third Declension Adjectives=== ===Unit 16 Third Declension Adjectives===
 <p id="​l987">​ <p id="​l987">​
-<​u>​Third ​Declension ​Adjectives</​u> ​like 3 declension nouns. All three genders have -i in abl.s, -ium in gen.pl and nom and acc pl of neuter have -ia. +__Third ​Declension ​Adjectives__ ​like 3 declension nouns. All three genders have -i in abl.s, -ium in gen.pl and nom and acc pl of neuter have -ia. 
  
  
-    <ul> 
  
  
Line 2480: Line 1343:
  <​tr id="​l988">​  <​tr id="​l988">​
 <td> <td>
-3 endings</td>+3 endings ​ |
 <td colspan="​3"​ align="​center">​ <td colspan="​3"​ align="​center">​
-SINGULAR ​</td>+SINGULAR ​  |
 <td colspan="​3"​ align="​center">​ <td colspan="​3"​ align="​center">​
- ​PLURAL</td>+ ​PLURAL ​ |
 </tr> </tr>
  <​tr id="​l989">​  <​tr id="​l989">​
Line 2494: Line 1357:
   MASC.     |   MASC.     |
     FEM.    |     FEM.    |
-      NEUT.</td>+      NEUT.  |
 </tr> </tr>
  <​tr id="​l990">​  <​tr id="​l990">​
Line 2504: Line 1367:
  ​acres ​       |  ​acres ​       |
  ​acres ​       |  ​acres ​       |
- acria</td>+ ​acria ​ |
 </tr> </tr>
  <​tr id="​l991">​  <​tr id="​l991">​
 <td> <td>
-Gen  </​td>​+Gen    |
 <td colspan="​3"​ align="​center">​ <td colspan="​3"​ align="​center">​
-//​acris ​   </​td>​+//​acris ​     |
 <td colspan="​3"​ align="​center">​ <td colspan="​3"​ align="​center">​
-acrium//</td>+acrium// ​ |
 </tr> </tr>
  <​tr id="​l992">​  <​tr id="​l992">​
 <td> <td>
-Dat  </​td>​+Dat    |
 <td colspan="​3"​ align="​center">​ <td colspan="​3"​ align="​center">​
-//​acri ​    </td>+//​acri ​      |
 <td colspan="​3"​ align="​center">​ <td colspan="​3"​ align="​center">​
-//acribus//</td>+//​acribus// ​ |
 </tr> </tr>
  <​tr id="​l993">​  <​tr id="​l993">​
Line 2530: Line 1393:
 acris, -es    | acris, -es    |
 acris, -es    | acris, -es    |
-acria</td>+acria  |
 </tr> </tr>
  <​tr id="​l994">​  <​tr id="​l994">​
 <td> <td>
-Abl  </​td>​+Abl    |
 <td colspan="​3"​ align="​center">​ <td colspan="​3"​ align="​center">​
-//​acri ​    </td>+//​acri ​      |
 <td colspan="​3"​ align="​center">​ <td colspan="​3"​ align="​center">​
-//acribus//</td>+//​acribus// ​ |
 </tr> </tr>
 </​table>​ </​table>​
Line 2547: Line 1410:
  <​tr id="​l996">​  <​tr id="​l996">​
 <td> <td>
-2 endings</td>+2 endings ​ |
 <td colspan="​2"​ align="​center">​ <td colspan="​2"​ align="​center">​
-SINGULAR ​</td>+SINGULAR ​  |
 <td colspan="​3"​ align="​center">​ <td colspan="​3"​ align="​center">​
-PLURAL</td>+PLURAL ​ |
 </tr> </tr>
  <​tr id="​l997">​  <​tr id="​l997">​
Line 2559: Line 1422:
 NEUT.      | NEUT.      |
 M AND F    | M AND F    |
-NEUT.</td>+NEUT.  |
 </tr> </tr>
  <​tr id="​l998">​  <​tr id="​l998">​
Line 2567: Line 1430:
 omne   | omne   |
 omnes        | omnes        |
-omnia</td>+omnia  |
 </tr> </tr>
  <​tr id="​l999">​  <​tr id="​l999">​
 <td> <td>
-Gen  </​td>​+Gen    |
 <td colspan="​2"​ align="​center">​ <td colspan="​2"​ align="​center">​
-//​omnis ​</td>+//​omnis ​  |
 <td colspan="​2"​ align="​center">​ <td colspan="​2"​ align="​center">​
-omnium//</td>+omnium// ​ |
 </tr> </tr>
  <​tr id="​l1000">​  <​tr id="​l1000">​
 <td> <td>
-Dat  </​td>​+Dat    |
 <td colspan="​2"​ align="​center">​ <td colspan="​2"​ align="​center">​
-//​omni ​</td>+//​omni ​  |
 <td colspan="​2"​ align="​center">​ <td colspan="​2"​ align="​center">​
-omnibus//</td>+omnibus// ​ |
 </tr> </tr>
  <​tr id="​l1001">​  <​tr id="​l1001">​
Line 2591: Line 1454:
 omne  | omne  |
 omnis, -es   | omnis, -es   |
-omnia</td>+omnia  |
 </tr> </tr>
  <​tr id="​l1002">​  <​tr id="​l1002">​
 <td> <td>
-Abl  </​td>​+Abl    |
 <td colspan="​2"​ align="​center">​ <td colspan="​2"​ align="​center">​
-//​omni ​ </​td>​+//​omni ​   |
 <td colspan="​2"​ align="​center">​ <td colspan="​2"​ align="​center">​
-omnibus//</td>+omnibus// ​ |
 </tr> </tr>
 </​table>​ </​table>​
Line 2608: Line 1471:
  <​tr id="​l1004">​  <​tr id="​l1004">​
 <td> <td>
-one ending ​</td>+one ending ​  |
 <td colspan="​3"​ align="​center">​ <td colspan="​3"​ align="​center">​
-SINGULAR ​</td>+SINGULAR ​  |
 <td colspan="​2"​ align="​center">​ <td colspan="​2"​ align="​center">​
-PLURAL</td>+PLURAL ​ |
 </tr> </tr>
  <​tr id="​l1005">​  <​tr id="​l1005">​
 <td> <td>
-Nom. </td>+Nom.   |
 <td colspan="​3"​ align="​center">​ <td colspan="​3"​ align="​center">​
-felix </td>+felix   |
 <td colspan="​2"​ align="​center">​ <td colspan="​2"​ align="​center">​
- ​felices felicia</td>+ ​felices felicia ​ |
 </tr> </tr>
  <​tr id="​l1006">​  <​tr id="​l1006">​
 <td> <td>
-Gen. </td>+Gen.   |
 <td colspan="​3"​ align="​center">​ <td colspan="​3"​ align="​center">​
-felicis ​</td>+felicis ​  |
 <td colspan="​2"​ align="​center">​ <td colspan="​2"​ align="​center">​
- ​felicium ​</td>+ ​felicium ​  |
 </tr> </tr>
  <​tr id="​l1007">​  <​tr id="​l1007">​
 <td> <td>
-Dat. </td>+Dat.   |
 <td colspan="​3"​ align="​center">​ <td colspan="​3"​ align="​center">​
-felici ​ </​td>​+felici ​   |
 <td colspan="​2"​ align="​center">​ <td colspan="​2"​ align="​center">​
- ​felicibus</td>+ ​felicibus ​ |
 </tr> </tr>
  <​tr id="​l1008">​  <​tr id="​l1008">​
Line 2645: Line 1508:
 felix  | felix  |
  ​felices ​  |  ​felices ​  |
-felicia</td>+felicia ​ |
 </tr> </tr>
  <​tr id="​l1009">​  <​tr id="​l1009">​
 <td> <td>
-Abl. </td>+Abl.   |
 <td colspan="​3"​ align="​center">​ <td colspan="​3"​ align="​center">​
-felici ​</td>+felici ​  |
 <td colspan="​2"​ align="​center">​ <td colspan="​2"​ align="​center">​
- ​felicibus</td>+ ​felicibus ​ |
 </tr> </tr>
 </​table>​ </​table>​
 </​div>​ </​div>​
  
-    </ul> 
  
  
Line 2665: Line 1527:
  
  
-    <ul> 
  
  
Line 2672: Line 1533:
  <​tr id="​l1013">​  <​tr id="​l1013">​
 <td> <td>
-one ending ​</td>+one ending ​  |
 <td colspan="​2"​ align="​center">​ <td colspan="​2"​ align="​center">​
-SINGULAR ​</td>+SINGULAR ​  |
 <td colspan="​2"​ align="​center">​ <td colspan="​2"​ align="​center">​
-PLURAL</td>+PLURAL ​ |
 </tr> </tr>
  <​tr id="​l1014">​  <​tr id="​l1014">​
Line 2684: Line 1545:
 NEUT.   | NEUT.   |
 M AND F  | M AND F  |
-NEUT.</td>+NEUT.  |
 </tr> </tr>
  <​tr id="​l1015">​  <​tr id="​l1015">​
 <td> <td>
-Nom. </td>+Nom.   |
 <td colspan="​2"​ align="​center">​ <td colspan="​2"​ align="​center">​
 par   | par   |
 pares   | pares   |
-paria</td>+paria  |
 </tr> </tr>
  <​tr id="​l1016">​  <​tr id="​l1016">​
 <td> <td>
-Gen. </td>+Gen.   |
 <td colspan="​2"​ align="​center">​ <td colspan="​2"​ align="​center">​
-paris </td>+paris   |
 <td colspan="​2"​ align="​center">​ <td colspan="​2"​ align="​center">​
-parium</td>+parium ​ |
 </tr> </tr>
  <​tr id="​l1017">​  <​tr id="​l1017">​
 <td> <td>
-Dat. </td>+Dat.   |
 <td colspan="​2"​ align="​center">​ <td colspan="​2"​ align="​center">​
-pari  </​td>​+pari    |
 <td colspan="​2"​ align="​center">​ <td colspan="​2"​ align="​center">​
-paribus</td>+paribus ​ |
 </tr> </tr>
  <​tr id="​l1018">​  <​tr id="​l1018">​
Line 2716: Line 1577:
 par   | par   |
 paris, -es   | paris, -es   |
-paria</td>+paria  |
 </tr> </tr>
  <​tr id="​l1019">​  <​tr id="​l1019">​
 <td> <td>
-Abl. </td>+Abl.   |
 <td colspan="​2"​ align="​center">​ <td colspan="​2"​ align="​center">​
-pari  </​td>​+pari    |
 <td colspan="​2"​ align="​center">​ <td colspan="​2"​ align="​center">​
-paribus</td>+paribus ​ |
 </tr> </tr>
 </​table>​ </​table>​
 </​div>​ </​div>​
  
-    </ul> 
  
  
 <p id="​l1021">​ <p id="​l1021">​
-<​u>​Present ​active ​participle</​u> ​formed by adding -ns to the present stem. In -io verbs of the third conjugation,​ and in the fourth conjugation,​ the stem is modified by the addition of -e-, as capi-e-ns, audi-e-ns. It is declined like an adjective of one ending of the **third declension** above. ​+__Present ​active ​participle__ ​formed by adding -ns to the present stem. In -io verbs of the third conjugation,​ and in the fourth conjugation,​ the stem is modified by the addition of -e-, as capi-e-ns, audi-e-ns. It is declined like an adjective of one ending of the **third declension** above. ​
  
  
-    <ul> 
  
  
Line 2745: Line 1604:
    |    |
 nominative singular ​ | nominative singular ​ |
-other cases</td>+other cases  |
 </tr> </tr>
  <​tr id="​l1023">​  <​tr id="​l1023">​
Line 2751: Line 1610:
    |    |
 stem + ns  | stem + ns  |
-stem + nt + endings</td>+stem + nt + endings ​ |
 </tr> </tr>
  <​tr id="​l1024">​  <​tr id="​l1024">​
Line 2757: Line 1616:
 1st   | 1st   |
 laudans ​ | laudans ​ |
- ​laudantis</td>+ ​laudantis ​ |
 </tr> </tr>
  <​tr id="​l1025">​  <​tr id="​l1025">​
Line 2763: Line 1622:
 2nd  | 2nd  |
  ​monens ​ |  ​monens ​ |
-monentis</td>+monentis ​ |
 </tr> </tr>
  <​tr id="​l1026">​  <​tr id="​l1026">​
Line 2769: Line 1628:
 3rd  | 3rd  |
 ducens ​ | ducens ​ |
-ducentis</td>+ducentis ​ |
 </tr> </tr>
  <​tr id="​l1027">​  <​tr id="​l1027">​
Line 2775: Line 1634:
    |    |
 capiens ​ | capiens ​ |
-capientis</td>+capientis ​ |
 </tr> </tr>
  <​tr id="​l1028">​  <​tr id="​l1028">​
Line 2781: Line 1640:
 4th  | 4th  |
 audiens ​ | audiens ​ |
-audientis</td>+audientis ​ |
 </tr> </tr>
 </​table>​ </​table>​
 </​div>​ </​div>​
  
-    </ul> 
  
  
Line 2809: Line 1667:
  
 <p id="​l1034">​ <p id="​l1034">​
-<​u>​Fourth ​Declension ​Nouns</​u>​ritus, m., ceremony gen����������������,​ n., kneeSTEMS ritu- genu-BASES rit- gen-+__Fourth ​Declension ​Nouns__ritus, m., ceremony gen����������������,​ n., kneeSTEMS ritu- genu-BASES rit- gen-
  
  
-    <ul> 
  
 <p id="​l1038">​ <p id="​l1038">​
Line 2818: Line 1675:
  
  
-    </ul> 
  
  
Line 2836: Line 1692:
 Dat  | Dat  |
 Acc  | Acc  |
-Abl </td>+Abl   |
 </tr> </tr>
 <tr id="​l1040">​ <tr id="​l1040">​
Line 2850: Line 1706:
 **rit**ibus ​ | **rit**ibus ​ |
 **rit**us ​ | **rit**us ​ |
-**rit**ibus**</td>+**rit**ibus** ​ |
 </tr> </tr>
 <tr id="​l1041">​ <tr id="​l1041">​
Line 2864: Line 1720:
 **gen**ibus ​ | **gen**ibus ​ |
 **gen**ua ​ | **gen**ua ​ |
-**gen**ibus**</td>+**gen**ibus** ​ |
 </tr> </tr>
 </​table>​ </​table>​
Line 2873: Line 1729:
 ===Unit 17 Volo and Eo=== ===Unit 17 Volo and Eo===
  
-    <ul> 
  
 <p id="​l1100">​ <p id="​l1100">​
Line 2887: Line 1742:
 volumus ​ | volumus ​ |
 vultis ​ | vultis ​ |
-volunt</td>+volunt ​ |
 </tr> </tr>
  <​tr id="​l1102">​  <​tr id="​l1102">​
Line 2897: Line 1752:
 volebamus ​ | volebamus ​ |
 volebatis ​ | volebatis ​ |
-volebant</td>+volebant ​ |
 </tr> </tr>
  <​tr id="​l1103">​  <​tr id="​l1103">​
Line 2907: Line 1762:
 volemus ​ | volemus ​ |
 voletis ​ | voletis ​ |
-volent</td>+volent ​ |
 </tr> </tr>
  <​tr id="​l1104">​  <​tr id="​l1104">​
Line 2917: Line 1772:
 voluimus ​ | voluimus ​ |
 voluistis ​ | voluistis ​ |
-voluerunt</td>+voluerunt ​ |
 </tr> </tr>
  <​tr id="​l1105">​  <​tr id="​l1105">​
Line 2927: Line 1782:
 volueramus ​ | volueramus ​ |
 volueratis ​ | volueratis ​ |
-voluerant</td>+voluerant ​ |
 </tr> </tr>
  <​tr id="​l1106">​  <​tr id="​l1106">​
Line 2937: Line 1792:
 voluerimus ​ | voluerimus ​ |
 volueritis ​ | volueritis ​ |
-voluerint</td>+voluerint ​ |
 </tr> </tr>
  <​tr id="​l1107">​  <​tr id="​l1107">​
Line 2947: Line 1802:
 velimus ​ | velimus ​ |
 velitis ​ | velitis ​ |
-velint</td>+velint ​ |
 </tr> </tr>
  <​tr id="​l1108">​  <​tr id="​l1108">​
 <td colspan="​6"​ align="​center">​ <td colspan="​6"​ align="​center">​
-  if the //L// is followed by a vowel, you find an //O// otherwise "U//.</td>+  if the //L// is followed by a vowel, you find an //O// otherwise "​U//​. ​ |
 </tr> </tr>
 </​table>​ </​table>​
Line 2967: Line 1822:
 imus  | imus  |
 itis  | itis  |
-eunt</td>+eunt  |
 </tr> </tr>
  <​tr id="​l1111">​  <​tr id="​l1111">​
Line 2977: Line 1832:
 ibamus ​ | ibamus ​ |
 ibatis ​ | ibatis ​ |
-ibant</td>+ibant  |
 </tr> </tr>
  <​tr id="​l1112">​  <​tr id="​l1112">​
Line 2987: Line 1842:
 ibimus ​ | ibimus ​ |
 ibitis ​ | ibitis ​ |
-ibunt</td>+ibunt  |
 </tr> </tr>
  <​tr id="​l1113">​  <​tr id="​l1113">​
Line 2997: Line 1852:
 ivimus ​ | ivimus ​ |
 ivistis ​ | ivistis ​ |
-iverunt</td>+iverunt ​ |
 </tr> </tr>
  <​tr id="​l1114">​  <​tr id="​l1114">​
Line 3007: Line 1862:
 iveramus ​ | iveramus ​ |
 iveratis ​ | iveratis ​ |
-iverant</td>+iverant ​ |
 </tr> </tr>
  <​tr id="​l1115">​  <​tr id="​l1115">​
Line 3017: Line 1872:
 iverimus ​ | iverimus ​ |
 iveritis ​ | iveritis ​ |
-iverunt</td>+iverunt ​ |
 </tr> </tr>
  <​tr id="​l1116">​  <​tr id="​l1116">​
Line 3027: Line 1882:
 iimus  | iimus  |
 istis  | istis  |
-ierunt</td>+ierunt ​ |
 </tr> </tr>
  <​tr id="​l1117">​  <​tr id="​l1117">​
Line 3037: Line 1892:
 ieramus ​ | ieramus ​ |
 ieratis ​ | ieratis ​ |
-ierant</td>+ierant ​ |
 </tr> </tr>
  <​tr id="​l1118">​  <​tr id="​l1118">​
Line 3047: Line 1902:
 ierimus ​ | ierimus ​ |
 ieritis ​ | ieritis ​ |
-ierint</td>+ierint ​ |
 </tr> </tr>
  
Line 3054: Line 1909:
 </​div>​ </​div>​
 <p id="​l1120">​ <p id="​l1120">​
- <​u>​Accustative ​of place to</​u> ​place to which **ad, in** with accusative is motion into.   **ad, in** can be omitted with domum (house) or big cities. //Petrus ivit Romanum//​.// ​+ __Accustative ​of place to__ place to which **ad, in** with accusative is motion into.   **ad, in** can be omitted with domum (house) or big cities. //Petrus ivit Romanum//​.// ​
  
 <p id="​l1122">​ <p id="​l1122">​
- <​u>​Ablative ​of location</​u> ​place where you are **in** with ablative ​ with cities and towns the **in** isn't necessary. ​+ __Ablative ​of location__ ​place where you are **in** with ablative ​ with cities and towns the **in** isn't necessary. ​
  
 <p id="​l1124">​ <p id="​l1124">​
- <​u>​Ablative ​of place from</​u> ​with **a (ab, abs), e (ex)** //Paulus venit a Roma// ​ with cities and towns the a, ex, ab isn't necessary. ​+ __Ablative ​of place from__ ​with **a (ab, abs), e (ex)** //Paulus venit a Roma// ​ with cities and towns the a, ex, ab isn't necessary. ​
  
 <p id="​l1126">​ <p id="​l1126">​
- <​u>​Locative case</​u> ​signifying place where; for 1st and 2nd declensions it is the genitive singular / ablative plural. Louvanii, Athenis - 3rd declention always ablative. ​+ __Locative case__ ​signifying place where; for 1st and 2nd declensions it is the genitive singular / ablative plural. Louvanii, Athenis - 3rd declention always ablative. ​
  
  
-    </ul> 
  
  
Line 3080: Line 1934:
  
  
-    <ul> 
  
  
Line 3087: Line 1940:
  <​tr id="​l1185">​  <​tr id="​l1185">​
 <td> <td>
- </​td>​+   |
 <td colspan="​4"​ align="​center">​ <td colspan="​4"​ align="​center">​
-Participles</td>+Participles ​ |
 </tr> </tr>
  <​tr id="​l1186">​  <​tr id="​l1186">​
 <td> <td>
- </​td>​+   |
 <td colspan="​2"​ align="​center">​ <td colspan="​2"​ align="​center">​
-Active</td>+Active ​ |
 <td colspan="​2"​ align="​center">​ <td colspan="​2"​ align="​center">​
- ​Passive</td>+ ​Passive ​ |
 </tr> </tr>
  <​tr id="​l1187">​  <​tr id="​l1187">​
Line 3105: Line 1958:
 Future ​ | Future ​ |
  ​Perfect ​  |  ​Perfect ​  |
-Future</td>+Future ​ |
 </tr> </tr>
  <​tr id="​l1188">​  <​tr id="​l1188">​
Line 3113: Line 1966:
 amaturus ​  | amaturus ​  |
 amatus ​  | amatus ​  |
- ​amandus</td>+ ​amandus ​ |
 </tr> </tr>
  <​tr id="​l1189">​  <​tr id="​l1189">​
Line 3121: Line 1974:
 about to love   | about to love   |
 loved, having been loved   | loved, having been loved   |
- to be loved</td>+ to be loved  |
 </tr> </tr>
  <​tr id="​l1190">​  <​tr id="​l1190">​
Line 3129: Line 1982:
 moniturus ​  | moniturus ​  |
 monitus ​  | monitus ​  |
-monendus ​</td>+monendus ​  |
 </tr> </tr>
  <​tr id="​l1191">​  <​tr id="​l1191">​
Line 3137: Line 1990:
 about to advise advised, ​  | about to advise advised, ​  |
 having been advised ​  | having been advised ​  |
- to be advised ​</td>+ to be advised ​  |
 </tr> </tr>
  <​tr id="​l1192">​  <​tr id="​l1192">​
Line 3145: Line 1998:
 recturus ​    | recturus ​    |
 rectus ​  | rectus ​  |
-regendus ​</td>+regendus ​  |
 </tr> </tr>
  <​tr id="​l1193">​  <​tr id="​l1193">​
Line 3152: Line 2005:
 ruling ​  | ruling ​  |
 about to rule   | about to rule   |
-ruled, having been ruled </td>+ruled, having been ruled   |
 </tr> </tr>
  <​tr id="​l1194">​  <​tr id="​l1194">​
Line 3160: Line 2013:
 capturus ​   | capturus ​   |
 captus ​  | captus ​  |
- ​capiendus ​</td>+ ​capiendus ​  |
 </tr> </tr>
  <​tr id="​l1195">​  <​tr id="​l1195">​
Line 3167: Line 2020:
 taking ​  | taking ​  |
 about to take   | about to take   |
- ​taken,​ having been taken </td>+ ​taken,​ having been taken   |
 </tr> </tr>
  <​tr id="​l1196">​  <​tr id="​l1196">​
Line 3175: Line 2028:
 auditurus ​ | auditurus ​ |
 auditus ​  | auditus ​  |
-audiendus ​</td>+audiendus ​  |
 </tr> </tr>
  <​tr id="​l1197">​  <​tr id="​l1197">​
Line 3183: Line 2036:
 about to hear   | about to hear   |
 heard, having been heard   | heard, having been heard   |
- to be heard </td>+ to be heard   |
 </tr> </tr>
 </​table>​ </​table>​
 </​div>​ </​div>​
  
-        <​ul>​ +    ​
 <p id="​l1198">​ <p id="​l1198">​
   Present passive and perfect active participles are lacking.   Present passive and perfect active participles are lacking.
  
  
-        </​ul>​ +    ​
  
 <p id="​l1199">​ <p id="​l1199">​
Line 3205: Line 2056:
  ​Present Active Periphrastic ​ |  ​Present Active Periphrastic ​ |
  //​laudaturus sum//  |  //​laudaturus sum//  |
- I am going to praise ​</td>+ I am going to praise ​  |
 </tr> </tr>
  <​tr id="​l1201">​  <​tr id="​l1201">​
Line 3211: Line 2062:
 Imperfect Active Periphrastic ​  | Imperfect Active Periphrastic ​  |
  //​laudaturus eram// ​  |  //​laudaturus eram// ​  |
- I was intending to praise ​</td>+ I was intending to praise ​  |
 </tr> </tr>
  <​tr id="​l1202">​  <​tr id="​l1202">​
Line 3217: Line 2068:
 Pluperfect Active Periphrastic ​  | Pluperfect Active Periphrastic ​  |
  //​laudaturus fueram// ​  |  //​laudaturus fueram// ​  |
- I had been about to praise ​</td>+ I had been about to praise ​  |
 </tr> </tr>
 </​table>​ </​table>​
Line 3229: Line 2080:
  ​Present Passive Periphrastic ​ |  ​Present Passive Periphrastic ​ |
  //​audiendus est//  |  //​audiendus est//  |
- he must be heard </td>+ he must be heard   |
 </tr> </tr>
  <​tr id="​l1205">​  <​tr id="​l1205">​
Line 3235: Line 2086:
 Future Passive Periphrastic ​  | Future Passive Periphrastic ​  |
  //​audienda erit// ​  |  //​audienda erit// ​  |
- she will have to be heard </td>+ she will have to be heard   |
 </tr> </tr>
 </​table>​ </​table>​
Line 3242: Line 2093:
  
  
-    </ul> 
  
  
Line 3256: Line 2106:
  
  
-    <ul> 
  
  
Line 3270: Line 2119:
 dat  | dat  |
 acc  | acc  |
-abl</td>+abl  |
 </tr> </tr>
  <​tr id="​l1270">​  <​tr id="​l1270">​
Line 3281: Line 2130:
 diei  | diei  |
 diem  | diem  |
-die</td>+die  |
 </tr> </tr>
  <​tr id="​l1271">​  <​tr id="​l1271">​
Line 3292: Line 2141:
 rei  | rei  |
 rem  | rem  |
-re</td>+re  |
 </tr> </tr>
  <​tr id="​l1272">​  <​tr id="​l1272">​
Line 3303: Line 2152:
 -ie  | -ie  |
 -em  | -em  |
--e</td>+-e  |
 </tr> </tr>
  <​tr id="​l1273">​  <​tr id="​l1273">​
Line 3314: Line 2163:
 diebus ​ | diebus ​ |
 dies  | dies  |
-diebus</td>+diebus ​ |
 </tr> </tr>
  <​tr id="​l1274">​  <​tr id="​l1274">​
Line 3325: Line 2174:
 rebus  | rebus  |
 res  | res  |
-rebus</td>+rebus  |
 </tr> </tr>
 </​table>​ </​table>​
 </​div>​ </​div>​
  
-    </ul> 
  
  
Line 3337: Line 2185:
  
  
-    <ul> 
  
  
Line 3344: Line 2191:
  <​tr id="​l1278">​  <​tr id="​l1278">​
 <td> <td>
-  </td>+    |
 <td colspan="​2"​ align="​center">​ <td colspan="​2"​ align="​center">​
-ACTIVE[1] ​</td>+ACTIVE[1] ​  |
 <td colspan="​2"​ align="​center">​ <td colspan="​2"​ align="​center">​
-PASSIVE</td>+PASSIVE ​ |
 </tr> </tr>
  <​tr id="​l1279">​  <​tr id="​l1279">​
Line 3356: Line 2203:
 PLURAL ​ | PLURAL ​ |
  ​SINGULAR ​  |  ​SINGULAR ​  |
-PLURAL</td>+PLURAL ​ |
 </tr> </tr>
  <​tr id="​l1280">​  <​tr id="​l1280">​
Line 3364: Line 2211:
 amate, love ye  | amate, love ye  |
 amare, ​  | amare, ​  |
-amamini,</td>+amamini, ​ |
 </tr> </tr>
  <​tr id="​l1281">​  <​tr id="​l1281">​
Line 3372: Line 2219:
 laudate, praise! ​  | laudate, praise! ​  |
 laudare ​  | laudare ​  |
-laudamini be praised! ​</td>+laudamini be praised! ​  |
 </tr> </tr>
  <​tr id="​l1282">​  <​tr id="​l1282">​
Line 3380: Line 2227:
 monete, advise ye  | monete, advise ye  |
 monere, ​  | monere, ​  |
-monemini,</td>+monemini, ​ |
 </tr> </tr>
  <​tr id="​l1283">​  <​tr id="​l1283">​
Line 3388: Line 2235:
 regite, rule ye  | regite, rule ye  |
 regere, ​  | regere, ​  |
-regimini,</td>+regimini, ​ |
 </tr> </tr>
  <​tr id="​l1284">​  <​tr id="​l1284">​
Line 3396: Line 2243:
 capite, take ye  | capite, take ye  |
 capere, ​  | capere, ​  |
-capimini,</td>+capimini, ​ |
 </tr> </tr>
  <​tr id="​l1285">​  <​tr id="​l1285">​
Line 3404: Line 2251:
 audite, hear ye  | audite, hear ye  |
 audire, ​  | audire, ​  |
-audimini,</td>+audimini, ​ |
 </tr> </tr>
  <​tr id="​l1286">​  <​tr id="​l1286">​
Line 3412: Line 2259:
 este, estote, be ye  | este, estote, be ye  |
    |    |
- </​td>​+   |
 </tr> </tr>
  <​tr id="​l1287">​  <​tr id="​l1287">​
Line 3420: Line 2267:
 ite  | ite  |
    |    |
- </​td>​+   |
 </tr> </tr>
 </​table>​ </​table>​
 </​div>​ </​div>​
  
-    </ul> 
  
  
Line 3432: Line 2278:
  
 <p id="​l1291">​ <p id="​l1291">​
-<​u>​Vocative</​u> ​All like the nominitive except second declension masculine that end in **-e**. Domine, Care apostole.+__Vocative__ ​All like the nominitive except second declension masculine that end in **-e**. Domine, Care apostole.
  
  
-    <ul> 
  
 <p id="​l1292">​ <p id="​l1292">​
Line 3441: Line 2286:
  
  
-    </ul> 
  
  
 <p id="​l1294">​ <p id="​l1294">​
-<​u>​Personal Pronouns</​u> ​+__Personal Pronouns__ ​
  
  
-    <ul> 
  
  
Line 3455: Line 2298:
  <​tr id="​l1295">​  <​tr id="​l1295">​
 <td> <td>
- </​td>​+   |
 <td colspan="​2"​ align="​center">​ <td colspan="​2"​ align="​center">​
-SINGULAR</td>+SINGULAR ​ |
 </tr> </tr>
  <​tr id="​l1296">​  <​tr id="​l1296">​
Line 3463: Line 2306:
    |    |
 FIRST PERSON ​ | FIRST PERSON ​ |
- ​SECOND PERSON</td>+ ​SECOND PERSON ​ |
 </tr> </tr>
  <​tr id="​l1297">​  <​tr id="​l1297">​
Line 3469: Line 2312:
 Nom.   | Nom.   |
 ego, I   | ego, I   |
-tu, you</td>+tu, you  |
 </tr> </tr>
  <​tr id="​l1298">​  <​tr id="​l1298">​
Line 3475: Line 2318:
 Gen.   | Gen.   |
 mei, of me   | mei, of me   |
-tui, of you</td>+tui, of you  |
 </tr> </tr>
  <​tr id="​l1299">​  <​tr id="​l1299">​
Line 3481: Line 2324:
 Dat.   | Dat.   |
 mihi, to or for me   | mihi, to or for me   |
-tibi, to or for you</td>+tibi, to or for you  |
 </tr> </tr>
  <​tr id="​l1300">​  <​tr id="​l1300">​
Line 3487: Line 2330:
 Acc.   | Acc.   |
 me, me   | me, me   |
-te, you</td>+te, you  |
 </tr> </tr>
  <​tr id="​l1301">​  <​tr id="​l1301">​
Line 3493: Line 2336:
 Abl.   | Abl.   |
 me, with, from me   | me, with, from me   |
-te, with, from you</td>+te, with, from you  |
 </tr> </tr>
  <​tr id="​l1302">​  <​tr id="​l1302">​
 <td> <td>
- </​td>​+   |
 <td colspan="​2"​ align="​center">​ <td colspan="​2"​ align="​center">​
-PLURAL</td>+PLURAL ​ |
 </tr> </tr>
  <​tr id="​l1303">​  <​tr id="​l1303">​
Line 3505: Line 2348:
 Nom.   | Nom.   |
 nos, we   | nos, we   |
-vos, you</td>+vos, you  |
 </tr> </tr>
  <​tr id="​l1304">​  <​tr id="​l1304">​
Line 3511: Line 2354:
 Gen.   | Gen.   |
 nostrum or nostri, of us   | nostrum or nostri, of us   |
-vestrum or vestri, of you</td>+vestrum or vestri, of you  |
 </tr> </tr>
  <​tr id="​l1305">​  <​tr id="​l1305">​
Line 3517: Line 2360:
 Dat.   | Dat.   |
 nobis, to or for us   | nobis, to or for us   |
-vobis, to or for you</td>+vobis, to or for you  |
 </tr> </tr>
  <​tr id="​l1306">​  <​tr id="​l1306">​
Line 3523: Line 2366:
 Acc.   | Acc.   |
 nos, us   | nos, us   |
-vos, you</td>+vos, you  |
 </tr> </tr>
  <​tr id="​l1307">​  <​tr id="​l1307">​
Line 3529: Line 2372:
 Abl.   | Abl.   |
 nobis, witi, from us  | nobis, witi, from us  |
-vobis, with, from you</td>+vobis, with, from you  |
 </tr> </tr>
 </​table>​ </​table>​
 </​div>​ </​div>​
  
-    </ul> 
  
  
 <p id="​l1309">​ <p id="​l1309">​
-<​u>​Double Accusative</​u> ​Some verbs, e.g. ask or teach, take an accusative of thing and accusative of person: **Dicaonus pueros evangelium docebat** Verbs: desidero, doceo +__Double Accusative__ ​Some verbs, e.g. ask or teach, take an accusative of thing and accusative of person: **Dicaonus pueros evangelium docebat** Verbs: desidero, doceo 
  
 <p id="​l1311">​ <p id="​l1311">​
Line 3551: Line 2393:
  
  
-    <ul> 
  
  
Line 3559: Line 2400:
 <td> <td>
 Conj. I   | Conj. I   |
-hortor, hortari, hortatus sum, encourage</td>+hortor, hortari, hortatus sum, encourage ​ |
 </tr> </tr>
  <​tr id="​l1393">​  <​tr id="​l1393">​
 <td> <td>
     |     |
-miror, mirari, ​&​mdash;, ​miratus sum, wonder at, admire</td>+miror, mirari, ​-- miratus sum, wonder at, admire ​ |
 </tr> </tr>
  <​tr id="​l1394">​  <​tr id="​l1394">​
 <td> <td>
 Conj. II   | Conj. II   |
-vereor, vereri, veritus sum, fear</td>+vereor, vereri, veritus sum, fear  |
 </tr> </tr>
  <​tr id="​l1395">​  <​tr id="​l1395">​
 <td> <td>
    |    |
-misereor, misereri, ​&​mdash;, ​misertus sum, have pity on</td>+misereor, misereri, ​-- misertus sum, have pity on  |
 </tr> </tr>
  <​tr id="​l1396">​  <​tr id="​l1396">​
 <td> <td>
 Conj. III (a)   | Conj. III (a)   |
-sequor, sequi, secutus sum, follow</td>+sequor, sequi, secutus sum, follow ​ |
 </tr> </tr>
  <​tr id="​l1397">​  <​tr id="​l1397">​
 <td> <td>
    |    |
-nascor, nasci, ​&​mdash;, ​natus sum, be born</td>+nascor, nasci, ​-- natus sum, be born  |
 </tr> </tr>
  <​tr id="​l1398">​  <​tr id="​l1398">​
 <td> <td>
              ​(b) ​  |              ​(b) ​  |
-patior, pati, passus sum, suffer, allow</td>+patior, pati, passus sum, suffer, allow  |
 </tr> </tr>
  <​tr id="​l1399">​  <​tr id="​l1399">​
 <td> <td>
 Conj. IV    | Conj. IV    |
-partior, partiri, partitus sum, share, divide</td>+partior, partiri, partitus sum, share, divide ​ |
 </tr> </tr>
  <​tr id="​l1400">​  <​tr id="​l1400">​
 <td> <td>
    |    |
-orior, oriri, ​&​mdash;, ​ortus sum, spring up, arise</td>+orior, oriri, ​-- ortus sum, spring up, arise  |
 </tr> </tr>
 </​table>​ </​table>​
 </​div>​ </​div>​
  
-    </ul> 
  
  
 <p id="​l1402">​ <p id="​l1402">​
-<​u>​Semideponent</​u> ​Deponent only in their perfect system. ​+__Semideponent__ ​Deponent only in their perfect system. ​
  
  
-    <ul> 
  
  
Line 3619: Line 2458:
 <td> <td>
    |    |
-audeo, audere, ​&​mdash;, ​ausus sum, dare</td>+audeo, audere, ​-- ausus sum, dare  |
 </tr> </tr>
  <​tr id="​l1404">​  <​tr id="​l1404">​
 <td> <td>
    |    |
-gaudeo, gaudere, ​&​mdash;, ​gavisus sum, rejoice</td>+gaudeo, gaudere, ​-- gavisus sum, rejoice ​ |
 </tr> </tr>
  <​tr id="​l1405">​  <​tr id="​l1405">​
 <td> <td>
    |    |
-confido, confidere, ​&​mdash;, ​confisus sum, trust</td>+confido, confidere, ​-- confisus sum, trust  |
 </tr> </tr>
 </​table>​ </​table>​
 </​div>​ </​div>​
  
-    </ul> 
  
  
Line 3641: Line 2479:
  
  
-    <ul> 
  
  
Line 3648: Line 2485:
  <​tr id="​l1409">​  <​tr id="​l1409">​
 <td> <td>
-Conjugation</td>+Conjugation ​ |
 <td colspan="​6"​ align="​left">​ <td colspan="​6"​ align="​left">​
-**Active Voice**</td>+**Active Voice** ​ |
 </tr> </tr>
  <​tr id="​l1410">​  <​tr id="​l1410">​
 <td colspan="​7"​ align="​left">​ <td colspan="​7"​ align="​left">​
-**-e-** replaces the stem vowel **-a-**.</td>+**-e-** replaces the stem vowel **-a-**. ​ |
 </tr> </tr>
  <​tr id="​l1411">​  <​tr id="​l1411">​
Line 3664: Line 2501:
 amemus ​  | amemus ​  |
 ametis ​  | ametis ​  |
-ament </td>+ament   |
 </tr> </tr>
  <​tr id="​l1412">​  <​tr id="​l1412">​
Line 3674: Line 2511:
 laudemus ​  | laudemus ​  |
 laudetis ​  | laudetis ​  |
-laudent</td>+laudent ​ |
 </tr> </tr>
  <​tr id="​l1413">​  <​tr id="​l1413">​
 <td colspan="​7"​ align="​left">​ <td colspan="​7"​ align="​left">​
-**-a-** replaces the stem vowel **-e-**.</td>+**-a-** replaces the stem vowel **-e-**. ​ |
 </tr> </tr>
  <​tr id="​l1414">​  <​tr id="​l1414">​
Line 3688: Line 2525:
 moneamus ​  | moneamus ​  |
 moneatis ​  | moneatis ​  |
-moneant</td>+moneant ​ |
 </tr> </tr>
  <​tr id="​l1415">​  <​tr id="​l1415">​
Line 3698: Line 2535:
 regamus ​  | regamus ​  |
 regatis ​  | regatis ​  |
-regant ​</td>+regant ​  |
 </tr> </tr>
  <​tr id="​l1416">​  <​tr id="​l1416">​
Line 3708: Line 2545:
 capiamus ​  | capiamus ​  |
 capiatis ​  | capiatis ​  |
-capiant</td>+capiant ​ |
 </tr> </tr>
  <​tr id="​l1417">​  <​tr id="​l1417">​
Line 3718: Line 2555:
 audiamus ​  | audiamus ​  |
 audiatis ​  | audiatis ​  |
-audiant ​</td>+audiant ​  |
 </tr> </tr>
  <​tr id="​l1418">​  <​tr id="​l1418">​
 <td> <td>
- </​td>​+   |
 <td colspan="​4"​ align="​left">​ <td colspan="​4"​ align="​left">​
-**Passive Voice**</td>+**Passive Voice** ​ |
 </tr> </tr>
  <​tr id="​l1419">​  <​tr id="​l1419">​
Line 3734: Line 2571:
 amemur ​  | amemur ​  |
 amemini ​  | amemini ​  |
-amentur ​</td>+amentur ​  |
 </tr> </tr>
  <​tr id="​l1420">​  <​tr id="​l1420">​
Line 3744: Line 2581:
 laudemur ​  | laudemur ​  |
 laudemini ​  | laudemini ​  |
-laudentur ​</td>+laudentur ​  |
 </tr> </tr>
  <​tr id="​l1421">​  <​tr id="​l1421">​
Line 3754: Line 2591:
  ​moneamur ​  |  ​moneamur ​  |
 moneamini ​  | moneamini ​  |
-moneantur ​</td>+moneantur ​  |
 </tr> </tr>
  <​tr id="​l1422">​  <​tr id="​l1422">​
Line 3764: Line 2601:
 regamur ​  | regamur ​  |
 regamini ​  | regamini ​  |
-regantur ​</td>+regantur ​  |
 </tr> </tr>
 </​table>​ </​table>​
 </​div>​ </​div>​
  
-                                    <​ul>​ +                                ​
  
 <div class="​wikitable">​ <div class="​wikitable">​
Line 3782: Line 2618:
 capiamur ​  | capiamur ​  |
 capiamini ​  | capiamini ​  |
-capiantur</td>+capiantur ​ |
 </tr> </tr>
 </​table>​ </​table>​
 </​div>​ </​div>​
  
-                                    </​ul>​ +                                ​
  
  
Line 3801: Line 2636:
 audiamur ​  | audiamur ​  |
 audiamini ​  | audiamini ​  |
-audiantur</td>+audiantur ​ |
 </tr> </tr>
 </​table>​ </​table>​
 </​div>​ </​div>​
  
-    </ul> 
  
  
 <p id="​l1426">​ <p id="​l1426">​
-<​u>​Direct commands</​u> ​or requests: ​<u>**Subjunctive mode expresses Hesitation, exhortation,​ wish, uncertainty**</u>, subjective+__Direct commands__ ​or requests: ​__**Subjunctive mode expresses Hesitation, exhortation,​ wish, uncertainty**__, subjective
  
  
Line 3882: Line 2716:
 <tr id="​l1555">​ <tr id="​l1555">​
 <td colspan="​6"​ align="​center">​ <td colspan="​6"​ align="​center">​
-Subjunctive Imperfect Active</td>+Subjunctive Imperfect Active ​ |
 </tr> </tr>
 <tr id="​l1556">​ <tr id="​l1556">​
Line 3891: Line 2725:
 amaremus ​  | amaremus ​  |
 amaretis ​  | amaretis ​  |
-amarent</td>+amarent ​ |
 </tr> </tr>
 <tr id="​l1557">​ <tr id="​l1557">​
Line 3900: Line 2734:
 moneremus ​  | moneremus ​  |
 moneretis ​ | moneretis ​ |
-monerent</td>+monerent ​ |
 </tr> </tr>
 <tr id="​l1558">​ <tr id="​l1558">​
Line 3909: Line 2743:
 regeremus ​ | regeremus ​ |
 regeretis ​ | regeretis ​ |
-regerent</td>+regerent ​ |
 </tr> </tr>
 <tr id="​l1559">​ <tr id="​l1559">​
Line 3918: Line 2752:
 caperemus ​ | caperemus ​ |
 caperetis ​ | caperetis ​ |
-caperent</td>+caperent ​ |
 </tr> </tr>
 <tr id="​l1560">​ <tr id="​l1560">​
Line 3927: Line 2761:
 audiremus ​ | audiremus ​ |
 audiretis ​ | audiretis ​ |
-audirent</td>+audirent ​ |
 </tr> </tr>
 <tr id="​l1561">​ <tr id="​l1561">​
 <td colspan="​6"​ align="​center">​ <td colspan="​6"​ align="​center">​
-Subjunctive Imperfect Passive</td>+Subjunctive Imperfect Passive ​ |
 </tr> </tr>
 <tr id="​l1562">​ <tr id="​l1562">​
Line 3940: Line 2774:
 amaremur ​  | amaremur ​  |
 amaremini ​  | amaremini ​  |
-amarentur</td>+amarentur ​ |
 </tr> </tr>
 <tr id="​l1563">​ <tr id="​l1563">​
Line 3949: Line 2783:
 moneremur ​ | moneremur ​ |
 moneremini ​ | moneremini ​ |
-monerentur</td>+monerentur ​ |
 </tr> </tr>
 <tr id="​l1564">​ <tr id="​l1564">​
Line 3958: Line 2792:
 regeremur ​ | regeremur ​ |
 regeremini ​ | regeremini ​ |
-regerentur</td>+regerentur ​ |
 </tr> </tr>
 <tr id="​l1565">​ <tr id="​l1565">​
Line 3967: Line 2801:
 caperemur ​ | caperemur ​ |
 caperemini ​ | caperemini ​ |
-caperentur</td>+caperentur ​ |
 </tr> </tr>
 <tr id="​l1566">​ <tr id="​l1566">​
Line 3976: Line 2810:
 audiremur ​ | audiremur ​ |
 audiremini ​ | audiremini ​ |
-audirentur</td>+audirentur ​ |
 </tr> </tr>
  
Line 3983: Line 2817:
 </​div>​ </​div>​
 <p id="​l1568">​ <p id="​l1568">​
-<​u>​Tenses ​in Subordinate ​Clauses</​u>​+__Tenses ​in Subordinate ​Clauses__
  
  
-        <​ul>​ +    ​
 <p id="​l1569">​ <p id="​l1569">​
   primary tenses: present, future, future perfect, perfect (completed)<​p id="​l1570">​   primary tenses: present, future, future perfect, perfect (completed)<​p id="​l1570">​
Line 3993: Line 2826:
  
  
-        </​ul>​ +    ​
  
 <p id="​l1571">​ <p id="​l1571">​
Line 4000: Line 2832:
  
  
-        <​ul>​ +    ​
 <p id="​l1572">​ <p id="​l1572">​
   If the **main clause** is in **primary tenses**, the present subjunctive or the perfect subjunctive is used in the subordinate:​ I go (primary) in order that (present subjunctive)<​p id="​l1573">​   If the **main clause** is in **primary tenses**, the present subjunctive or the perfect subjunctive is used in the subordinate:​ I go (primary) in order that (present subjunctive)<​p id="​l1573">​
Line 4007: Line 2838:
  
  
-        </​ul>​ +    ​
  
  
Line 4015: Line 2845:
 <tr id="​l1575">​ <tr id="​l1575">​
 <td> <td>
-Independent Clause</td>+Independent Clause ​ |
 <td colspan="​2"​ align="​center">​ <td colspan="​2"​ align="​center">​
-Subordinate Clause</td>+Subordinate Clause ​ |
 </tr> </tr>
 <tr id="​l1576">​ <tr id="​l1576">​
Line 4024: Line 2854:
 Contemporary <br> Contemporary <br>
 Subsequent ​ | Subsequent ​ |
-Prior</td>+Prior  |
 </tr> </tr>
 <tr id="​l1577">​ <tr id="​l1577">​
Line 4030: Line 2860:
 **Primary tense**: present, future, perfect (completed),​ future perfect ​ | **Primary tense**: present, future, perfect (completed),​ future perfect ​ |
 Present Subjunctive ​ | Present Subjunctive ​ |
-Perfect Subjunctive</td>+Perfect Subjunctive ​ |
 </tr> </tr>
 <tr id="​l1578">​ <tr id="​l1578">​
Line 4036: Line 2866:
 **Secondary tense** imperfect, perfect (simple) pluperfect ​ | **Secondary tense** imperfect, perfect (simple) pluperfect ​ |
 Imperfect Subjunctive ​ | Imperfect Subjunctive ​ |
-Pluperfect Subjunctive</td>+Pluperfect Subjunctive ​ |
 </tr> </tr>
 </​table>​ </​table>​
 </​div>​ </​div>​
 <p id="​l1580">​ <p id="​l1580">​
-<​u>​Abverbial ​purpose ​clause</​u> ​//ut// subjunctive //quia// more of a logical connection; //ne// for negative purpose. Ne - is ut non.<​u>​Relative clauses</​u> ​- who, whom, why with //qui, quae, quod// or occasionally //ubi//. Paul sent the four deacons in order to see peter //paulus quattuor diaconos misit, qui petrum viderent.//<​u>​Infinitive ​of Purpose</​u> ​the infinitive may be used to express purpose: //Paulus Romam venit Petrum videre.// Paul came to Rome to see Peter.<​u>​Indirect ​Commands / Requests</​u> ​after a verb of command or request, use //ut// + subjunctive or //ut// + accusative + infinitive. //​Deprecemur Deum ut peccata nostra nobis dimittat.// Let us beseech God that he forgive our sins. //Diaconus jussit populum orare.// The deacon bade the people to pray. Verbs of command or request: postulo - ask, rogo - request, peto - petition, oro - pray, precor - ask, moneo - advise, jubeo takes only accusative + infinitive, dico takes only //ut// + subjunctive. ​+__Abverbial ​purpose ​clause__ ​//ut// subjunctive //quia// more of a logical connection; //ne// for negative purpose. Ne - is ut non.__Relative clauses__ ​- who, whom, why with //qui, quae, quod// or occasionally //ubi//. Paul sent the four deacons in order to see peter //paulus quattuor diaconos misit, qui petrum viderent.//__Infinitive ​of Purpose__ ​the infinitive may be used to express purpose: //Paulus Romam venit Petrum videre.// Paul came to Rome to see Peter.__Indirect ​Commands / Requests__ ​after a verb of command or request, use //ut// + subjunctive or //ut// + accusative + infinitive. //​Deprecemur Deum ut peccata nostra nobis dimittat.// Let us beseech God that he forgive our sins. //Diaconus jussit populum orare.// The deacon bade the people to pray. Verbs of command or request: postulo - ask, rogo - request, peto - petition, oro - pray, precor - ask, moneo - advise, jubeo takes only accusative + infinitive, dico takes only //ut// + subjunctive. ​
  
 <p id="​l1585">​ <p id="​l1585">​
Line 4054: Line 2884:
  
 <p id="​l1657">​ <p id="​l1657">​
-<​u>​Demonstrative Pronouns</​u> ​//hic//, this and //ille// that emphatic; //is// this, that, //iste// this, that (of yours) unemphatic ​+__Demonstrative Pronouns__ ​//hic//, this and //ille// that emphatic; //is// this, that, //iste// this, that (of yours) unemphatic ​
 <div class="​wikitable">​ <div class="​wikitable">​
 <table border="​1">​ <table border="​1">​
Line 4068: Line 2898:
 dat  | dat  |
 acc  | acc  |
-abl</td>+abl  |
 </tr> </tr>
 <tr id="​l1659">​ <tr id="​l1659">​
Line 4081: Line 2911:
 his  | his  |
 hos  | hos  |
-his</td>+his  |
 </tr> </tr>
 <tr id="​l1660">​ <tr id="​l1660">​
Line 4094: Line 2924:
 his  | his  |
 has  | has  |
-his</td>+his  |
 </tr> </tr>
 <tr id="​l1661">​ <tr id="​l1661">​
Line 4107: Line 2937:
 his  | his  |
 haec  | haec  |
-his</td>+his  |
 </tr> </tr>
 <tr id="​l1662">​ <tr id="​l1662">​
Line 4120: Line 2950:
 illis  | illis  |
 illos  | illos  |
-illis</td>+illis  |
 </tr> </tr>
 <tr id="​l1663">​ <tr id="​l1663">​
Line 4133: Line 2963:
 illis  | illis  |
 illas  | illas  |
-illis</td>+illis  |
 </tr> </tr>
 <tr id="​l1664">​ <tr id="​l1664">​
Line 4146: Line 2976:
 illis  | illis  |
 illa  | illa  |
-illis</td>+illis  |
 </tr> </tr>
 <tr id="​l1665">​ <tr id="​l1665">​
Line 4159: Line 2989:
 eis  | eis  |
 eos  | eos  |
-eis</td>+eis  |
 </tr> </tr>
 <tr id="​l1666">​ <tr id="​l1666">​
Line 4172: Line 3002:
 eis  | eis  |
 eas  | eas  |
-eis</td>+eis  |
 </tr> </tr>
 <tr id="​l1667">​ <tr id="​l1667">​
Line 4185: Line 3015:
 eis  | eis  |
 ea  | ea  |
-eis</td>+eis  |
 </tr> </tr>
 <tr id="​l1668">​ <tr id="​l1668">​
Line 4198: Line 3028:
 istis  | istis  |
 istos  | istos  |
-istis</td>+istis  |
 </tr> </tr>
 <tr id="​l1669">​ <tr id="​l1669">​
Line 4211: Line 3041:
 istis  | istis  |
 istas  | istas  |
-istis</td>+istis  |
 </tr> </tr>
 <tr id="​l1670">​ <tr id="​l1670">​
Line 4224: Line 3054:
 istis  | istis  |
 ista  | ista  |
-istis</td>+istis  |
 </tr> </tr>
  
Line 4231: Line 3061:
 </​div>​ </​div>​
 <p id="​l1672">​ <p id="​l1672">​
-<​u>​Result Clauses</​u> ​Main clause introduces with //talis, tale// such, //tantus, a, um// so, so great, //ita// so, thus, //sic// so, thus //tam// so, to such a degree. Translated = that...+__Result Clauses__ ​Main clause introduces with //talis, tale// such, //tantus, a, um// so, so great, //ita// so, thus, //sic// so, thus //tam// so, to such a degree. Translated = that...
  
  
Line 4256: Line 3086:
 ===Unit 24 Ipse and Gerundives=== ===Unit 24 Ipse and Gerundives===
 <p id="​l1717">​ <p id="​l1717">​
-<​u>​Present Subjunctive</​u> ​of go //eo: eam eas eat eamus eatis eant// ; and wish //volo: velim, velis, velit, velimus, velitis, velint.// ​+__Present Subjunctive__ ​of go //eo: eam eas eat eamus eatis eant// ; and wish //volo: velim, velis, velit, velimus, velitis, velint.// ​
  
 <p id="​l1719">​ <p id="​l1719">​
-<​u>​Intensive ​pronoun/​adjective:​ //ipse//</​u> ​e.g. myself ​+__Intensive ​pronoun/​adjective:​ //ipse//__ e.g. myself ​
 <div class="​wikitable">​ <div class="​wikitable">​
 <table border="​1">​ <table border="​1">​
Line 4273: Line 3103:
 ipsis  | ipsis  |
 ipsos  | ipsos  |
-ipsis</td>+ipsis  |
 </tr> </tr>
 <tr id="​l1721">​ <tr id="​l1721">​
Line 4286: Line 3116:
 ipsis  | ipsis  |
 ipsas  | ipsas  |
-ipsis</td>+ipsis  |
 </tr> </tr>
 <tr id="​l1722">​ <tr id="​l1722">​
Line 4299: Line 3129:
 ipsis  | ipsis  |
 ipsa  | ipsa  |
-ipsis</td>+ipsis  |
 </tr> </tr>
 </​table>​ </​table>​
Line 4306: Line 3136:
  
 <p id="​l1725">​ <p id="​l1725">​
-<​u>​Present Contrafactual</​u> ​If x were, y would. //Si paulus esset hic, felices essemus.// If paul were here, we would be happy. The protasis is in the imperfect conditional,​ and the apodosis may be as well. +__Present Contrafactual__ ​If x were, y would. //Si paulus esset hic, felices essemus.// If paul were here, we would be happy. The protasis is in the imperfect conditional,​ and the apodosis may be as well. 
  
 <p id="​l1727">​ <p id="​l1727">​
-<​u>​Gerundive</​u> ​The future passive participle //-ndus// can be a verbal adjective modifying anything but nominative (which is passive periphrastic). Latin has passive contruction where english prefers the active: //Petro erat desiderium Pauli videndi// Peter is desirous of seeing paul. //Joannes venit ad populum baptizandum.//​ John came to baptize the people. Can use //ad// or //causa// to construct a purpose clause.<​u>​Gerunds</​u> ​are neuter singular of the gerund used substantively with active meaning. translated ...ing. //orandi// of praying //orando// for praying //orandum// praying //orando// by praying. //Jesus in montem subivit ad orandum//. Jesus went up into the mountain to pray (for praying). ​+__Gerundive__ ​The future passive participle //-ndus// can be a verbal adjective modifying anything but nominative (which is passive periphrastic). Latin has passive contruction where english prefers the active: //Petro erat desiderium Pauli videndi// Peter is desirous of seeing paul. //Joannes venit ad populum baptizandum.//​ John came to baptize the people. Can use //ad// or //causa// to construct a purpose clause.__Gerunds__ ​are neuter singular of the gerund used substantively with active meaning. translated ...ing. //orandi// of praying //orando// for praying //orandum// praying //orando// by praying. //Jesus in montem subivit ad orandum//. Jesus went up into the mountain to pray (for praying). ​
  
 <p id="​l1730">​ <p id="​l1730">​
Line 4326: Line 3156:
 laudavissemus ​ | laudavissemus ​ |
 laudavissetis ​ | laudavissetis ​ |
-laudavissent</td>+laudavissent ​ |
 </tr> </tr>
 <tr id="​l1781">​ <tr id="​l1781">​
Line 4335: Line 3165:
 monuissemus ​ | monuissemus ​ |
 monuissetis ​ | monuissetis ​ |
-monuissent</td>+monuissent ​ |
 </tr> </tr>
 <tr id="​l1782">​ <tr id="​l1782">​
Line 4344: Line 3174:
 duxissemus ​ | duxissemus ​ |
 duxissetis ​ | duxissetis ​ |
-duxissent</td>+duxissent ​ |
 </tr> </tr>
 <tr id="​l1783">​ <tr id="​l1783">​
Line 4353: Line 3183:
 cepissemus ​ | cepissemus ​ |
 cepissetis ​ | cepissetis ​ |
-cepissent</td>+cepissent ​ |
 </tr> </tr>
 <tr id="​l1784">​ <tr id="​l1784">​
Line 4362: Line 3192:
 audivissemus ​ | audivissemus ​ |
 audivissetis ​ | audivissetis ​ |
-audivissent</td>+audivissent ​ |
 </tr> </tr>
 <tr id="​l1785">​ <tr id="​l1785">​
Line 4371: Line 3201:
 issemus ​ | issemus ​ |
 issetis ​ | issetis ​ |
-issent</td>+issent ​ |
 </tr> </tr>
 </​table>​ </​table>​
Line 4378: Line 3208:
  
 <p id="​l1789">​ <p id="​l1789">​
-<​u>​Conditional Clauses</​u> ​Past contrafactal 'if I had known you were sick (but I did not), I would have... In latin use pluperfect subjunctive in the protasis, the apososis (main clause) may use pluperfect subjunctive as well. If ... had ... would have .... //Si paulus fuisset hic, felices fuissemus.//​ If paul had been here, we would have been happy.<​u>​Fearing</​u> ​Verb of fear uses ne (for want you don't want) and ut (for what which wish, but don't think is happening). Both use subjunctive. //Paulus timet ne Romani Petrum interfecturi sint// Paul fears that the Romans will kill Peter. //Paulus timuit ut Corinthii essent fideles.// Paul feared the Corinthians were not being faithful.<​u>​Unattainable Wishes</​u> ​Attainable wishes uses present subjunctive,​ but unattainable wishes use imperfect or pluperfect subjunctive frequently with //utinam.//+__Conditional Clauses__ ​Past contrafactal 'if I had known you were sick (but I did not), I would have... In latin use pluperfect subjunctive in the protasis, the apososis (main clause) may use pluperfect subjunctive as well. If ... had ... would have .... //Si paulus fuisset hic, felices fuissemus.//​ If paul had been here, we would have been happy.__Fearing__ ​Verb of fear uses ne (for want you don't want) and ut (for what which wish, but don't think is happening). Both use subjunctive. //Paulus timet ne Romani Petrum interfecturi sint// Paul fears that the Romans will kill Peter. //Paulus timuit ut Corinthii essent fideles.// Paul feared the Corinthians were not being faithful.__Unattainable Wishes__ ​Attainable wishes uses present subjunctive,​ but unattainable wishes use imperfect or pluperfect subjunctive frequently with //utinam.//
  
  
-    <ul> 
  
 <p id="​l1792">​ <p id="​l1792">​
Line 4388: Line 3217:
  
  
-    </ul> 
  
  
Line 4408: Line 3236:
 laudaverimus ​ | laudaverimus ​ |
 laudaveritis ​ | laudaveritis ​ |
-laudaverint</td>+laudaverint ​ |
 </tr> </tr>
 <tr id="​l1828">​ <tr id="​l1828">​
Line 4417: Line 3245:
 monuerimus ​ | monuerimus ​ |
 monueritis ​ | monueritis ​ |
-monuerirint</td>+monuerirint ​ |
 </tr> </tr>
 <tr id="​l1829">​ <tr id="​l1829">​
Line 4426: Line 3254:
 duxerimus ​ | duxerimus ​ |
 duxeritis ​ | duxeritis ​ |
-duxerint</td>+duxerint ​ |
 </tr> </tr>
 <tr id="​l1830">​ <tr id="​l1830">​
Line 4435: Line 3263:
 ceperimus ​ | ceperimus ​ |
 ceperitis ​ | ceperitis ​ |
-ceperint</td>+ceperint ​ |
 </tr> </tr>
 <tr id="​l1831">​ <tr id="​l1831">​
Line 4444: Line 3272:
 audiverimus ​ | audiverimus ​ |
 audiveritis ​ | audiveritis ​ |
-audiverint</td>+audiverint ​ |
 </tr> </tr>
 <tr id="​l1832">​ <tr id="​l1832">​
Line 4453: Line 3281:
 fuerimus ​ | fuerimus ​ |
 fueritis ​ | fueritis ​ |
-fuerint</td>+fuerint ​ |
 </tr> </tr>
 <tr id="​l1833">​ <tr id="​l1833">​
 <td colspan="​6"​ align="​center">​ <td colspan="​6"​ align="​center">​
-Passive</td>+Passive ​ |
 </tr> </tr>
 <tr id="​l1834">​ <tr id="​l1834">​
Line 4466: Line 3294:
  ​laudati simus  |  ​laudati simus  |
  ​laudati sitis  |  ​laudati sitis  |
- ​laudati sint</td>+ ​laudati sint  |
 </tr> </tr>
 </​table>​ </​table>​
 </​div>​ </​div>​
 <p id="​l1836">​ <p id="​l1836">​
-<​u>​Direct ​Questions:</u>+__Direct ​Questions:__
  
  
Line 4488: Line 3316:
  
 <p id="​l1839">​ <p id="​l1839">​
-<​u>​Indirect ​Questions:</​u> ​may be introduced by //si// or any other interrogative pronoun, adjective or adverb. It may take the subjunctive or the original indicative: //Quare Paulus Romam iit?// Why did paul go to rome? may be subjunctive:​ //​Discipulus rogat quare paulus romam ierit?// or in the indicative //​Discipulus rogat quare paulus romam iit?//<u>//Donec, Dum// while, as long as, until</​u> ​Context determines whether simultaneous or subsequent time is intended: //Donec (dum) paulus rediit, fratres erant maesti// Until paul returned, his brothers were sad. //Donec (dum) vita est, spes est.// While there is life, there is hope.<​u>​Interrogative ​Pronoun: //quis, quid// who what</​u> ​+__Indirect ​Questions:__ may be introduced by //si// or any other interrogative pronoun, adjective or adverb. It may take the subjunctive or the original indicative: //Quare Paulus Romam iit?// Why did paul go to rome? may be subjunctive:​ //​Discipulus rogat quare paulus romam ierit?// or in the indicative //​Discipulus rogat quare paulus romam iit?//__//Donec, Dum// while, as long as, until__ ​Context determines whether simultaneous or subsequent time is intended: //Donec (dum) paulus rediit, fratres erant maesti// Until paul returned, his brothers were sad. //Donec (dum) vita est, spes est.// While there is life, there is hope.__Interrogative ​Pronoun: //quis, quid// who what__ ​
 <div class="​wikitable">​ <div class="​wikitable">​
 <table border="​1">​ <table border="​1">​
Line 4498: Line 3326:
 cui  | cui  |
 quem  | quem  |
-quo</td>+quo  |
 </tr> </tr>
 <tr id="​l1843">​ <tr id="​l1843">​
Line 4507: Line 3335:
    |    |
 quid   | quid   |
- </​td>​+   |
 </tr> </tr>
 <tr id="​l1844">​ <tr id="​l1844">​
Line 4516: Line 3344:
 for/to what/​whom ​ | for/to what/​whom ​ |
 who/​what ​ | who/​what ​ |
-from/​with/​in/​by who/what</td>+from/​with/​in/​by who/​what ​ |
 </tr> </tr>
 </​table>​ </​table>​
Line 4533: Line 3361:
    |    |
  ​comparative add //​-ior// ​  |  ​comparative add //​-ior// ​  |
- ​superlative add -issim-</td>+ ​superlative add -issim- ​ |
 </tr> </tr>
 <tr id="​l1889">​ <tr id="​l1889">​
Line 4539: Line 3367:
    |    |
 like 3rd declension ​  | like 3rd declension ​  |
- like 1st / 2nd declension</td>+ like 1st / 2nd declension ​ |
 </tr> </tr>
 <tr id="​l1890">​ <tr id="​l1890">​
Line 4545: Line 3373:
 beatus ​ | beatus ​ |
 beatior ​ | beatior ​ |
-beatissimus</td>+beatissimus ​ |
 </tr> </tr>
 <tr id="​l1891">​ <tr id="​l1891">​
Line 4551: Line 3379:
 beati  | beati  |
 beatioris ​ | beatioris ​ |
-beatissimi</td>+beatissimi ​ |
 </tr> </tr>
 <tr id="​l1892">​ <tr id="​l1892">​
Line 4557: Line 3385:
 beato  | beato  |
 beatiori ​ | beatiori ​ |
-beatissimo</td>+beatissimo ​ |
 </tr> </tr>
 <tr id="​l1893">​ <tr id="​l1893">​
Line 4563: Line 3391:
 beatum ​ | beatum ​ |
 beatiorem ​ | beatiorem ​ |
-beatissimum</td>+beatissimum ​ |
 </tr> </tr>
 <tr id="​l1894">​ <tr id="​l1894">​
Line 4569: Line 3397:
 beato  | beato  |
 beatiore ​ | beatiore ​ |
-beatissimo</td>+beatissimo ​ |
 </tr> </tr>
 <tr id="​l1895">​ <tr id="​l1895">​
Line 4575: Line 3403:
 beati  | beati  |
 beatiores ​ | beatiores ​ |
-beatissimi</td>+beatissimi ​ |
 </tr> </tr>
 <tr id="​l1896">​ <tr id="​l1896">​
Line 4581: Line 3409:
 beatorum ​ | beatorum ​ |
 beatiorum ​ | beatiorum ​ |
-beatissimorum</td>+beatissimorum ​ |
 </tr> </tr>
 <tr id="​l1897">​ <tr id="​l1897">​
Line 4587: Line 3415:
 beatis ​ | beatis ​ |
 beatioribus ​ | beatioribus ​ |
-beatissimis</td>+beatissimis ​ |
 </tr> </tr>
 <tr id="​l1898">​ <tr id="​l1898">​
Line 4593: Line 3421:
 beatos ​ | beatos ​ |
 beatiores ​ | beatiores ​ |
-beatissimos</td>+beatissimos ​ |
 </tr> </tr>
 <tr id="​l1899">​ <tr id="​l1899">​
Line 4599: Line 3427:
 beatis ​ | beatis ​ |
 beatioribus ​ | beatioribus ​ |
-beatissimis</td>+beatissimis ​ |
 </tr> </tr>
 </​table>​ </​table>​
Line 4612: Line 3440:
 bonus  | bonus  |
 melior ​ | melior ​ |
-optimus</td>+optimus ​ |
 </tr> </tr>
 <tr id="​l1903">​ <tr id="​l1903">​
Line 4619: Line 3447:
 malus  | malus  |
 pejor  | pejor  |
-pessimus</td>+pessimus ​ |
 </tr> </tr>
 <tr id="​l1904">​ <tr id="​l1904">​
Line 4626: Line 3454:
 magnus ​ | magnus ​ |
 major  | major  |
-maximus</td>+maximus ​ |
 </tr> </tr>
 <tr id="​l1905">​ <tr id="​l1905">​
Line 4633: Line 3461:
 multus ​ | multus ​ |
 plus  | plus  |
-plurimus</td>+plurimus ​ |
 </tr> </tr>
 <tr id="​l1906">​ <tr id="​l1906">​
Line 4640: Line 3468:
 parvus ​ | parvus ​ |
 minor  | minor  |
-minimus</td>+minimus ​ |
 </tr> </tr>
 <tr id="​l1907">​ <tr id="​l1907">​
Line 4647: Line 3475:
 prope(adv) ​ | prope(adv) ​ |
 propior ​ | propior ​ |
-proximus</td>+proximus ​ |
 </tr> </tr>
 <tr id="​l1908">​ <tr id="​l1908">​
Line 4654: Line 3482:
 prae, pro(prep) ​ | prae, pro(prep) ​ |
 prior  | prior  |
-primus</td>+primus ​ |
 </tr> </tr>
 <tr id="​l1909">​ <tr id="​l1909">​
Line 4661: Line 3489:
 superus ​ | superus ​ |
 superior ​ | superior ​ |
-supremus</td>+supremus ​ |
 </tr> </tr>
 </​table>​ </​table>​
Line 4672: Line 3500:
 ===Unit 28 Reflexive Adjectives & Pronouns=== ===Unit 28 Reflexive Adjectives & Pronouns===
 <p id="​l1930">​ <p id="​l1930">​
-<​u>​SuusSui</​u> ​An adjective or pronoun referring to the subject is reflexive. In the first and second person, they are the same as the first and second pronouns. //ego diligo me// I love myself. //tu diligis te// you love yourself. In the third person, the adjective suus -a -um serves, and the pronoun sui (gen), sibi (dat), se (acc and abl). for singular and plural. So //hic diligit se// he loves himself; //vidit suos fratres// he saw his own brothers.<​u>​Partly ​Irregular ​Adjectives</​u> ​Some adjectives follow the demonstrative pronouns with -ius in gen.s and -i in dat.s: ​+__SuusSui__ An adjective or pronoun referring to the subject is reflexive. In the first and second person, they are the same as the first and second pronouns. //ego diligo me// I love myself. //tu diligis te// you love yourself. In the third person, the adjective suus -a -um serves, and the pronoun sui (gen), sibi (dat), se (acc and abl). for singular and plural. So //hic diligit se// he loves himself; //vidit suos fratres// he saw his own brothers.__Partly ​Irregular ​Adjectives__ ​Some adjectives follow the demonstrative pronouns with -ius in gen.s and -i in dat.s: ​
 <div class="​wikitable">​ <div class="​wikitable">​
 <table border="​1">​ <table border="​1">​
Line 4680: Line 3508:
 other  | other  |
  ​alius ​ |  ​alius ​ |
- ali</td>+ ​ali ​ |
 </tr> </tr>
 <tr id="​l1933">​ <tr id="​l1933">​
Line 4687: Line 3515:
 one  | one  |
  ​unius ​ |  ​unius ​ |
- uni</td>+ ​uni ​ |
 </tr> </tr>
 <tr id="​l1934">​ <tr id="​l1934">​
Line 4694: Line 3522:
  the other  |  the other  |
 alterius ​ | alterius ​ |
- ​alteri</td>+ ​alteri ​ |
 </tr> </tr>
 <tr id="​l1935">​ <tr id="​l1935">​
Line 4701: Line 3529:
 not any  | not any  |
 nullius ​ | nullius ​ |
-nulli</td>+nulli  |
 </tr> </tr>
 <tr id="​l1936">​ <tr id="​l1936">​
Line 4708: Line 3536:
 only, alone  | only, alone  |
  ​solius ​ |  ​solius ​ |
-soli</td>+soli  |
 </tr> </tr>
 <tr id="​l1937">​ <tr id="​l1937">​
Line 4715: Line 3543:
 all, the whole  | all, the whole  |
 totius ​ | totius ​ |
-toti</td>+toti  |
 </tr> </tr>
 </​table>​ </​table>​
 </​div>​ </​div>​
-<​u>​Comparison ​of Adverbs</​u> ​Positive adverbs are formed from adjectives: ​+__Comparison ​of Adverbs__ ​Positive adverbs are formed from adjectives: ​
 <div class="​wikitable">​ <div class="​wikitable">​
 <table border="​1">​ <table border="​1">​
Line 4727: Line 3555:
 Adverb ​ | Adverb ​ |
 comparative adverb ​ | comparative adverb ​ |
-superlative adverb</td>+superlative adverb ​ |
 </tr> </tr>
 <tr id="​l1940">​ <tr id="​l1940">​
Line 4734: Line 3562:
 -e  | -e  |
 neuter acc.s  | neuter acc.s  |
--issime</td>+-issime ​ |
 </tr> </tr>
 <tr id="​l1941">​ <tr id="​l1941">​
Line 4741: Line 3569:
 apte  | apte  |
 aptius ​ | aptius ​ |
-aptissime</td>+aptissime ​ |
 </tr> </tr>
 <tr id="​l1942">​ <tr id="​l1942">​
Line 4748: Line 3576:
 -iter  | -iter  |
 neuter acc.s  | neuter acc.s  |
--issime</td>+-issime ​ |
 </tr> </tr>
 <tr id="​l1943">​ <tr id="​l1943">​
Line 4755: Line 3583:
 suaviter ​ | suaviter ​ |
 suavius ​ | suavius ​ |
-suavissime</td>+suavissime ​ |
 </tr> </tr>
 </​table>​ </​table>​
 </​div>​ </​div>​
-<​u>​Cum clauses</​u> ​using cum with the subjunctive. The concessive especially requires context for translation. ​+__Cum clauses__ ​using cum with the subjunctive. The concessive especially requires context for translation. ​
 <div class="​wikitable">​ <div class="​wikitable">​
 <table border="​1">​ <table border="​1">​
Line 4766: Line 3594:
 Temporal ​ | Temporal ​ |
 Cum Jesus docet  | Cum Jesus docet  |
-while Jesus was teaching</td>+while Jesus was teaching ​ |
 </tr> </tr>
 <tr id="​l1946">​ <tr id="​l1946">​
Line 4772: Line 3600:
 Temporal-Circumstantial ​ | Temporal-Circumstantial ​ |
 Cum Jesus doceret ​ | Cum Jesus doceret ​ |
-under the circumstances when Jesus was teaching</td>+under the circumstances when Jesus was teaching ​ |
 </tr> </tr>
 <tr id="​l1947">​ <tr id="​l1947">​
Line 4778: Line 3606:
 Causal ​ | Causal ​ |
 Cum vir esset felix  | Cum vir esset felix  |
-since the man was happy</td>+since the man was happy  |
 </tr> </tr>
 <tr id="​l1948">​ <tr id="​l1948">​
Line 4784: Line 3612:
 Concessive ​ | Concessive ​ |
 Cum viri male haberent (tamen) ​ | Cum viri male haberent (tamen) ​ |
-Although the men were sick (nevertheless)</td>+Although the men were sick (nevertheless) ​ |
 </tr> </tr>
  
Line 4795: Line 3623:
 ===Unit 29 Indefinite Pronouns & Adjectives=== ===Unit 29 Indefinite Pronouns & Adjectives===
 <p id="​l1970">​ <p id="​l1970">​
-<​u>​Indefinite ​Pronouns & Adjectives</​u> ​quis; aliquis; aliqui, etc. quis, quid can be used indefinitely in the following ways:+__Indefinite ​Pronouns & Adjectives__ ​quis; aliquis; aliqui, etc. quis, quid can be used indefinitely in the following ways:
  
  
-    <ul> 
  
     <li>     <li>
Line 4808: Line 3635:
 </li> </li>
  
-    </ul> 
  
  
 <p id="​l1973">​ <p id="​l1973">​
-<​u>​qui, quae, quod</​u> ​who, which can be used as follows.+__qui, quae, quod__ ​who, which can be used as follows.
  
  
-    <ul> 
  
     <li>     <li>
Line 4827: Line 3652:
 </li> </li>
  
-    </ul> 
  
  
 <p id="​l1978">​ <p id="​l1978">​
-<​u>​Dative ​of Purpose; Double ​Dative</​u> ​Dative may be used to express purpose: This one holds me 'to hate': //Hic odio me habet//. The dative of purpose can be combined with the dative of reference for a double dative: Jesus is for us for salvation: //Jesus est saluti nobis//​. ​+__Dative ​of Purpose; Double ​Dative__ ​Dative may be used to express purpose: This one holds me 'to hate': //Hic odio me habet//. The dative of purpose can be combined with the dative of reference for a double dative: Jesus is for us for salvation: //Jesus est saluti nobis//​. ​
  
 <p id="​l1980">​ <p id="​l1980">​
Line 4841: Line 3665:
 Time  | Time  |
 cum, ubi, ut, quando, when; simul atque (ac), as soon as; postquam, after  | cum, ubi, ut, quando, when; simul atque (ac), as soon as; postquam, after  |
-indicative only</td>+indicative only  |
 </tr> </tr>
 <tr id="​l1982">​ <tr id="​l1982">​
Line 4847: Line 3671:
    |    |
 -cumque can be suffixed to ubi, ut or quando to make indefinite: whenever ​ | -cumque can be suffixed to ubi, ut or quando to make indefinite: whenever ​ |
- </​td>​+   |
 </tr> </tr>
 <tr id="​l1983">​ <tr id="​l1983">​
Line 4853: Line 3677:
    |    |
 antequam, priusquam, before; dum, donec, while, until  | antequam, priusquam, before; dum, donec, while, until  |
-indicative or subjunctive</td>+indicative or subjunctive ​ |
 </tr> </tr>
 <tr id="​l1984">​ <tr id="​l1984">​
Line 4859: Line 3683:
    |    |
 cum - under the circumstances when  | cum - under the circumstances when  |
-subjunctive only</td>+subjunctive only  |
 </tr> </tr>
 <tr id="​l1985">​ <tr id="​l1985">​
Line 4865: Line 3689:
 Cause  | Cause  |
 quia, quoniam, quod: because ​ | quia, quoniam, quod: because ​ |
-indicative for actual cause; subjunctive for actual or alleged cause</td>+indicative for actual cause; subjunctive for actual or alleged cause  |
 </tr> </tr>
 <tr id="​l1986">​ <tr id="​l1986">​
Line 4871: Line 3695:
 concession ​ | concession ​ |
 etsi, licet, quamquam, although ​ | etsi, licet, quamquam, although ​ |
-indicative or subjunctive</td>+indicative or subjunctive ​ |
 </tr> </tr>
 <tr id="​l1987">​ <tr id="​l1987">​
Line 4877: Line 3701:
    |    |
 cum, although ​ | cum, although ​ |
-subjunctive only</td>+subjunctive only  |
 </tr> </tr>
 <tr id="​l1988">​ <tr id="​l1988">​
Line 4883: Line 3707:
 ablative absolute ​ | ablative absolute ​ |
 participle & ablative - for time cause or consession ​ | participle & ablative - for time cause or consession ​ |
- </​td>​+   |
 </tr> </tr>
  
Line 4894: Line 3718:
 ===Unit 30 Present Infinitives / Indirect Statements=== ===Unit 30 Present Infinitives / Indirect Statements===
 <p id="​l2001">​ <p id="​l2001">​
-<​u>​Present Infinitives</​u> ​Second principle part is an pa.infinitive. Passive infinitives end in -i, first second and fourth are the same, the 3rd uses the verb stem, as in //duci, capi//.<​u>​Negative ​Direct ​Commands</​u> ​Negative particle with infinitive, subjunctive or indicative.+__Present Infinitives__ ​Second principle part is an pa.infinitive. Passive infinitives end in -i, first second and fourth are the same, the 3rd uses the verb stem, as in //duci, capi//.__Negative ​Direct ​Commands__ ​Negative particle with infinitive, subjunctive or indicative.
  
  
-    <ul> 
  
     <li>     <li>
Line 4909: Line 3732:
 </li> </li>
  
-    </ul> 
  
  
 <p id="​l2006">​ <p id="​l2006">​
-<​u>​Indirect ​Statements: Subject Accusative & Present ​Infinitive</​u> ​Indirect statements can take //quod, quia, quoniam// with subjunctive or indicative, OR the subject accusative with infinitive. The introductory clause has a verb of saying, knowing or thinking. The subject accusative is //always// expressed with a noun or pronoun; if it is the subject of the main clause, reflexive is used.+__Indirect ​Statements: Subject Accusative & Present ​Infinitive__ ​Indirect statements can take //quod, quia, quoniam// with subjunctive or indicative, OR the subject accusative with infinitive. The introductory clause has a verb of saying, knowing or thinking. The subject accusative is //always// expressed with a noun or pronoun; if it is the subject of the main clause, reflexive is used.
  
  
-    <ul> 
  
     <li>     <li>
Line 4928: Line 3749:
 </li> </li>
  
-    </ul> 
  
  
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 ===Unit 31 Perfect Infinitives=== ===Unit 31 Perfect Infinitives===
 <p id="​l2016">​ <p id="​l2016">​
-<​u>​Perfect Infinitives</​u> ​to have praised, warned, led, etc. It is formed with the perfect stem and -isse. It is like the pluperfect subjunctive without the personal endings. ​+__Perfect Infinitives__ ​to have praised, warned, led, etc. It is formed with the perfect stem and -isse. It is like the pluperfect subjunctive without the personal endings. ​
 <div class="​wikitable">​ <div class="​wikitable">​
 <table border="​1">​ <table border="​1">​
Line 4943: Line 3763:
 laudavi ​ | laudavi ​ |
 laudav+isse ​ | laudav+isse ​ |
-laudavisse</td>+laudavisse ​ |
 </tr> </tr>
 <tr id="​l2018">​ <tr id="​l2018">​
Line 4949: Line 3769:
 monui  | monui  |
 monu+isse ​ | monu+isse ​ |
-monuisse</td>+monuisse ​ |
 </tr> </tr>
 <tr id="​l2019">​ <tr id="​l2019">​
Line 4955: Line 3775:
 duxi  | duxi  |
 dux+isse ​ | dux+isse ​ |
-duxisse</td>+duxisse ​ |
 </tr> </tr>
 <tr id="​l2020">​ <tr id="​l2020">​
Line 4961: Line 3781:
 cepi  | cepi  |
 cep+isse ​ | cep+isse ​ |
-cepisse</td>+cepisse ​ |
 </tr> </tr>
 <tr id="​l2021">​ <tr id="​l2021">​
Line 4967: Line 3787:
 audivi ​ | audivi ​ |
 audiv+isse ​ | audiv+isse ​ |
-audivisse</td>+audivisse ​ |
 </tr> </tr>
 <tr id="​l2022">​ <tr id="​l2022">​
Line 4973: Line 3793:
 fui  | fui  |
 fu+isse ​ | fu+isse ​ |
-fuisse</td>+fuisse ​ |
 </tr> </tr>
 <tr id="​l2023">​ <tr id="​l2023">​
Line 4979: Line 3799:
 potui  | potui  |
 potu+isse ​ | potu+isse ​ |
-potuisse</td>+potuisse ​ |
 </tr> </tr>
 <tr id="​l2024">​ <tr id="​l2024">​
Line 4985: Line 3805:
 volui  | volui  |
 volu+isse ​ | volu+isse ​ |
-voluisse</td>+voluisse ​ |
 </tr> </tr>
 <tr id="​l2025">​ <tr id="​l2025">​
Line 4991: Line 3811:
 ii  | ii  |
 i+isse ​ | i+isse ​ |
-isse</td>+isse  |
 </tr> </tr>
 <tr id="​l2026">​ <tr id="​l2026">​
Line 4997: Line 3817:
 ivi  | ivi  |
 iv+isse ​ | iv+isse ​ |
-ivisse</td>+ivisse ​ |
 </tr> </tr>
 </​table>​ </​table>​
 </​div>​ </​div>​
-Passive uses the 4th principle part with esse: laudatus, a, um esse, to have been praised.Note:​ Many compound verbs take the dative rather than the accusative.<​u>​Indirect ​Statement: Subject accusative and perfect ​infinitive</​u>​+Passive uses the 4th principle part with esse: laudatus, a, um esse, to have been praised.Note:​ Many compound verbs take the dative rather than the accusative.__Indirect ​Statement: Subject accusative and perfect ​infinitive__
  
  
-    <ul> 
  
 <p id="​l2030">​ <p id="​l2030">​
Line 5012: Line 3831:
  
  
-    </ul> 
  
  
 <p id="​l2033">​ <p id="​l2033">​
-<​u>​Predicate Genitive</​u> ​trait or action characteristic of a certain type of person.Diligere et Deum et vicinum est boni Christiani - To love god and neighbor is [characteristic] of a good christian.Petrus erat magnae fidei - Peter was [a man] of great faith.<​u>​Conditional Relative</​u>​Relative ​pronoun or adjective in a conditional construction as a general condition.Quodcumquae minimis feceris mihi facies. Whatever you do to the least, you do to me.Qui vicinum diligit, me diligit. Whoever loves the neighbor, loves me.**Exercises**1. Ait (3s perf.ai) autem: Quid enim mali (pred.gen.s) fecit (3s perf.ai)? At illi (dat.s) magis (adv) clamabant (3pl imp.ai) dicentes (pa.ppl) crucifigatur (3s ppi)2. Qui credit (3s pai) in Filium (acc.s), habet (3s pai) vitam (acc.s) aeternam; qui autem incredulus (n.s) est (3s pai) filio (dat.s), non videbit (3s fut.ai) vitam (acc.s), sed ira (n.s) dei (gen.s) manet (3s pai) super eum (acc.s). ​+__Predicate Genitive__ ​trait or action characteristic of a certain type of person.Diligere et Deum et vicinum est boni Christiani - To love god and neighbor is [characteristic] of a good christian.Petrus erat magnae fidei - Peter was [a man] of great faith.__Conditional Relative__Relative ​pronoun or adjective in a conditional construction as a general condition.Quodcumquae minimis feceris mihi facies. Whatever you do to the least, you do to me.Qui vicinum diligit, me diligit. Whoever loves the neighbor, loves me.**Exercises**1. Ait (3s perf.ai) autem: Quid enim mali (pred.gen.s) fecit (3s perf.ai)? At illi (dat.s) magis (adv) clamabant (3pl imp.ai) dicentes (pa.ppl) crucifigatur (3s ppi)2. Qui credit (3s pai) in Filium (acc.s), habet (3s pai) vitam (acc.s) aeternam; qui autem incredulus (n.s) est (3s pai) filio (dat.s), non videbit (3s fut.ai) vitam (acc.s), sed ira (n.s) dei (gen.s) manet (3s pai) super eum (acc.s). ​
  
 ===Unit 32 Future Active Infinitive=== ===Unit 32 Future Active Infinitive===
 <p id="​l2044">​ <p id="​l2044">​
-<​u>​Future ​Active ​Infinitive</​u> ​is the future active participle +esselaturus,​a,​um esse; moniturus, a um esse; ducturus, a, um esse; capturus, a um esse; auditurus, a, um esse. Identical in form to the periphrastic.+__Future ​Active ​Infinitive__ ​is the future active participle +esselaturus,​a,​um esse; moniturus, a um esse; ducturus, a, um esse; capturus, a um esse; auditurus, a, um esse. Identical in form to the periphrastic.
  
  
-    <ul> 
  
 <p id="​l2046">​ <p id="​l2046">​
Line 5031: Line 3848:
  
  
-    </ul> 
  
  
 <p id="​l2049">​ <p id="​l2049">​
-<​u>​Indirect Reflexives</​u> ​a reflexive pronoun in a subordinate construction may refer to the subject of the main clause. Paulus subito audivit virum loquentem sibi. Paul suddenly heard a man speaking to him.<​u>​Expression ​of Purpose</​u>​+__Indirect Reflexives__ ​a reflexive pronoun in a subordinate construction may refer to the subject of the main clause. Paulus subito audivit virum loquentem sibi. Paul suddenly heard a man speaking to him.__Expression ​of Purpose__
  
  
Line 5064: Line 3880:
 ===Unit 33  Irregular Verb=== ===Unit 33  Irregular Verb===
 <p id="​l2064">​ <p id="​l2064">​
-<​u>​Fero ​ferre, tuli, latus</​u> ​bring, bear carry +__Fero ​ferre, tuli, latus__ ​bring, bear carry 
 <div class="​wikitable">​ <div class="​wikitable">​
 <table border="​1">​ <table border="​1">​
Line 5075: Line 3891:
 ferimus ​ | ferimus ​ |
 fertis ​ | fertis ​ |
-ferunt</td>+ferunt ​ |
 </tr> </tr>
 <tr id="​l2066">​ <tr id="​l2066">​
Line 5085: Line 3901:
 ferimur ​ | ferimur ​ |
 ferimini ​ | ferimini ​ |
-feruntur</td>+feruntur ​ |
 </tr> </tr>
 </​table>​ </​table>​
 </​div>​ </​div>​
-Imperative: fer! ferte!<​u>​Ablative ​of time when or time within, duration ​which</​u> ​Ablative, with or without the preposition //in//: In illo tempore Jesus in Galilaea praedicabat:​ In that time / at that time / within that time, Jesus was preaching in Galilee. Quinque diebus mulier furat inferma: for five days, the woman had been sick.<​u>​Accusative ​of Extent of Time or Space</​u> ​Paulus mansit ibi dies paucos: Paul stayed there for a few days.<​u>​Summary ​of Conditional ​Clauses</​u>​+Imperative: fer! ferte!__Ablative ​of time when or time within, duration ​which__ ​Ablative, with or without the preposition //in//: In illo tempore Jesus in Galilaea praedicabat:​ In that time / at that time / within that time, Jesus was preaching in Galilee. Quinque diebus mulier furat inferma: for five days, the woman had been sick.__Accusative ​of Extent of Time or Space__ ​Paulus mansit ibi dies paucos: Paul stayed there for a few days.__Summary ​of Conditional ​Clauses__
  
  
Line 5165: Line 3981:
 fimus  | fimus  |
 fitis  | fitis  |
-fiunt</td>+fiunt  |
 </tr> </tr>
 <tr id="​l2083">​ <tr id="​l2083">​
Line 5175: Line 3991:
 fiebamus ​ | fiebamus ​ |
 fiebatis ​ | fiebatis ​ |
-fiebant</td>+fiebant ​ |
 </tr> </tr>
 <tr id="​l2084">​ <tr id="​l2084">​
Line 5185: Line 4001:
 fiemus ​ | fiemus ​ |
 fietis ​ | fietis ​ |
-fient</td>+fient  |
 </tr> </tr>
 <tr id="​l2085">​ <tr id="​l2085">​
Line 5195: Line 4011:
 fiamus ​ | fiamus ​ |
 fiatis ​ | fiatis ​ |
-fiant</td>+fiant  |
 </tr> </tr>
 <tr id="​l2086">​ <tr id="​l2086">​
Line 5205: Line 4021:
 fieremus ​ | fieremus ​ |
 fieretis ​ | fieretis ​ |
-fierent</td>+fierent ​ |
 </tr> </tr>
 </​table>​ </​table>​
 </​div>​ </​div>​
-<​u>​Numbers:</​u> ​+__Numbers:__ 
 <div class="​wikitable">​ <div class="​wikitable">​
 <table border="​1">​ <table border="​1">​
Line 5219: Line 4035:
 duobus ​ | duobus ​ |
 duos (duo)  | duos (duo)  |
-duobus</td>+duobus ​ |
 </tr> </tr>
 <tr id="​l2089">​ <tr id="​l2089">​
Line 5228: Line 4044:
 duabus ​ | duabus ​ |
 duas  | duas  |
-duabus</td>+duabus ​ |
 </tr> </tr>
 <tr id="​l2090">​ <tr id="​l2090">​
Line 5237: Line 4053:
 tribus ​ | tribus ​ |
 tres  | tres  |
-tribus</td>+tribus ​ |
 </tr> </tr>
 <tr id="​l2091">​ <tr id="​l2091">​
Line 5246: Line 4062:
 tribus ​ | tribus ​ |
 tria  | tria  |
-tribus</td>+tribus ​ |
 </tr> </tr>
 </​table>​ </​table>​
 </​div>​ </​div>​
-<​u>​Impersonal Verbs</​u> ​occur in the thir person singular only.auditur - it is heard; convenit - it is fitting; dicitur - it is said; licet - it is permitted; placet - it is pleasing; videtur - it seems good; oportet - it is proper; necesse est - it is necessary; cenatum est - there was dining: people ate; ventum est - there was coming - people came; factus est - there was happening - it came to past - a semitic idiom.<​u>​Summary ​of Genitive</​u>​+__Impersonal Verbs__ ​occur in the thir person singular only.auditur - it is heard; convenit - it is fitting; dicitur - it is said; licet - it is permitted; placet - it is pleasing; videtur - it seems good; oportet - it is proper; necesse est - it is necessary; cenatum est - there was dining: people ate; ventum est - there was coming - people came; factus est - there was happening - it came to past - a semitic idiom.__Summary ​of Genitive__
  
  
Line 5279: Line 4095:
  
 <p id="​l2103">​ <p id="​l2103">​
-<​u>​Summary ​of Dative</​u>​+__Summary ​of Dative__
  
  
Line 5302: Line 4118:
 </li> </li>
  
-        <​ul>​ +    ​
         <li>         <li>
 <p id="​l2111">​ <p id="​l2111">​
Line 5318: Line 4133:
 </li> </li>
  
-                <​ul>​ +            ​
                 <li>                 <li>
 <p id="​l2113">​ <p id="​l2113">​
Line 5341: Line 4155:
 </li> </li>
  
-                </​ul>​ +            ​
  
 <p id="​l2117">​ <p id="​l2117">​
Line 5348: Line 4161:
  
  
-                <​ul>​ +            ​
                 <li>                 <li>
 <p id="​l2118">​ <p id="​l2118">​
Line 5381: Line 4193:
 </li> </li>
  
-                </​ul>​ +            ​
  
 <p id="​l2124">​ <p id="​l2124">​
Line 5388: Line 4199:
  
  
-                <​ul>​ +            ​
                 <li>                 <li>
 <p id="​l2125">​ <p id="​l2125">​
Line 5436: Line 4246:
 </li> </li>
  
-                </​ul>​ +            ​
  
  
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 <a class="​external"​ href="​http://​uts.cc.utexas.edu/​cgi-bin/​cgiwrap/​silver/​frame.cgi?​manager,​agcontents"><​img class="​borderless"​ src="​http://​wikispot.org/​wiki/​eggheadbeta/​img/​sycamore-www.png"​ alt="​[WWW]"​ height="​7"​ width="​13">​Allen & Greenough</​a>​ <a class="​external"​ href="​http://​uts.cc.utexas.edu/​cgi-bin/​cgiwrap/​silver/​frame.cgi?​manager,​agcontents"><​img class="​borderless"​ src="​http://​wikispot.org/​wiki/​eggheadbeta/​img/​sycamore-www.png"​ alt="​[WWW]"​ height="​7"​ width="​13">​Allen & Greenough</​a>​
  
-</li> 
- 
-        </ul> 
- 
- 
- 
-    </ol> 
- 
- 
-<p id="​l2137">​ 
 **Exercises** **Exercises**
  
 ===Unit 35=== ===Unit 35===
 <p id="​l2139">​ <p id="​l2139">​
-<​u>​Greek ​periphrastic ​Tenses</​u> ​Like Greek, latin sometimes uses the present active participle with sum to for a progressive tense, e.g.: 1) Present laudens sum - I am praising; 2) Imperfect laudens eram - I was praising; 3) Future laudens ero - I will be praising.<​u>​Syncopation</​u> ​the -vi- or -ve- syllable may be lost, e.g. laudavisti &gt; laudasti, audivi &gt; audii, custodivi &gt; custodii, ivi &gt; ii. In poetry, the -erunt perf.ai ending can change to ere. Other words may have short forms as well: dexteris &gt; dextris; vinculum &gt; vinclum.<​u>​Historical Present</​u> ​may be used in narrating past events.<​u>​Cognate Ablative</​u> ​Gavisi sunt magno gaudio - they rejoiced in joy. Clamavit magna voce - He shouted loudly.<​u>​Summary of Accusative</​u>​+  * __Greek ​periphrastic ​Tenses__ ​Like Greek, latin sometimes uses the present active participle with sum to for a progressive tense, e.g.: 1) Present laudens sum - I am praising; 2) Imperfect laudens eram - I was praising; 3) Future laudens ero - I will be praising. 
 +  * __Syncopation__ ​the -vi- or -ve- syllable may be lost, e.g. laudavisti &gt; laudasti, audivi &gt; audii, custodivi &gt; custodii, ivi &gt; ii. In poetry, the -erunt perf.ai ending can change to ere. Other words may have short forms as well: dexteris &gt; dextris; vinculum &gt; vinclum. 
 +  * __Historical Present__ ​may be used in narrating past events. 
 +  * __Cognate Ablative__ ​Gavisi sunt magno gaudio - they rejoiced in joy. Clamavit magna voce - He shouted loudly
  
 +__Summary of Accusative__
  
-    <ol type="​1">​ 
- 
-    <li> 
-<p id="​l2144">​ 
 Direct Object Direct Object
  
-</li>+  * Directo object: petrum vidit paulus - peter saw paul 
 +  * Predicate A: Fecerunt eum papam - they made him pope. 
 +  * Cognate A: vitas nostras vivimus - we live our lives. 
 +  * Double A: Nos orationem docuit - he taught us the prayer. 
 +  * Subject A + Infinitive: Putaverunt Paulum esse deum - they though paul was a god. 
 +  * Anticipatory A: Dicimus petrum quod hic est bonus - we say (of) peter that he is good.
  
-        <ol type="​1">​ 
- 
-        <li> 
-<p id="​l2145">​ 
-Directo object: petrum vidit paulus - peter saw paul 
- 
-</li> 
-        <li> 
-<p id="​l2146">​ 
-Predicate A: Fecerunt eum papam - they made him pope. 
- 
-</li> 
-        <li> 
-<p id="​l2147">​ 
-Cognate A: vitas nostras vivimus - we live our lives. 
- 
-</li> 
-        <li> 
-<p id="​l2148">​ 
-Double A: Nos orationem docuit - he taught us the prayer. 
- 
-</li> 
-        <li> 
-<p id="​l2149">​ 
-Subject A + Infinitive: Putaverunt Paulum esse deum - they though paul was a god. 
- 
-</li> 
-        <li> 
-<p id="​l2150">​ 
-Anticipatory A: Dicimus petrum quod hic est bonus - we say (of) peter that he is good. 
- 
-</li> 
- 
-        </ol> 
- 
- 
-    <li> 
-<p id="​l2151">​ 
 Space and time Space and time
 +  * In domum intravit; Romam iit.
 +  * Quinque dies mansit - he stayed (for) five days.
  
-</li> 
- 
-        <ol type="​1">​ 
- 
-        <li> 
-<p id="​l2152">​ 
-In domum intravit; Romam iit. 
- 
-</li> 
-        <li> 
-<p id="​l2153">​ 
-Quinque dies mansit - he stayed (for) five days. 
- 
-</li> 
- 
-        </ol> 
- 
- 
-    <li> 
-<p id="​l2154">​ 
 Adverbial Accusative - Quid ploras? Why are you weeping? Adverbial Accusative - Quid ploras? Why are you weeping?
  
-</li>+__Summary of Ablative__
  
-    </​ol>​ +  * Accompaniment:​ Cum Petro venit - he came with peter. 
- +  ​Separation: Libera nos (a) malo - deliver us from evil. 
- +  ​Means: Gladio occisus est - he was killed with a sword. 
-<p id="​l2155">​ +  ​Manner: (Cum) Dolore locutus est - he spoke with sorrow. 
-<​u>​Summary of Ablative</​u>​ +  ​Personal Agency: Missa ab episcopo celebrabitur. Mass will be celebrated by the bishop. 
- +  ​With certain adjectives: ... gratia plena - ... full of grace. 
- +  ​Respect or Specification:​ pauperes spiritu. - poor in spirit. 
-    <ol type="​1">​ +  ​Cause: (Prae) gaudio clamaverunt. The shouted for joy. 
- +  ​Ablative Absolute: Hoc facto, abiit. This being done, he went away. 
-    <​li>​ +  ​Description:​ Petrus erat magna vir fide - Peter was a man of great faith. 
-<p id="​l2156">​ +  ​Place where: In domo petri manebant - in peter'​s house they were staying. 
-Accompaniment:​ Cum Petro venit - he came with peter. +  ​Place from, out of which: E domo venerunt - they came out of the house. 
-  ​|<p id="​l2157">​ +  ​Comparison: Quis est maior illo: Who is greater than that one? 
-Separation: Libera nos (a) malo - deliver us from evil. +  ​Degree of difference: Petrus erat multo senior quam Joannes - Was peter much older than John? 
-  ​|<p id="​l2158">​ +  ​Time when, within which - In illo tempore... At that time. Quinque annis hoc facierunt. They did that in five years. 
-Means: Gladio occisus est - he was killed with a sword. +  ​Duration: Duodecim annis infirma fuerat - She had been sick for 12 years. 
-  ​|<p id="​l2159">​ +  ​Cognate Ablative: Timore timuerunt - they were afraid with fear. 
-Manner: (Cum) Dolore locutus est - he spoke with sorrow. +  ​With certain verbs: Sacerdos ritu fungitur. The priest performs the ceremony. Also utor, I use; fruor, I enjoy; fungor, I perform; potior, I possess; careo, I lack; egeo, indigeo, I need, gaudeo, I enjoy {usually constructed with an object clause, quod, the abl., or absol.; less freq. with acc. and quia, gen., si, etc.. with acc and inf or simple inf.}
-  ​|<p id="​l2160">​ +
-Personal Agency: Missa ab episcopo celebrabitur. Mass will be celebrated by the bishop. +
-  ​|<p id="​l2161">​ +
-With certain adjectives: ... gratia plena - ... full of grace. +
-  ​|<p id="​l2162">​ +
-Respect or Specification:​ pauperes spiritu. - poor in spirit. +
-  ​|<p id="​l2163">​ +
-Cause: (Prae) gaudio clamaverunt. The shouted for joy. +
-  ​|<p id="​l2164">​ +
-Ablative Absolute: Hoc facto, abiit. This being done, he went away. +
-  ​|<p id="​l2165">​ +
-Description:​ Petrus erat magna vir fide - Peter was a man of great faith. +
-  ​|<p id="​l2166">​ +
-Place where: In domo petri manebant - in peter'​s house they were staying. +
-  ​|<p id="​l2167">​ +
-Place from, out of which: E domo venerunt - they came out of the house. +
-  ​|<p id="​l2168">​ +
-Comparison: Quis est maior illo: Who is greater than that one? +
-  ​|<p id="​l2169">​ +
-Degree of difference: Petrus erat multo senior quam Joannes - Was peter much older than John? +
-  ​|<p id="​l2170">​ +
-Time when, within which - In illo tempore... At that time. Quinque annis hoc facierunt. They did that in five years. +
-  ​|<p id="​l2171">​ +
-Duration: Duodecim annis infirma fuerat - She had been sick for 12 years. +
-  ​|<p id="​l2172">​ +
-Cognate Ablative: Timore timuerunt - they were afraid with fear. +
-  ​|<p id="​l2173">​ +
-With certain verbs: Sacerdos ritu fungitur. The priest performs the ceremony. Also utor, I use; fruor, I enjoy; fungor, I perform; potior, I possess; careo, I lack; egeo, indigeo, I need, gaudeo, I enjoy {usually constructed with an object clause, quod, the abl., or absol.; less freq. with acc. and quia, gen., si, etc.. with acc and inf or simple inf.} +
- +
-</​li>​ +
- +
-    </ol>+
  
  
-<p id="​l2174">​ 
 excepta - in later latin, a preposition governing accusative or ablativeexcludo - (dative) in later latin, ablative absolute. ​ excepta - in later latin, a preposition governing accusative or ablativeexcludo - (dative) in later latin, ablative absolute. ​
  
-<p id="​l2177">​ 
 **Exercises** ​ **Exercises** ​
latin.txt · Last modified: 2019/11/27 17:08 by amycsj