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latin [2016/12/14 07:49]
amycsj
latin [2016/12/16 20:08]
amycsj
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 =====Latin===== =====Latin=====
 +This page has Latin language resources and follows Collins //A Primer of Ecclesiastical Latin//
  
 ===Resources=== ===Resources===
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-====History of Latin===+===History of Latin===
  
   * Pre-Classical - Italian region of latio - from 1000bc. 7C bc oldest fibula (buckle) 6C Lapis Negra - date certain.   * Pre-Classical - Italian region of latio - from 1000bc. 7C bc oldest fibula (buckle) 6C Lapis Negra - date certain.
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   * Cicero wouldn'​t recognize it.    * Cicero wouldn'​t recognize it. 
  
-**History of Xn Latin** +==History of Xn Latin==
-   +
   * Roots not in city of rome - early xns spoke greek. ​   * Roots not in city of rome - early xns spoke greek. ​
   * Roots in N. Africa - Xns there mainly spoke and wrote latin    * Roots in N. Africa - Xns there mainly spoke and wrote latin 
Line 46: Line 46:
   * Subj, verb, personal agency][No articles exist in Latin. Translate from context]   * Subj, verb, personal agency][No articles exist in Latin. Translate from context]
 ==5 Cases:== ==5 Cases:==
-  ​|Nominative ​   |subject & predicate //Flavius// est //​pater// ​   | +|Nominative ​   |subject & predicate //Flavius// est //​pater// ​   | 
-  |Genitive ​   |'​of'​ possession Servus //​patris// ​ | +|Genitive ​   |'​of'​ possession Servus //​patris// ​ | 
-  |Dative ​ |indir. Object '​for'​ '​to' ​ | +|Dative ​ |indir. Object '​for'​ '​to' ​ | 
-  |Accusative ​ |dir object. Avis //​locustam//​ edit  | +|Accusative ​ |dir object. Avis //​locustam//​ edit  | 
-  |Ablative ​ |- more complicated ​  | +|Ablative ​ |- more complicated ​  | 
-  |:::  |Personal agency in passive sentences '​by'​ Puella //domina// amatur. ​ | +|:::  |Personal agency in passive sentences '​by'​ Puella //domina// amatur. ​ | 
-  |:::  |After certain prepositions '​locativus'​ in //​Roma// ​ | +|:::  |After certain prepositions '​locativus'​ in //​Roma// ​ | 
-  |:::  |Instrumentality or means, '​by'​ //cultre pugnare// ​ | +|:::  |Instrumentality or means, '​by'​ //cultre pugnare// ​ | 
-  |:::  |specifying the verb  |+|:::  |specifying the verb  |
  
 **Dative of posession** Libro est mihi.  **Dative of posession** Libro est mihi. 
  
 Verbs - 4 (5) conjugations1st **-a-**2nd **-e-** long e3rd **-e-** short e goes to e or ie4th **-i-** ​ Verbs - 4 (5) conjugations1st **-a-**2nd **-e-** long e3rd **-e-** short e goes to e or ie4th **-i-** ​
-  ​|present ​   |sum    |es    |est    |sumus ​   |estis ​ |sunt  | + 
-  |imperfect ​   |eram    |eras    |erat    |eramus ​   |eratis ​   |erant ​ |+|present ​   |sum    |es    |est    |sumus ​   |estis ​ |sunt  | 
 +|imperfect ​   |eram    |eras    |erat    |eramus ​   |eratis ​   |erant ​ |
 ==Vocabulary== ==Vocabulary==
-//saeculum, saculi// n. age, world +  * //saeculum, saculi// n. age, world 
-//famulus -i// m. servant +  ​* ​//famulus -i// m. servant 
-//numquam// adv. never +  ​* ​//numquam// adv. never 
-//quoque// also, too +  ​* ​//quoque// also, too 
-//deleo, delere, delevi, deletus// wipe out, destroy +  ​* ​//deleo, delere, delevi, deletus// wipe out, destroy 
-//venio, venire, veni, ventus// come - note the present and perfect are often the same - see context. //invenio// find +  ​* ​//venio, venire, veni, ventus// come - note the present and perfect are often the same - see context. ​ 
-//mundus -a -um// clean, pure //imundus -a -um// impure ​// //mundus, -i// m. world +  * //invenio// find 
-//perhibeo, perhibere, perhibui, perhibitus//​ hold out, produce, afford. +  ​* ​//mundus -a -um// clean, pure  
-//video, videre, vidi, visus// see, realize +  * //imundus -a -um// impure ​ 
-//scio, scire, scivi, scitus// know +  * //mundus, -i// m. world 
-//socium, socii// n. companion, ally +  ​* ​//perhibeo, perhibere, perhibui, perhibitus//​ hold out, produce, afford. 
-//​vestigium,​ vestigii// n. footstep +  ​* ​//video, videre, vidi, visus// see, realize 
-//resulto, resultare, resultavi, resultatus//​ resound, rebound +  ​* ​//scio, scire, scivi, scitus// know 
-//hostia, hostiae// sacrificial offering +  ​* ​//socium, socii// n. companion, ally 
-//valeo, valere, valui, valitus// be well, be strong, be able (+ inf) +  ​* ​//​vestigium,​ vestigii// n. footstep 
-//videor, videri, ​&​mdash;, ​visus sum// be seen, seem (+ inf) +  ​* ​//resulto, resultare, resultavi, resultatus//​ resound, rebound 
-//desino, desinere, desii, desitus // cease (+ inf) +  ​* ​//hostia, hostiae// sacrificial offering 
-//excipio, excipere, excepi, exceptus // welcome +  ​* ​//valeo, valere, valui, valitus// be well, be strong, be able (+ inf) 
-//insto, instare, institi, &​mdash;//​ urge, threaten (+ dat) +  ​* ​//videor, videri, ​-- visus sum// be seen, seem (+ inf) 
-//inhaereo, inhaerere, inhaesi, inhaesus // cling to, adhere (+ dat) +  ​* ​//desino, desinere, desii, desitus // cease (+ inf) 
-//​deprecatio,​ deprecationis//​ f earnest prayer +  ​* ​//excipio, excipere, excepi, exceptus // welcome 
-//​particeps,​ participis // m. f. participant +  ​* ​//insto, instare, institi, &​mdash;//​ urge, threaten (+ dat) 
-//caligo, caliginis // f. mist, gloom +  ​* ​//inhaereo, inhaerere, inhaesi, inhaesus // cling to, adhere (+ dat) 
-//fundo, fundere, fudi, fusus // pour +  ​* ​//​deprecatio,​ deprecationis//​ f earnest prayer 
-//​confundo//​ confound, put to shame, in passive, it is be ashamed of (+ acc) +  ​* ​//​particeps,​ participis // m. f. participant 
-//scando, scandere, scandi, scansus // climb, mount +  ​* ​//caligo, caliginis // f. mist, gloom 
-//memor // mindful of (+ gen) +  ​* ​//fundo, fundere, fudi, fusus // pour 
-//intereo, interire, interivi, interitus// perish, die +  ​* ​//​confundo//​ confound, put to shame, in passive, it is be ashamed of (+ acc) 
-//obeo, obire, obivi, obitus// go to meet, die +  ​* ​//scando, scandere, scandi, scansus // climb, mount 
-//pereo, perire, perivi, peritus// perish, die, be lost +  ​* ​//memor // mindful of (+ gen) 
-//adsum, adesse, affui, &​mdash;//​ be present +  ​* ​//intereo, interire, interivi, interitus// perish, die 
-//prosum, prodesse, profui, &​mdash;//​ avail, profit, be advantageous to (+ dat) +  ​* ​//obeo, obire, obivi, obitus// go to meet, die 
-//incido, incidere, incidi // fall into, happen +  ​* ​//pereo, perire, perivi, peritus// perish, die, be lost 
-//prex, precis // f. entreaty, prayer +  ​* ​//adsum, adesse, affui, &​mdash;//​ be present 
-//precor, precari, precatus sum // ask, pray beseech (also deprecor...) +  ​* ​//prosum, prodesse, profui, &​mdash;//​ avail, profit, be advantageous to (+ dat) 
-//scelus, sceleris// n. crime, sin +  ​* ​//incido, incidere, incidi // fall into, happen 
-//dignor, dignare, ​&​mdash;, ​dignatus sum// consider worthwhile //​dedignor//​ distain +  ​* ​//prex, precis // f. entreaty, prayer 
-//judico, judicare, judicavi, judicatus// judge //dejudico //discern +  ​* ​//precor, precari, precatus sum // ask, pray beseech (also deprecor...) 
-//jubeo, jubere, jussi, jussus// command, request with accusative and infinitive. +  ​* ​//scelus, sceleris// n. crime, sin 
-//utor, uti, &​mdash;, ​usus sum// +abl. use, enjoy, be friends with +  ​* ​//dignor, dignare, ​-- dignatus sum// consider worthwhile //​dedignor//​ distain 
-//antistes, antistitis//​ m. bishop +  ​* ​//judico, judicare, judicavi, judicatus// judge //dejudico //discern 
-//planctus, -us// m. mourning +  ​* ​//jubeo, jubere, jussi, jussus// command, request with accusative and infinitive. 
-//tueor, tueri, ​&​mdash;, ​tuitus sum// watch, protect, uphold +  ​* ​//utor, uti, -- usus sum// +abl. use, enjoy, be friends with 
-//labor, labi, &​mdash;, ​lapsus sum// slide, fall (backslide) +  ​* ​//antistes, antistitis//​ m. bishop 
-//talis, tale// such, of such a sort +  ​* ​//planctus, -us// m. mourning 
-//tantus, -a, -um// so much, so great +  ​* ​//tueor, tueri, ​-- tuitus sum// watch, protect, uphold 
-//cano, canere, cecini, cantus// Sing prophesy +  ​* ​//labor, labi, -- lapsus sum// slide, fall (backslide) 
-//accendo, accendere, accendi, accensus// kindle, set on fire. +  ​* ​//talis, tale// such, of such a sort 
-//consors, consortis, consortium//​ sharer +  ​* ​//tantus, -a, -um// so much, so great 
-//​praestolor,​ praestolari, ​&​mdash;, ​praestolatus sum// +dat. wait for, perform +  ​* ​//cano, canere, cecini, cantus// Sing prophesy 
-//fateor, fateri, ​&​mdash;, ​fassus sum// admit, confess + acc. praise +dat. +  ​* ​//accendo, accendere, accendi, accensus// kindle, set on fire. 
-//pasco, pascere, pavi, pastus// feed +  ​* ​//consors, consortis, consortium//​ sharer 
-//statuo, statuere, statui, statutus// establish, appoint, determine +  ​* ​//​praestolor,​ praestolari, ​-- praestolatus sum// +dat. wait for, perform 
-//ardeo, ardere, arsi, arsus// burn +  ​* ​//fateor, fateri, ​-- fassus sum// admit, confess + acc. praise +dat. 
-//inficio, inficere, infeci, infectus// infect, polute +  ​* ​//pasco, pascere, pavi, pastus// feed 
-//proficio, proficere, profeci, profectus// avail, prevail +  ​* ​//statuo, statuere, statui, statutus// establish, appoint, determine 
-//reficio, reficere, refeci, refectus// refresh, repair +  ​* ​//ardeo, ardere, arsi, arsus// burn 
-//existimo, existimare, existimavi, existimatus//​ think, judge +  ​* ​//inficio, inficere, infeci, infectus// infect, polute 
-//liquo, liquare, liquavi, liquatus// melt +  ​* ​//proficio, proficere, profeci, profectus// avail, prevail 
-//​illucesco,​ illucescere,​ illuxi// shine (upon), become light. +  ​* ​//reficio, reficere, refeci, refectus// refresh, repair 
-//​adpropinquo,​ -are, -avi, -atus// draw near (+dat) ​+  ​* ​//existimo, existimare, existimavi, existimatus//​ think, judge 
 +  ​* ​//liquo, liquare, liquavi, liquatus// melt 
 +  ​* ​//​illucesco,​ illucescere,​ illuxi// shine (upon), become light. 
 +  ​* ​//​adpropinquo,​ -are, -avi, -atus// draw near (+dat) ​
  
 ==Conjunctions,​ Prepositions and Adverbs== ==Conjunctions,​ Prepositions and Adverbs==
-<p id="​l130">​ 
-http://​en.wikibooks.org/​wiki/​Latin/​Lesson_4-Adverbs_and_Prepositions"><​img class="​borderless"​ src="​http://​wikispot.org/​wiki/​eggheadbeta/​img/​sycamore-www.png"​ alt="​[WWW]"​ height="​7"​ width="​13">​Adverbs,​ Conjunctions and Prepositions (resource)</​a>​Conjunctions are indeclinable particles that join clauses together to form sentences. Examples of forms of conjunctions in English are: and, but and so. Conjunctions are either coordinating (joining two main clauses) or subordinating (joing a subclause to a main clause).**Coordinating Conjunctions **//atque// and//aut// or//​aut...aut//​ either...or//​autem//​ but, and - depends on context, may not need to be translated//​enim//​ (usually placed second in sentence) for//ergo// and so, therefore//​et//​ and//​et...et//​ both...and//​igitur//​ therefore//​itaque//​ and so//nam// for//​nec/​necque//​ and not, nor//​nec/​necque...nec/​necque//​ neither...nor//​prout//​ according as//quam// than (adv: how, how much)//​quapropter//​ wherefore, therefore//​-que//​* and//sed// but//​tamen//​ (usually placed second in a sentence) however//​vel//​ or (if you prefer)**Subordinating Conjunctions**//​antequam//​ before,//​cum//​ when, after + ind.; under the circumstances,​ although, since + subj.//​donec//​ while, as long as, till//dum// while, for the time//​etsi//​ although, even, if//​licet//​although (with indicative or subjunctive) - properly a verb//ne// in order that ... not, that ... not, introducing negative purpose, or direct command, with subj.//​nisi//​ unless, except//​quamquam//​ however//​quia,​ quod, quoniam// because - sometimes //eo quod////​priusquam//​ before (with indicative or subjunctive)//​si//​ if//sive, seu// or if, //​sive...sive//​ if ... or if, whether ... or.//simul ac// as soon as//ubi// when, as soon as, (where - adverb)//​ut//​ when, as/with result clauses: in order to, so, to, that, introducing negative purpose, or direct command, with subj. (with postulo, rogo, peto, oro, precor, moneo + subjunctive or acc. + inf; or dico ut + subjunctive)//​utinam//​ as/with result clauses: in order to, so, to//​postquam//​ after, //postquam puerum vidit// ​ 
  
-<p id="​l173">​ +Conjunctions are indeclinable particles that join clauses together ​to form sentences. Examples ​of forms of conjunctions ​in English are: andbut and so. Conjunctions are either coordinating (joining two main clauses) or subordinating (joing a subclause ​to a main clause).
-**Prepositions**  +
-<div class="​wikitable">​ +
-<table border="​1">​ +
-<tr id="​l174">​ +
-<td colspan="​2"​ align="​center">​ +
- With the <​u>​accusative</​u>​ case: </​td>​ +
-<td colspan="​2"​ align="​center">​ +
-With the <​u>​ablative</​u>​ case</​td>​ +
-<td colspan="​2"​ align="​center">​ +
-With <​u>​genitive</​u>​ </​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-<tr id="​l175">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-//ad //  | +
-to   | +
-//​a/​ab// ​ | +
-from  | +
-//​causa// ​ | +
-  improper preposition for the sake of, by reason ​of</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-<tr id="​l176">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-//adversu -s/-m //  | +
-opposite ​  | +
-   | +
-   | +
-//​gratia// ​  | +
- </​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-<tr id="​l177">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-//​ante// ​ | +
-before ​  | +
-//​cum// ​ | +
- ​with ​ | +
-//​vice// ​  | +
- </​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-<tr id="​l178">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-//apud //  | +
-among, at the house of//  | +
-//​de// ​ | +
-of, concerning ​ | +
-   | +
- </​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-<tr id="​l179">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-//​circa// ​ | +
-around ​ | +
-   | +
-   | +
-   | +
- </​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-<tr id="​l180">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-//​cis// ​ | +
-before ​ | +
-   | +
-   | +
-   | +
- </​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-<tr id="​l181">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-//​circum// ​ | +
-around ​  | +
-//​e/​ex// ​ | +
-from, out of  | +
-   | +
- </​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-<tr id="​l182">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-//​contra// ​ | +
-against ​  | +
-//​coram// ​ | +
-in the presence of   | +
-   | +
- </​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-<tr id="​l183">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-//​extra// ​ | +
-beyondoutside ​  | +
-   | +
-   | +
-   | +
- </​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-<tr id="​l184">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-//​in// ​ | +
-into   | +
-//​in// ​ | +
-in   | +
-   | +
- </​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-<tr id="​l185">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-//​inter// ​ | +
-between, among   | +
-   | +
-   | +
-   | +
- </​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-<tr id="​l186">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-//​intra// ​ | +
-within, among   | +
-   | +
-   | +
-   | +
- </​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-<tr id="​l187">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-//​iuxta// ​ | +
-beside ​ | +
-   | +
-   | +
-   | +
- </​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-<tr id="​l188">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-//ob //  | +
-because of  | +
-   | +
-   | +
-   | +
- </​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-<tr id="​l189">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-//​per// ​ | +
-through ​  | +
-//​prae// ​ | +
- ​before,​ in preference ​to, comparison with, consequence of,   | +
-   | +
- </​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-<tr id="​l190">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-//post, pone// ​ | +
-behind, after   | +
-//​pro// ​  | +
- on behalf of, in front of, according to  | +
-   | +
- </​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-<tr id="​l191">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-//​prope// ​ | +
-near   | +
-//​palam// ​ | +
-in the presense of  | +
-   | +
- </​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-<tr id="​l192">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-//​propter// ​ | +
-near   | +
-//​sine// ​ | +
-without ​ | +
-   | +
- </​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-<tr id="​l193">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-//​praeter// ​ | +
-beyond ​ | +
-   | +
-   | +
-   | +
- </​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-<tr id="​l194">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-//​secundum// ​ | +
-according to   | +
-//​sub// ​ | +
-under  | +
-   | +
- </​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-<tr id="​l195">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-//​secus// ​ | +
-beside ​ | +
-   | +
-   | +
-   | +
- </​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-<tr id="​l196">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-//​super// ​ | +
- upon, over, above   | +
-//​super// ​ | +
-concerning, about, above  | +
-   | +
- </​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-<tr id="​l197">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-//​trans// ​ | +
-across ​  | +
-   | +
-   | +
-   | +
- </​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-<tr id="​l198">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-//​usque// ​ | +
-up to  | +
-   | +
-   | +
-   | +
- </​td>​ +
-</tr>+
  
 +**Coordinating Conjunctions **
  
-</table> +  * //atque/and 
-</div> +  ​* ​//aut// or 
-<p id="​l200">​ +  * //​aut...aut//​ either...or 
-**Adverbs**+  //autem// but, and - depends on context, may not need to be translated 
 +  ​//enim// (usually placed second in sentence) for 
 +  ​//ergo// and so, therefore 
 +  ​//et// and 
 +  * //et...et// both...and 
 +  * //igitur// therefore 
 +  * //itaque// and so 
 +  * //nam// for 
 +  * //​nec/​necque//​ and not, nor 
 +  * //​nec/​necque...nec/​necque//​ neither...nor 
 +  * //prout// according as 
 +  * //quam// than (adv: how, how much) 
 +  * //​quapropter//​ wherefore, therefore 
 +  * //-que//* and 
 +  * //sed// but 
 +  * //tamen// (usually placed second in a sentence) however 
 +  * //vel// or (if you prefer) 
 +**Subordinating Conjunctions** 
 +  * //​antequam//​ before, 
 +  * //cum// when, after + ind.; under the circumstances,​ although, since + subj. 
 +  * //donec// while, as long as, till 
 +  * //dum// while, for the time 
 +  * //etsi// although, even, if 
 +  * //​licet//​although (with indicative or subjunctive) - properly a verb 
 +  * //ne// in order that ... not, that ... not, introducing negative purpose, or direct command, with subj. 
 +  * //nisi// unless, except 
 +  * //​quamquam//​ however 
 +  * //quia, quod, quoniam// because - sometimes  
 +  * //eo quod////​priusquam//​ before (with indicative or subjunctive) 
 +  * //si// if 
 +  * //sive, seu// or if,  
 +  * //​sive...sive//​ if ... or if, whether ... or. 
 +  * //simul ac// as soon as 
 +  * //ubi// when, as soon as, (where - adverb) 
 +  * //ut// when, as/with result clauses: in order to, so, to, that, introducing negative purpose, or direct command, with subj. (with postulo, rogo, peto, oro, precor, moneo + subjunctive or acc. + inf; or dico ut + subjunctive) 
 +  * //utinam// as/with result clauses: in order to, so, to 
 +  * //​postquam//​ after,  
 +  * //postquam puerum vidit// ​
  
 +**Prepositions** ​
  
-    <ul>+| With the __accusative__ case:  ||With the __ablative__ case  ||With __genitive__ ​ || 
 +|//ad //  |to   ​|//​a/​ab// ​ |from  |//​causa// ​ |  improper preposition for the sake of, by reason of  | 
 +|//adversu -s/-m //  |opposite ​  ​| ​  ​| ​  ​|//​gratia// ​  | 
 +|//​ante// ​ |before ​  ​|//​cum// ​ | with  |//​vice// ​  | 
 +|//apud //  |among, at the house of//  |//​de// ​ |of, concerning ​ |   | 
 +|//​circa// ​ |around ​ |   ​| ​  ​| ​  | 
 +|//​cis// ​ |before ​ |   ​| ​  ​| ​  | 
 +|//​circum// ​ |around ​  ​|//​e/​ex// ​ |from, out of  |   | 
 +|//​contra// ​ |against ​  ​|//​coram// ​ |in the presence of   ​| ​  | 
 +|//​extra// ​ |beyond, outside ​  ​| ​  ​| ​  ​| ​  | 
 +|//​in// ​ |into   ​|//​in// ​ |in   ​| ​  | 
 +|//​inter// ​ |between, among   ​| ​  ​| ​  ​| ​  | 
 +|//​intra// ​ |within, among   ​| ​  ​| ​  ​| ​  | 
 +|//​iuxta// ​ |beside ​ |   ​| ​  ​| ​  | 
 +|//ob //  |because of  |   ​| ​  ​| ​  | 
 +|/?​per// ​ |through ​  ​|//​prae// ​ | before, in preference to, comparison with, consequence of,   ​| ​  | 
 +|//post, pone// ​ |behind, after   ​|//​pro// ​  | on behalf of, in front of, according to  |   | 
 +|//​prope// ​ |near   ​|//​palam// ​ |in the presense of  |   | 
 +|//​propter// ​ |near   ​|//​sine// ​ |without ​ |   | 
 +|//​praeter// ​ |beyond ​ |   ​| ​  ​| ​  | 
 +|//​secundum// ​ |according to   ​|//​sub// ​ |under ​ |   | 
 +|//​secus// ​ |beside ​ |   ​| ​  ​| ​  | 
 +|//​super// ​ | upon, over, above   ​|//​super// ​ |concerning,​ about, above  |   | 
 +|//​trans// ​ |across ​  ​| ​  ​| ​  ​| ​  | 
 +|//​usque// ​ |up to  |   ​| ​  ​| ​  |
  
-    <​li>​ +**Adverbs**
-<p id="​l201">​ +
-//adhunc// so far +
-  |<p id="​l202">​ +
-//​confestim//​ immediately +
-  |<p id="​l203">​ +
-//deinde// then, next +
-  |<p id="​l204">​ +
-//donec, dum// while, as long as +
-  |<p id="​l205">​ +
-//etiam// even also (intensifying) +
-  |<p id="​l206">​ +
-//​forsitan//​ perhaps +
-  |<p id="​l207">​ +
-//hinc// from here +
-  |<p id="​l208">​ +
-//iam// already +
-  |<p id="​l209">​ +
-//ideo// therefore, on that account +
-  |<p id="​l210">​ +
-//inde// from there, from then +
-  |<p id="​l211">​ +
-//invicem// in turn; as reflecive pronoun: one another. +
-  |<p id="​l212">​ +
-//ita// so, thus, with adverbs, adjectives and verbs. +
-  |<p id="​l213">​ +
-//itaque// therefore +
-  |<p id="​l214">​ +
-//jam// already (with past), now (with present), soon (with future) +
-  |<p id="​l215">​ +
-//mox// presently +
-  |<p id="​l216">​ +
-//nimis// too, too much +
-  |<p id="​l217">​ +
-//nondum// not yet +
-  |<p id="​l218">​ +
-//nonne// introduces question expecting yes +
-  |<p id="​l219">​ +
-//numquid// introduces question expecting no +
-  |<p id="​l220">​ +
-//palam// openly +
-  |<p id="​l221">​ +
-//postea// afterward +
-  |<p id="​l222">​ +
-//quam// how, how much (conj: than) +
-  |<p id="​l223">​ +
-//quando // when? +
-  |<p id="​l224">​ +
-//quare// why +
-  |<p id="​l225">​ +
-//​quemadmodo//​ how? just as +
-  |<p id="​l226">​ +
-//quid// why? how? //ut quid// +
-  |<p id="​l227">​ +
-//quidem// indeed, at any rate +
-  |<p id="​l228">​ +
-//quo// to where (?) +
-  |<p id="​l229">​ +
-//quomodo// how? +
-  |<p id="​l230">​ +
-//sic// so, thus, with verbs only +
-  |<p id="​l231">​ +
-//sicut// like, as +
-  |<p id="​l232">​ +
-//simul// together, atthe same time +
-  |<p id="​l233">​ +
-//sursum// upward +
-  |<p id="​l234">​ +
-//talis// such +
-  |<p id="​l235">​ +
-//tam// so, to such a degree, with adverbs and adjectives only +
-  |<p id="​l236">​ +
-//tamen// nevertheless +
-  |<p id="​l237">​ +
-//tantum// only +
-  |<p id="​l238">​ +
-//tum// then +
-  |<p id="​l239">​ +
-//tunc// then +
-  |<p id="​l240">​ +
-//ultro// on the other side, besides +
-  |<p id="​l241">​ +
-//unde// from where +
-  |<p id="​l242">​ +
-//usque // as far as, all the way +
-  |<p id="​l243">​ +
-//utinam// if only +
-  |<p id="​l244">​ +
-//utique// certainly, at any rate +
-  |<p id="​l245">​ +
-//valdo// very +
-  |<p id="​l246">​ +
-//velut// just as, as if +
-  |<p id="​l247">​ +
-//vero// truly+
  
-</li>+  * //adhunc// so far 
 +  * //​confestim//​ immediately 
 +  * //deinde// then, next 
 +  * //donec, dum// while, as long as 
 +  * //etiam// even also (intensifying) 
 +  * //​forsitan//​ perhaps 
 +  * //hinc// from here 
 +  * //iam// already 
 +  * //ideo// therefore, on that account 
 +  * //inde// from there, from then 
 +  * //invicem// in turn; as reflecive pronoun: one another. 
 +  * //ita// so, thus, with adverbs, adjectives and verbs. 
 +  * //itaque// therefore 
 +  * //jam// already (with past), now (with present), soon (with future) 
 +  * //mox// presently 
 +  * //nimis// too, too much 
 +  * //nondum// not yet 
 +  * //nonne// introduces question expecting yes 
 +  * //numquid// introduces question expecting no 
 +  * //palam// openly 
 +  * //postea// afterward 
 +  * //quam// how, how much (conj: than) 
 +  * //quando // when? 
 +  * //quare// why 
 +  * //​quemadmodo//​ how? just as 
 +  * //quid// why? how? //ut quid// 
 +  * //quidem// indeed, at any rate 
 +  * //quo// to where (?) 
 +  * //quomodo// how? 
 +  * //sic// so, thus, with verbs only 
 +  * //sicut// like, as 
 +  * //simul// together, atthe same time 
 +  * //sursum// upward 
 +  * //talis// such 
 +  * //tam// so, to such a degree, with adverbs and adjectives only 
 +  * //tamen// nevertheless 
 +  * //tantum// only 
 +  * //tum// then 
 +  * //tunc// then 
 +  * //ultro// on the other side, besides 
 +  * //unde// from where 
 +  * //usque // as far as, all the way 
 +  * //utinam// if only 
 +  * //utique// certainly, at any rate 
 +  * //valdo// very 
 +  * //velut// just as, as if 
 +  * //vero// truly
  
-    </ul> 
  
 +Some Adverbs of Time:
 +  * iam pridem long ago
 +  * primum first
 +  * postremo finally
 +  * postquam as soon as
 +  * numquam never
 +  * saepe often
 +  * cotidie every day
 +  * nondum not yet
 +  * crebro frequently
 +  * pridie the day before
 +  * umqam ever
 +  * denique at last 
  
-<p id="​l248">​ +Adverbs of Place: 
-Some Adverbs of Time:iam pridem long agoprimum firstpostremo finallypostquam as soon asnumquam neversaepe oftencotidie every daynondum not yetcrebro frequentlypridie ​the day beforeumqam everdenique at last +  * hic here 
 +  * huc hither 
 +  * hinc from here 
 +  * ibi thereeo thither, to there 
 +  * illic therequo whitherunde whence 
 +  * ubi whereundique from everywhere 
 +  * ibidem in the same placee 
 +  * odem to the same place 
 +  * quovis anywhere 
 +  * usque all the way to 
 +  * intro inwardly 
 +  * nusquam nowhere 
 +  * porro further on 
 +  * citro to this side 
  
-<p id="​l262">​ +Adverbs of Manner, Degree, or Cause: 
-Adverbs of Place:hic herehuc hitherhinc from hereibi thereeo thitherto thereillic therequo whitherunde whenceubi whereundique from everywhereibidem in the same placeeodem to the same placequovis anywhereusque all the way tointro inwardlynusquam nowhereporro further oncitro to this side +  * quam how 
 +  * astam so 
 +  * quamvis however much 
 +  * magis more 
 +  * paene almost 
 +  * valde greatly 
 +  * cur why 
 +  * quare why 
 +  * ergo therefore 
 +  * propterea because, on this account 
 +  * ita so 
 +  * sic so 
 +  * ut as, how 
 +  * vix hardly ​
  
-<p id="​l282">​ +Interrogative Particles: 
-Adverbs of Manner, Degree, or Cause:quam how, astam soquamvis however muchmagis morepaene almostvalde greatlycur whyquare whyergo thereforepropterea because, on this accountita sosic sout as, howvix hardly  +  * whether: an, -ne, utrum, utrumne, ​num 
- +  * whether ​not nonne, ​annon 
-<p id="​l298">​ +  * whether ​at all numquid, ​ecquid 
-Interrogative Particles:​whether:​ an, -ne, utrum, utrumne, ​numwhether ​not nonne, ​annonwhether ​at all numquid, ​ecquidNegative ​Particles:​not non, haud, minime, ne, neclest nenor neque, ​necnot ​only ... but also non modo ... verum/​sed ​etiamnot ​only not ... but not even non modo ... sed ne ... quidemnot ​even ne ... quidemif ​not si minusso ​as not quo minus, ​quominuswhy ​not? quin+  * Negative ​Particles:​not non, haud, minime, ne, neclest nenor neque, ​nec 
 +  * not only ... but also non modo ... verum/​sed ​etiam 
 +  * not only not ... but not even non modo ... sed ne ... quidem 
 +  * not even ne ... quidem 
 +  * if not si minus 
 +  * so as not quo minus, ​quominus 
 +  * why not? quin
  
 ====Latin in the Code==== ====Latin in the Code====
-<p id="​l313">​ +This chart gives all the words that occur in the Code of Canon Law more than 100 times, the English translation,​ then parses the term. Knowing these words cold will help your reading of the code.  
-This chart gives all the words that occur in the Code more than 100 times, the English translation,​ then parses the term. Knowing these words cold will help your reading of the code.  +|Times in Code  |Latin ​ |English ​ |  Grammar ​ | 
-<div class="​wikitable">​ +|2139  |in  |in  |prep with acc or abl  | 
-<table border="​1">​ +|1797  |et  |and  |conj  | 
-<tr id="​l314">​ +|1449  |ad  |to  |prep + acc  | 
-<​td>​ +|1132  |de  |of  |prep + abl  | 
-Times in Code  | +|1019  |vel  |or  |ADV: even, actually; or even, in deed; CONJ or;  | 
-Latin  | +|718  |aut  |or  |conj  | 
-English ​ | +|682  |si  |if  |subordinating conj  | 
-Grammar</​td>​ +|663  |qui  |which, that  |n.s or n.p pronoun anyone, anything: qui, quae, quod  | 
-</​tr>​ +|589  |est  |is  |3s pai  | 
-<tr id="​l315">​ +|586  |non  |not|  | 
-<td> +|555  |a  |from, by  |prep, ablative ​ | 
-2139  | +|549  |ut  |to / that  |conj + subj  | 
-in  | +|536  |quae  |which, that  |n.s or n.p or acc.p pronoun anyone, anything: qui, quae, quod  | 
-in  | +|518  |ab  |from, by  |prep + abl  | 
-prep with acc or abl</​td>​ +|467  |nisi  |unless ​ |conj  | 
-</​tr>​ +|453  |potest ​ |it can  |3s pai  | 
-<tr id="​l316">​ +|316  |cum  |with; when  |prep + abl; or adverb: when  | 
-<td> +|314  |per  |through, by  |prep + acc  | 
-1797  | +|313  |sit  |it would be  |3s pas  | 
-et  | +|309  |ex  |from  |prep + abl  | 
-and  | +|286  |etiam ​ |also  |conj  | 
-conj</​td>​ +|274  |sive  |or if, or  |conj  | 
-</​tr>​ +|273  |quibus ​ |which, that  |dat/abl.p pronoun anyone, anything: qui, quae, quod| 
-<tr id="​l317">​ +|272  |iure  |by right  |adv  | 
-<td> +|268  |normam ​ |standard ​ |acc.s| 
-1449  | +|254  |ecclesiae ​ |church ​ |gen.s. dat.s, nom.p  | 
-ad  | +|253  |sunt  |they are  |3p pai  | 
-to  | +|250  |pro  |for  |prep + abl  | 
-prep + acc</​td>​ +|239  |quo  |which, that  |abl.s pronoun anyone, anything: qui, quae, quod  | 
-</​tr>​ +|233  |atque ​ |and  |conj  | 
-<tr id="​l318">​ +|218  |iuris ​ |law, right  |gen.s ​ | 
-<td> +|215  |episcopus ​ |bishop ​ |n.s  | 
-1132  | +|211  |quod  |which, that  |nom/acc.s pronoun anyone, anything: qui, quae, quod  | 
-de  | +|179  |loci  |place ​ |gen.s nom.p  | 
-of  | +|177  |causa ​ |cause, case / because ​ |n.s abl.s / prep + abl (false prep)  | 
-prep + abl</​td>​ +|175  |ecclesia ​ |church ​ |n.s abl.s   | 
-</​tr>​ +|170  |episcoporum ​ |bishop ​ |gen.p ​ | 
-<tr id="​l319">​ +|169  |debet ​ |owe, ought  |3s pai  | 
-<td> +|167  |episcopo ​ |bishop ​ |dat.s abl.s  | 
-1019  | +|166  |possunt ​ |they can  |3p pai  | 
-vel  | +|161  |tamen ​ |yet, still  |adv  | 
-or  | +|151  |ius  |law  |n.s, acc.s  | 
-ADV: even, actually; or even, in deed; CONJ or;</​td>​ +|150  |episcopi ​ |bishops ​ |n.p, gen.s  | 
-</​tr>​ +|147  |iudex ​ |judge ​ |n.s  | 
-<tr id="​l320">​ +|147  |se  |itself ​ |abl acc pronoun ​ | 
-<td> +|146  |ne  |lest / not  |conj + imp / adv  | 
-718  | +|143  |qua  |which, that  |nom/acc.s nom/acc.p pronoun anyone, anything: qui, quae, quod  | 
-aut  | +|140  |autem ​ |but  |conj  | 
-or  | +|140  |sint  |they would be  |3p pas  | 
-conj</​td>​ +|135  |caput ​ |chapter ​ |n  | 
-</​tr>​ +|135  |vitae ​ |life  |n  | 
-<tr id="​l321">​ +|134  |instituti ​ |institute ​ |n  | 
-<td> +|128  |necnon ​ |nor  |adv  | 
-682  | +|127  |id  |he, she, it, that  |pron n.s, acc.s  | 
-si  | +|125  |aliud ​ |other ​ |adj n.s, acc.s  | 
-if  | +|116  |eius  |he, she, it, that  |pron g.s  | 
-subordinating conj</​td>​ +|115  |diocesano ​ |diocesan ​ |adj  | 
-</​tr>​ +|115  |saltem ​ |at least  |adv  | 
-<tr id="​l322">​ +|114  |ac  |and  |conj  | 
-<td> +|114  |intra ​ |within ​ |prep + acc, adv  | 
-663  | +|114  |tantum ​ |so much, only   |adv, adj  | 
-qui  | +|112  |eadem ​ |same, same time / way  |adv, adj  | 
-which, that  | +|112  |vero  |truly, really, truth  |adv  | 
-n.s or n.p pronoun anyone, anything: qui, quae, quod</​td>​ +|111  |auctoritate ​ |authority ​ |n  | 
-</​tr>​ +|110  |fuerit ​ |will, would have been  |perf as; futp ai  | 
-<tr id="​l323">​ +|109  |ipso  |himself ​ |abl.s ​ | 
-<td> +|109  |legitime ​ |lawful ​ |adv, adj  | 
-589  | +|108  |dioecesanus ​ |diocesan ​ |adj  | 
-est  | +|107  |apostolicae ​ |apostolic ​ |adj  | 
-is  | +|105  |dioecesani ​ |diocesan ​ |adj  | 
-3s pai</​td>​ +|105  |quam  |which, that  |acc.s pronoun anyone, anything: qui, quae, quod  | 
-</​tr>​ +|103  |inter ​ |between, during ​ |prep + acc  | 
-<tr id="​l324">​ +|102  |omnes ​ |all  |adj  | 
-<td> +|101  |sibi  |he, she, it, that  |pron dative ​ |
-586  | +
-non  | +
-not</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-<tr id="​l325">​ +
-<td> +
-555  | +
-a  | +
-from, by  | +
-prep, ablative</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-<tr id="​l326">​ +
-<td> +
-549  | +
-ut  | +
-to / that  | +
-conj + subj</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-<tr id="​l327">​ +
-<td> +
-536  | +
-quae  | +
-which, that  | +
-n.s or n.p or acc.p pronoun anyone, anything: qui, quae, quod</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-<tr id="​l328">​ +
-<td> +
-518  | +
-ab  | +
-from, by  | +
-prep + abl</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-<tr id="​l329">​ +
-<td> +
-467  | +
-nisi  | +
-unless ​ | +
-conj</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-<tr id="​l330">​ +
-<td> +
-453  | +
-potest ​ | +
-it can  | +
-3s pai</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-<tr id="​l331">​ +
-<td> +
-316  | +
-cum  | +
-with; when  | +
-prep + abl; or adverb: when</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-<tr id="​l332">​ +
-<td> +
-314  | +
-per  | +
-through, by  | +
-prep + acc</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-<tr id="​l333">​ +
-<td> +
-313  | +
-sit  | +
-it would be  | +
-3s pas</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-<tr id="​l334">​ +
-<td> +
-309  | +
-ex  | +
-from  | +
-prep + abl</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-<tr id="​l335">​ +
-<td> +
-286  | +
-etiam  | +
-also  | +
-conj</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-<tr id="​l336">​ +
-<td> +
-274  | +
-sive  | +
-or if, or  | +
-conj</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-<tr id="​l337">​ +
-<td> +
-273  | +
-quibus ​ | +
-which, that  | +
-dat/abl.p pronoun anyone, anything: qui, quae, quod</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-<tr id="​l338">​ +
-<td> +
-272  | +
-iure  | +
-by right  | +
-adv</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-<tr id="​l339">​ +
-<td> +
-268  | +
-normam ​ | +
-standard ​ | +
-acc.s</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-<tr id="​l340">​ +
-<td> +
-254  | +
-ecclesiae ​ | +
-church ​ | +
-gen.s. dat.s, nom.p</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-<tr id="​l341">​ +
-<td> +
-253  | +
-sunt  | +
-they are  | +
-3p pai</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-<tr id="​l342">​ +
-<td> +
-250  | +
-pro  | +
-for  | +
-prep + abl</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-<tr id="​l343">​ +
-<td> +
-239  | +
-quo  | +
-which, that  | +
-abl.s pronoun anyone, anything: qui, quae, quod</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-<tr id="​l344">​ +
-<td> +
-233  | +
-atque  | +
-and  | +
-conj</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-<tr id="​l345">​ +
-<td> +
-218  | +
-iuris  | +
-law, right  | +
-gen.s</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-<tr id="​l346">​ +
-<td> +
-215  | +
-episcopus ​ | +
-bishop ​ | +
-n.s</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-<tr id="​l347">​ +
-<td> +
-211  | +
-quod  | +
-which, that  | +
-nom/acc.s pronoun anyone, anything: qui, quae, quod</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-<tr id="​l348">​ +
-<td> +
-179  | +
-loci  | +
-place  | +
-gen.s nom.p</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-<tr id="​l349">​ +
-<td> +
-177  | +
-causa  | +
-cause, case / because ​ | +
-n.s abl.s / prep + abl (false prep)</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-<tr id="​l350">​ +
-<td> +
-175  | +
-ecclesia ​ | +
-church ​ | +
-n.s abl.s </​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-<tr id="​l351">​ +
-<td> +
-170  | +
-episcoporum ​ | +
-bishop ​ | +
-gen.p</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-<tr id="​l352">​ +
-<td> +
-169  | +
-debet  | +
-owe, ought  | +
-3s pai</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-<tr id="​l353">​ +
-<td> +
-167  | +
-episcopo ​ | +
-bishop ​ | +
-dat.s abl.s</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-<tr id="​l354">​ +
-<td> +
-166  | +
-possunt ​ | +
-they can  | +
-3p pai</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-<tr id="​l355">​ +
-<td> +
-161  | +
-tamen  | +
-yet, still  | +
-adv</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-<tr id="​l356">​ +
-<td> +
-151  | +
-ius  | +
-law  | +
-n.s, acc.s</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-<tr id="​l357">​ +
-<td> +
-150  | +
-episcopi ​ | +
-bishops ​ | +
-n.p, gen.s</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-<tr id="​l358">​ +
-<td> +
-147  | +
-iudex  | +
-judge  | +
-n.s</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-<tr id="​l359">​ +
-<td> +
-147  | +
-se  | +
-itself ​ | +
-abl acc pronoun</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-<tr id="​l360">​ +
-<td> +
-146  | +
-ne  | +
-lest / not  | +
-conj + imp / adv</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-<tr id="​l361">​ +
-<td> +
-143  | +
-qua  | +
-which, that  | +
-nom/acc.s nom/acc.p pronoun anyone, anything: qui, quae, quod</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-<tr id="​l362">​ +
-<td> +
-140  | +
-autem  | +
-but  | +
-conj</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-<tr id="​l363">​ +
-<td> +
-140  | +
-sint  | +
-they would be  | +
-3p pas</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-<tr id="​l364">​ +
-<td> +
-135  | +
-caput  | +
-chapter ​ | +
-n</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-<tr id="​l365">​ +
-<td> +
-135  | +
-vitae  | +
-life  | +
-n</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-<tr id="​l366">​ +
-<td> +
-134  | +
-instituti ​ | +
-institute ​ | +
-n</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-<tr id="​l367">​ +
-<td> +
-128  | +
-necnon ​ | +
-nor  | +
-adv</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-<tr id="​l368">​ +
-<td> +
-127  | +
-id  | +
-he, she, it, that  | +
-pron n.s, acc.s</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-<tr id="​l369">​ +
-<td> +
-125  | +
-aliud  | +
-other  | +
-adj n.s, acc.s</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-<tr id="​l370">​ +
-<td> +
-116  | +
-eius  | +
-he, she, it, that  | +
-pron g.s</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-<tr id="​l371">​ +
-<td> +
-115  | +
-diocesano ​ | +
-diocesan ​ | +
-adj</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-<tr id="​l372">​ +
-<td> +
-115  | +
-saltem ​ | +
-at least  | +
-adv</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-<tr id="​l373">​ +
-<td> +
-114  | +
-ac  | +
-and  | +
-conj</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-<tr id="​l374">​ +
-<td> +
-114  | +
-intra  | +
-within ​ | +
-prep + acc, adv</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-<tr id="​l375">​ +
-<td> +
-114  | +
-tantum ​ | +
-so much, only   | +
-adv, adj</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-<tr id="​l376">​ +
-<td> +
-112  | +
-eadem  | +
-same, same time / way  | +
-adv, adj</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-<tr id="​l377">​ +
-<td> +
-112  | +
-vero  | +
-truly, really, truth  | +
-adv</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-<tr id="​l378">​ +
-<td> +
-111  | +
-auctoritate ​ | +
-authority ​ | +
-n</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-<tr id="​l379">​ +
-<td> +
-110  | +
-fuerit ​ | +
-will, would have been  | +
-perf as; futp ai</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-<tr id="​l380">​ +
-<td> +
-109  | +
-ipso  | +
-himself ​ | +
-abl.s</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-<tr id="​l381">​ +
-<td> +
-109  | +
-legitime ​ | +
-lawful ​ | +
-adv, adj</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-<tr id="​l382">​ +
-<td> +
-108  | +
-dioecesanus ​ | +
-diocesan ​ | +
-adj</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-<tr id="​l383">​ +
-<td> +
-107  | +
-apostolicae ​ | +
-apostolic ​ | +
-adj</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-<tr id="​l384">​ +
-<td> +
-105  | +
-dioecesani ​ | +
-diocesan ​ | +
-adj</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-<tr id="​l385">​ +
-<td> +
-105  | +
-quam  | +
-which, that  | +
-acc.s pronoun anyone, anything: qui, quae, quod</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-<tr id="​l386">​ +
-<td> +
-103  | +
-inter  | +
-between, during ​ | +
-prep + acc</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-<tr id="​l387">​ +
-<td> +
-102  | +
-omnes  | +
-all  | +
-adj</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-<tr id="​l388">​ +
-<td> +
-101  | +
-sibi  | +
-he, she, it, that  | +
-pron dative</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-</​table>​ +
-</​div>​+
  
  
-====Collins Ecclesiastical Latin====+=====Collins Ecclesiastical Latin=====
 ===Unit 4 - Adjectival declensions=== ===Unit 4 - Adjectival declensions===
 +|Nom.   ​|bona ​  ​|bonus ​  ​|bonum ​ |
 +|Gen.   ​|bonae ​  ​|boni ​ |boni  |
 +|Dat.   ​|bonae ​  ​|bono ​ |bono  |
 +|Acc.  |bonam ​  ​|bonum ​  ​|bonum ​ |
 +|Abl.  | bona  |bono  |bono  |
 +|Voc.   ​|bona ​  ​|bone ​  ​|bonum ​ |
 +|Nom.  |bonae ​ |boni  |bona  |
 +|Gen.  |bonarum ​ |bonorum ​ |bonorum ​ |
 +|Dat.  |bonis ​ |bonis ​ |bonis ​ |
 +|Acc.  |bonas ​ |bonos ​ |bona  |
 +|Abl.  |bonis ​ |bonis ​ |bonis ​ |
  
-    <ul>+  * Nominative sing and pleural always the same in all declensions in neuter. 
 +  * You can tell from the dictionary the gender - context may be misleading. 
 +  * Petrus erat bonus -Peter was good - copula takes same case, gender, number 
 +  * Petrus erat bonus papa. Peter erat bonus agricola. Check the dictionary. 
 +  * Papa - father, teacher, bishop, pope. Then in 5th C became reserved for bishop of Rome. At that time pope got more political power as other political powers collapsed. 
 +  * Brevitas is a virtue in Latin. Gravitas. Plautus - only latin humorist. Brevitas atque Gravitas. Latin like mathmatics. Can't make mistakes against Latin. Up to the middle ages, the personal pronouns were seldom used. With the coming of the middle ages came national languages. Thus latin wasn't known. Erasmus destroyed latin as official political language by desire to reestablishing the 'good old days'. Older latin was more difficult thus the study was impeded. Same is true for greek. 
 +  * Royal Chair for Exegesis was founded by Charles V - 1560 - this is a proof that Catholics considered the study of the bible impt. 1548 first complete dutch Nikolaus van Winghe - by a leuven professor. But it was so colloquial that in five years it was revived. KUL also promoted lay reading of the bible, though there was debate.
  
- 
-<div class="​wikitable">​ 
-<table border="​1">​ 
- <​tr id="​l391">​ 
-<td> 
-Nom.   | 
-bona   | 
-bonus   | 
-bonum</​td>​ 
-</tr> 
- <​tr id="​l392">​ 
-<td> 
-Gen.   | 
-bonae   | 
-boni  | 
-boni</​td>​ 
-</tr> 
- <​tr id="​l393">​ 
-<td> 
-Dat.   | 
-bonae   | 
-bono  | 
-bono</​td>​ 
-</tr> 
- <​tr id="​l394">​ 
-<td> 
-Acc.  | 
-bonam   | 
-bonum   | 
-bonum</​td>​ 
-</tr> 
- <​tr id="​l395">​ 
-<td> 
-Abl.  | 
- ​bona ​ | 
-bono  | 
-bono</​td>​ 
-</tr> 
- <​tr id="​l396">​ 
-<td> 
-Voc.   | 
-bona   | 
-bone   | 
-bonum</​td>​ 
-</tr> 
- <​tr id="​l397">​ 
-<td> 
-Nom.  | 
-bonae  | 
-boni  | 
-bona</​td>​ 
-</tr> 
- <​tr id="​l398">​ 
-<td> 
-Gen.  | 
-bonarum ​ | 
-bonorum ​ | 
-bonorum</​td>​ 
-</tr> 
- <​tr id="​l399">​ 
-<td> 
-Dat.  | 
-bonis  | 
-bonis  | 
-bonis</​td>​ 
-</tr> 
- <​tr id="​l400">​ 
-<td> 
-Acc.  | 
-bonas  | 
-bonos  | 
-bona</​td>​ 
-</tr> 
- <​tr id="​l401">​ 
-<td> 
-Abl.  | 
-bonis  | 
-bonis  | 
-bonis</​td>​ 
-</tr> 
-</​table>​ 
-</​div>​ 
-    <li class="​gap">​ 
-<p id="​l403">​ 
-Nominative sing and pleural always the same in all declensions in neuter. 
-  |<p id="​l404">​ 
-You can tell from the dictionary the gender - context may be misleading. 
-  |<p id="​l405">​ 
-Petrus erat bonus -Peter was good - copula takes same case, gender, number 
-  |<p id="​l406">​ 
-Petrus erat bonus papa. Peter erat bonus agricola. Check the dictionary. 
-  |<p id="​l407">​ 
-Papa - father, teacher, bishop, pope. Then in 5<​sup>​th</​sup>​ C became reserved for bishop of Rome. At that time pope got more political power as other political powers collapsed. 
-  |<p id="​l408">​ 
-Brevitas is a virtue in Latin. Gravitas. Plautus - only latin humorist. Brevitas atque Gravitas. Latin like mathmatics. Can't make mistakes against Latin. Up to the middle ages, the personal pronouns were seldom used. With the coming of the middle ages came national languages. Thus latin wasn't known. Erasmus destroyed latin as official political language by desire to reestablishing the 'good old days'. Older latin was more difficult thus the study was impeded. Same is true for greek. 
-  |<p id="​l409">​ 
-Royal Chair for Exegesis was founded by Charles V - 1560 - this is a proof that Catholics considered the study of the bible impt. 1548 first complete dutch Nikolaus van Winghe - by a leuven professor. But it was so colloquial that in five years it was revived. KUL also promoted lay reading of the bible, though there was debate. 
- 
-</li> 
- 
-    </ul> 
- 
- 
-<p id="​l410">​ 
 **Order of translation:​ Subject, Verb, Direct Object always in the accusative, Indirect, etc.** ​ **Order of translation:​ Subject, Verb, Direct Object always in the accusative, Indirect, etc.** ​
  
 ===Unit 5 - Verbs=== ===Unit 5 - Verbs===
-<p id="​l413">​+
 Amo - present indicative active first person singular - amare 1<​sup>​st</​sup>​ conjugation ​ Amo - present indicative active first person singular - amare 1<​sup>​st</​sup>​ conjugation ​
  
 +|  |Tense ​  ​||Mood ​ |Voice ​ |Person ​ |Number ​ |
 +|Amo  |Present ​ |I love  |Indicative ​ |Active ​ |1st  |Singular ​ |
 +|   ​|Imperfect ​ |I love  |Subjunctive ​ |Passive ​ |2nd  |Plural ​ |
 +|   ​|Future ​ |I will love  |Imperative Love!  |(Medial - in gk)  |3rd  |.  |
 +|   ​|Perfect ​ |I loved   |||||
 +|   ​|Pluperfect ​ |I had loved  |||||
 +|   ​|Future perfect ​ |I will have loved  |||||
  
-    <ul>+Participle - present, past, future, active and passive 
 +  * Amare &lt; Ama - re 
 +  * Ama-o but the o is strong and it contracts with a so that ao = o so amo. 
 +  * Amo, amare, amavi, amatus - 
 +  * Amavi gives you perfect tenses p, pp, fp. If there is  **u**, ​ **v** or **x** think perfect. 
 +  * Amatus gives you passive perfect tenses ​
  
 +|   ​| ​  | Aspect ​ |||
 +|   ​| ​  ​|Simple ​ |Progressive ​ |Completed ​ |
 +|Time  |Present ​ |Video ​ |Video ​ |Vidi  |
 +|  |   |I see  |I am seeing ​ |I have seen  |
 +|   ​| ​  ​|Present ​ |Present ​ |Perfect ​ |
 +|   ​|Past ​ |Vidi  |Videbam ​ |Videram ​ |
 +|   ​| ​  |I saw  |I was seeing ​ |I had seen  |
 +|   ​| ​  ​|perfect ​ |imperfect ​ |pluperfect ​ |
 +|   ​|future ​ |videbo ​ |videbo ​ |videro ​ |
 +|   ​| ​  | I will see  |I will be seeing ​ |I will have seen  |
 +|   ​| ​  ​|future ​ |future ​ |future perfect ​ |
  
-<div class="​wikitable">​ +**Word order is irrelevant** 
-<table border="​1">​ +  ​* Das librum discipulo - indirect object is in dative 
- <​tr id="​l414">​ +  ​* Dominus servos malo liberat - The lord sets the servant free from evil 
-<​td>​ +  ​* Dominus servos **a malo liberat** ... from **the evil one.** 
- </​td>​ +  ​* Later periods no longer make that distinctions - leaves us free to translate. 
-<td colspan="​2"​ align="​center">​ +  ​* Consecrare and sacrare - through the development of the language, there is a birth of new compound verbs, sometimes meaning the same. Esp. in ecclesiastical Latin. Also associated with decline of knowledge of latin. 
-Tense   | +  ​* Sanctus - holy, sanctified - he is dead. Sanctus Cicero - means he is dead. That was the first meaning of the word. There is a development of meaning when Xns take over the meaning. Voluptas, Libido, but in Xn will use concupiscentia. From augustine onwards this is used for sexual desire. 
-Mood  | +  ​* You have to translate being aware of the period in which the text was written. It makes a huge difference. 
-Voice  | +  ​* E.g. res religiosa ​religious case, religious thing in Roman. 
-Person ​ +  ​* Translated state affair. In roman times, church and state was the same
-Number</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
- <​tr id="​l415">​ +
-<td> +
-Amo  | +
-Present ​ | +
-I love  | +
-Indicative ​ | +
-Active ​ +
-1st  | +
-Singular</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
- <​tr id="​l416">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-   | +
-Imperfect ​ | +
-I love  | +
-Subjunctive ​ | +
-Passive ​ | +
-2nd  | +
-Plural</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
- <​tr id="​l417">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-   | +
-Future ​ | +
-I will love  | +
-Imperative Love!  | +
-(Medial ​- in gk)  | +
-3rd  +
-.</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
- <​tr id="​l418">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-   | +
-Perfect ​ | +
-I loved </​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
- <​tr id="​l419">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-   | +
-Pluperfect ​ | +
-I had loved</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
- <​tr id="​l420">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-   | +
-Future perfect ​ | +
-I will have loved</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-</​table>​ +
-</​div>​+
  
-    </ul>+===Unit 6 - Present indicative active===
  
- 
-<p id="​l422">​ 
-Participle - present, past, future, active and passiveAmare &lt; Ama - reAma-o but the o is strong and it contracts with a so that ao = o so amo.Amo, amare, amavi, amatus -Amavi gives you perfect tenses p, pp, fp. If there is  **u**, ​ **v** or **x** think perfect.Amatus gives you passive perfect tenses ​ 
- 
- 
-    <ul> 
- 
- 
-<div class="​wikitable">​ 
-<table border="​1">​ 
- <​tr id="​l429">​ 
-<td> 
-   | 
- </​td>​ 
-<td colspan="​3"​ align="​center">​ 
- ​Aspect</​td>​ 
-</tr> 
- <​tr id="​l430">​ 
-<td> 
-   | 
-   | 
-Simple ​ | 
-Progressive ​ | 
-Completed</​td>​ 
-</tr> 
- <​tr id="​l431">​ 
-<td> 
-Time  | 
-Present ​ | 
-Video  | 
-Video  | 
-Vidi</​td>​ 
-</tr> 
- <​tr id="​l432">​ 
-<td> 
-   | 
-   | 
-I see  | 
-I am seeing ​ | 
-I have seen</​td>​ 
-</tr> 
- <​tr id="​l433">​ 
-<td> 
-   | 
-   | 
-Present ​ | 
-Present ​ | 
-Perfect</​td>​ 
-</tr> 
- <​tr id="​l434">​ 
-<td> 
-   | 
-Past  | 
-Vidi  | 
-Videbam ​ | 
-Videram</​td>​ 
-</tr> 
- <​tr id="​l435">​ 
-<td> 
-   | 
-   | 
-I saw  | 
-I was seeing ​ | 
-I had seen</​td>​ 
-</tr> 
- <​tr id="​l436">​ 
-<td> 
-   | 
-   | 
-perfect ​ | 
-imperfect ​ | 
-pluperfect</​td>​ 
-</tr> 
- <​tr id="​l437">​ 
-<td> 
-   | 
-future ​ | 
-videbo ​ | 
-videbo ​ | 
-videro</​td>​ 
-</tr> 
- <​tr id="​l438">​ 
-<td> 
-   | 
-   | 
- I will see  | 
-I will be seeing ​ | 
-I will have seen</​td>​ 
-</tr> 
- <​tr id="​l439">​ 
-<td> 
-   | 
-   | 
-future ​ | 
-future ​ | 
-future perfect</​td>​ 
-</tr> 
-</​table>​ 
-</​div>​ 
- 
-    </ul> 
- 
- 
-<p id="​l441">​ 
-**Word order is irrelevant**Das librum discipulo - indirect object is in dativeDominus servos malo liberat - The lord sets the servant free from evilDominus servos **a malo liberat** ... from **the evil one.**Later periods no longer make that distinctions - leaves us free to translate.Consecrare and sacrare - through the development of the language, there is a birth of new compound verbs, sometimes meaning the same. Esp. in ecclesiastical Latin. Also associated with decline of knowledge of latin.Sanctus - holy, sanctified - he is dead. Sanctus Cicero - means he is dead. That was the first meaning of the word. There is a development of meaning when Xns take over the meaning. Voluptas, Libido, but in Xn will use concupiscentia. From augustine onwards this is used for sexual desire.You have to translate being aware of the period in which the text was written. It makes a huge difference.E.g. res religiosa - religious case, religious thing in Roman.Translated state affair. In roman times, church and state was the same.  
- 
-===Unit 6 - Present indicative active=== 
-<p id="​l453">​ 
 Present, ind, act worth studying these endings by heart. ​ Present, ind, act worth studying these endings by heart. ​
  
 +|1st  |Amare ​ |a  |Amo  |amas  |amat  |amamus ​ |amatis ​ |amant ​ |
 +|2nd  |Monere ​ |e  |moneo ​ |mones ​ |monet ​ |monemus ​ |monetis ​ |monent ​ |
 +|3rd  |Ducere ​ |e  |duco  |ducis ​ |ducit ​ |ducimus ​ |ducitis ​ |ducunt ​ |
 +|5th or 3b  |Capere ​ |io  |capio ​ |capis ​ |capit ​ |capimus ​ |capitis ​ |capiunt ​ |
 +|4th  |Audire ​ |i  |audio ​ |audis ​ |audit ​ |audimus ​ |auditis ​ |audiunt ​ |
  
-    <ul>+//Vocatne Petrus discipulum//​ - anclitical //ne// indicates a question. Later latin didn't use the anclitic, once it was written more than spoken. 
 +__Ablative of Separation__ ​ separation, freedom, deprivation,​ often uses //a, ab, ex//. 
 +__Ablative of Means__ (middel) and __of Manner__ (wijsen) In both cases you can present a correct translation whether it is abl of means of manner.
  
 +  * Means is concrete. //Dominus psalmis laudamus.// //Justi in gladio regnant.//
 +  * Manner is abstract; and may use //cum//. or //Dominum magno cum gaudio laudamus.// ​
  
-<div class="​wikitable">​ +**Exercises** ​1. Pro Hebraeis Dominus Aegyptios fugat. For hebrew the Lord fight with Egyptian. 2. Deo Gratias semper agimus. Thanks God for his conduct always. 3. Aeternis praeceptis Dominus populum ​monet.4. Maria natum in templo invenit.Maria finds her son in the temple. 5. Episcopus populum in ecclesiam inducit.Bishops lead the people in the church. 6. Petrus cum discipulis ad domum advenit.Peter with (the other) disciples arrive at the hourse. 7. Cum gaudio vinum vitae bibimus? 8. Quare apostolus Christum malis tradit? 9. Famulus malus puerum auro seducit. 10. In gloria Christus populum conjungit.In the glory Christ unites the people. ​
-<table border="​1">​ +
- <​tr id="​l454">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-1st  | +
-Amare  | +
-a  | +
-Amo  | +
-amas  | +
-amat  | +
-amamus ​ | +
-amatis ​ | +
-amant</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
- <​tr id="​l455">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-2nd  | +
-Monere ​ | +
-e  | +
-moneo  | +
-mones  | +
-monet  | +
-monemus ​ | +
-monetis ​ | +
-monent</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
- <​tr id="​l456">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-3rd  | +
-Ducere ​ | +
-e  | +
-duco  | +
-ducis  | +
-ducit  | +
-ducimus ​ | +
-ducitis ​ | +
-ducunt</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
- <​tr id="​l457">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-5th or 3b  | +
-Capere ​ | +
-io  | +
-capio  | +
-capis  | +
-capit  | +
-capimus ​ | +
-capitis ​ | +
-capiunt</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
- <​tr id="​l458">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-4th  | +
-Audire ​ | +
-i  | +
-audio  | +
-audis  | +
-audit  | +
-audimus ​ | +
-auditis ​ | +
-audiunt</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-</​table>​ +
-</​div>​+
  
-    </ul>+===Unit 7 - Present Indicative Passive===
  
- 
-<p id="​l460">​ 
-//Vocatne Petrus discipulum//​ - anclitical //ne// indicates a question. Later latin didn't use the anclitic, once it was written more than spoken.<​u>​Ablative of Separation</​u> ​ separation, freedom, deprivation,​ often uses //a, ab, ex//​.<​u>​Ablative of Means</​u>​ (middel) and <u>of Manner</​u>​ (wijsen) In both cases you can present a correct translation whether it is abl of means of manner. 
- 
- 
-    <ul> 
- 
-    <li> 
-<p id="​l463">​ 
-Means is concrete. //Dominus psalmis laudamus.// //Justi in gladio regnant.// 
-  |<p id="​l464">​ 
-Manner is abstract; and may use //cum//. or //Dominum magno cum gaudio laudamus.// ​ 
- 
-</li> 
- 
-    </ul> 
- 
- 
-<p id="​l466">​ 
-**Exercises**1. Pro Hebraeis Dominus Aegyptios fugat.For hebrew the Lord fight with Egyptian.2. Deo Gratias semper agimus.Thanks God for his conduct always.3. Aeternis praeceptis Dominus populum monet.4. Maria natum in templo invenit.Maria finds her son in the temple.5. Episcopus populum in ecclesiam inducit.Bishops lead the people in the church.6. Petrus cum discipulis ad domum advenit.Peter with (the other) disciples arrive at the hourse.7. Cum gaudio vinum vitae bibimus?8. Quare apostolus Christum malis tradit?9. Famulus malus puerum auro seducit.10. In gloria Christus populum conjungit.In the glory Christ unites the people. ​ 
- 
-===Unit 7 - Present Indicative Passive=== 
-<p id="​l485">​ 
 **Best to learn by heart** Any transitive verb can be passive. Present stem + passive endings (with adjustments). ​ **Best to learn by heart** Any transitive verb can be passive. Present stem + passive endings (with adjustments). ​
  
 +|-r   ​|-ris ​  ​|-tur ​  ​|-mur ​  ​|-mini ​  ​|-ntur ​ |
 +|Amor   ​|amaris -re   ​|amatur ​  ​|amamur ​  ​|amamini ​  ​|amantur ​ |
 +|Moneor ​  ​|moneris -re   ​|monetur ​  ​|monemur ​ |monemini ​ |monentur ​ |
 +|Ducor ​  ​|duceris -re  |ducitur ​  ​|ducimur ​  ​|ducimini ​  ​|ducuntur ​ |
 +|Capior ​  ​|caperis -re  |capitur ​  ​|capimur ​  ​|capimini ​  ​|capiuntur ​ |
 +|Audior ​  ​|audiris -re  |auditur ​  ​|audimur ​  ​|audimini ​  ​|audiuntur ​ |
  
-    <ul> 
- 
- 
-<div class="​wikitable">​ 
-<table border="​1">​ 
- <​tr id="​l486">​ 
-<td> 
--r   | 
--ris   | 
--tur   | 
--mur   | 
--mini   | 
--ntur</​td>​ 
-</tr> 
- <​tr id="​l487">​ 
-<td> 
-Amor   | 
-amaris -re   | 
-amatur ​  | 
-amamur ​  | 
-amamini ​  | 
-amantur</​td>​ 
-</tr> 
- <​tr id="​l488">​ 
-<td> 
-Moneor ​  | 
-moneris -re   | 
-monetur ​  | 
-monemur ​ | 
-monemini ​ | 
-monentur</​td>​ 
-</tr> 
- <​tr id="​l489">​ 
-<td> 
-Ducor   | 
-duceris -re  | 
-ducitur ​  | 
-ducimur ​  | 
-ducimini ​  | 
-ducuntur</​td>​ 
-</tr> 
- <​tr id="​l490">​ 
-<td> 
-Capior ​  | 
-caperis -re  | 
-capitur ​  | 
-capimur ​  | 
-capimini ​  | 
-capiuntur</​td>​ 
-</tr> 
- <​tr id="​l491">​ 
-<td> 
-Audior ​  | 
-audiris -re  | 
-auditur ​  | 
-audimur ​  | 
-audimini ​  | 
-audiuntur</​td>​ 
-</tr> 
-</​table>​ 
-</​div>​ 
- 
-        <ul> 
- 
-        <li> 
-<p id="​l492">​ 
 note the second person present passive INDICATIVE is also the second person present passive IMPERATIVE (Chapter 19) note the second person present passive INDICATIVE is also the second person present passive IMPERATIVE (Chapter 19)
  
-</li>+  * Nostra peccata a Christo delentur - a christo - ablative of personal agency - a ab 
 +  * Terra est gloria Dei plena. Some adjectives take an ablative rather than genitive, e.g. plena, dignus, indignus, etc. 
  
-        </​ul>​ +**Exercises**2. Jesus Nazarenus dicitur Christus. ​ Jesu of Nazarenus is called as christ. ​
- +
- +
- +
-    </​ul>​ +
- +
- +
-<p id="​l493">​ +
-Nostra peccata a Christo delentur - a christo - ablative of personal agency - a / abTerra est gloria Dei plena. Some adjectives take an ablative rather than genitive, e.g. plena, dignus, indignus, etc.  +
- +
-<p id="​l496">​ +
-**Exercises**2. Jesus Nazarenus dicitur Christus. +
- +
- +
-    <​ul>​ +
- +
-<p id="​l498">​ +
- Jesu of Nazarenus is called as christ. ​ +
- +
- +
-    </ul>+
  
 ===Unit 8 - Past Tenses - Imperfect=== ===Unit 8 - Past Tenses - Imperfect===
  
-    <ul>+|  **Imperfect Indicative Active** ​ ||||| 
 +|  Stem + //-ba-// + ending (stems ending //-io-// change to //​-ie-//​) ​  ​||||| 
 +|Ama-   ​|mone- ​  ​|dice- ​  ​|capie- ​  ​|audie- ​ | 
 +|Amabam ​  ​|Monebam ​  ​|Dicebam ​  ​|Capiebam ​  ​|Audiebam ​ | 
 +|Amabas ​  ​|Monebas ​  ​|Dicebas ​  ​|Capiebas ​  ​|Audiebas ​ | 
 +|Amabat ​  ​|Monebat ​  ​|Dicebat ​  ​|Capiebat ​  ​|Audiebat ​ | 
 +|Amabamus ​  ​|Monebamus ​  ​|Dicebamus ​  ​|Capiebamus ​  ​|Audiebamus ​ | 
 +|Amabatis ​  ​|Monebatis ​  ​|Dicebatis ​  ​|Capiebatis ​  ​|Audiebatis ​ | 
 +|Amabant ​  ​|Monebant ​  ​|Dicebant ​  ​|Capiebant ​  ​|Audiebant ​ | 
 +|  **Passive** ​ ||||| 
 +|Amabar ​  ​|Monebar ​  ​|Dicebar ​  ​|Capiebar ​  ​|Audiebar ​ | 
 +|Amabaris ​  ​|Monebaris ​  ​|Dicebaris ​  ​|Capiebaris ​  ​|Audiebatis ​ | 
 +|Amabatur ​  ​|Monebatur ​  ​|Dicebatur ​  ​|Capiebatur ​  ​|Audiebatur ​ | 
 +|Amabamur ​  ​|Monebamur ​  ​|Dicebamur ​  ​|Capiebamur ​  ​|Audiebamur ​ | 
 +|Amabamini ​  ​|Monebamini ​  ​|Dicebamini ​  ​|Capiebamini ​  ​|Audiebamini ​ | 
 +|Amabantur ​  ​|Monebantur ​  ​|Dicebantur ​  ​|Capiebantur ​  ​|Audiebantur ​ |
  
  
-<div class="​wikitable">​ 
-<table border="​1">​ 
- <​tr id="​l501">​ 
-<td colspan="​5"​ align="​center">​ 
-**Imperfect Indicative Active**</​td>​ 
-</tr> 
- <​tr id="​l502">​ 
-<td colspan="​5"​ align="​center">​ 
-Stem + //-ba-// + ending (stems ending //-io-// change to //-ie-//) </td> 
-</tr> 
- <​tr id="​l503">​ 
-<td> 
-//​Ama- ​  | 
-mone-   | 
-dice-   | 
-capie- ​  | 
-audie-</​td>​ 
-</tr> 
- <​tr id="​l504">​ 
-<td> 
-Amabam ​  | 
-Monebam ​  | 
-Dicebam ​  | 
-Capiebam ​  | 
-Audiebam</​td>​ 
-</tr> 
- <​tr id="​l505">​ 
-<td> 
-Amabas ​  | 
-Monebas ​  | 
-Dicebas ​  | 
-Capiebas ​  | 
-Audiebas</​td>​ 
-</tr> 
- <​tr id="​l506">​ 
-<td> 
-Amabat ​  | 
-Monebat ​  | 
-Dicebat ​  | 
-Capiebat ​  | 
-Audiebat</​td>​ 
-</tr> 
- <​tr id="​l507">​ 
-<td> 
-Amabamus ​  | 
-Monebamus ​  | 
-Dicebamus ​  | 
-Capiebamus ​  | 
-Audiebamus</​td>​ 
-</tr> 
- <​tr id="​l508">​ 
-<td> 
-Amabatis ​  | 
-Monebatis ​  | 
-Dicebatis ​  | 
-Capiebatis ​  | 
-Audiebatis</​td>​ 
-</tr> 
- <​tr id="​l509">​ 
-<td> 
-Amabant ​  | 
-Monebant ​  | 
-Dicebant ​  | 
-Capiebant ​  | 
-Audiebant//</​td>​ 
-</tr> 
- <​tr id="​l510">​ 
-<td colspan="​5"​ align="​center">​ 
-**Passive**</​td>​ 
-</tr> 
- <​tr id="​l511">​ 
-<td> 
-//​Amabar ​  | 
-Monebar ​  | 
-Dicebar ​  | 
-Capiebar ​  | 
-Audiebar</​td>​ 
-</tr> 
- <​tr id="​l512">​ 
-<td> 
-Amabaris ​  | 
-Monebaris ​  | 
-Dicebaris ​  | 
-Capiebaris ​  | 
-Audiebatis</​td>​ 
-</tr> 
- <​tr id="​l513">​ 
-<td> 
-Amabatur ​  | 
-Monebatur ​  | 
-Dicebatur ​  | 
-Capiebatur ​  | 
-Audiebatur</​td>​ 
-</tr> 
- <​tr id="​l514">​ 
-<td> 
-Amabamur ​  | 
-Monebamur ​  | 
-Dicebamur ​  | 
-Capiebamur ​  | 
-Audiebamur</​td>​ 
-</tr> 
- <​tr id="​l515">​ 
-<td> 
-Amabamini ​  | 
-Monebamini ​  | 
-Dicebamini ​  | 
-Capiebamini ​  | 
-Audiebamini</​td>​ 
-</tr> 
- <​tr id="​l516">​ 
-<td> 
-Amabantur ​  | 
-Monebantur ​  | 
-Dicebantur ​  | 
-Capiebantur ​  | 
-Audiebantur//</​td>​ 
-</tr> 
-</​table>​ 
-</​div>​ 
- 
-    </ul> 
- 
- 
-<p id="​l518">​ 
 //​Christianus sum. &​gt;&​gt;​ Dicebat quia christianus erat.// (Imp. Ind. Act.) **Quia, quod, quoniam** - that, because ​ //​Christianus sum. &​gt;&​gt;​ Dicebat quia christianus erat.// (Imp. Ind. Act.) **Quia, quod, quoniam** - that, because ​
  
-<p id="​l520">​ 
 Ellipsis - //Boni viri Deum laudant, sed mali (viri) non (laudant).//​ - omitting obvious words. ​ Ellipsis - //Boni viri Deum laudant, sed mali (viri) non (laudant).//​ - omitting obvious words. ​
  
-<p id="​l522">​ 
 **Exercises** ​ **Exercises** ​
  
 ===Unit 9 - Future=== ===Unit 9 - Future===
  
-    <ul>+^  Future Indicative Active - 1 & 2  ^^  Future Indicative Active 3,4,5  ^^^ 
 +|Ama-  |Mone- ​ |Duce- ​ |Cape- ​ |Audi- ​ | 
 +|Amabo ​ |Monebo ​ |Ducam ​ |Faciam ​ |Audiam ​ | 
 +|Amabis ​ |Monebis ​ |Duces ​ |Facies ​ |Audies ​ | 
 +|Amabit ​ |Monebit ​ |Ducet ​ |Faciet ​ |Audiet ​ | 
 +|Amabimus ​ |Monebimus ​ |Ducemus ​ |Faciemus ​ |Audiemus ​ | 
 +|Amabitis ​ |Monebitis ​ |Ducetis ​ |Facietis ​ |Audietis ​ | 
 +|Amabint ​ |Monebint ​ |Ducent ​ |Facient ​ |Audient ​ |
  
 +^  Future Indicative Passive - 1 & 2  ^^  Future Indicative Passive 3,4,5  ^^^
 +|Amabor ​ |Monebor ​ |Ducar ​ |Faciam ​ |Audiam ​ |
 +|Amaberis ​ |Moneberis ​ |Duceris ​ |Facieris ​ |Audieris ​ |
 +|Amabitur ​ |Monebitur ​ |Ducetur ​ |Facietur ​ |Audietur ​ |
 +|Amabimur ​ |Monebimur ​ |Ducemur ​ |Faciemur ​ |Audiemur ​ |
 +|Amabimini ​ |Monebimini ​ |Ducemini ​ |Faciemini ​ |Audiemini ​ |
 +|Amabintur ​ |Monebintur ​ |Ducentur ​ |Facientur ​ |Audientur ​ |
  
-<div class="​wikitable">​ +__Infinitive as Subject__ ​then use neuter singular as predicate adjective. ​//Bonum est invocare deum//__Ablative of Specification__ ​//Servus (n.s) domini (gen.s) animo (abl.s) beatus (n.s) est.// The servant of the Lord is happy //in (with respect to) spirit//
-<table border="​1">​ +
- <​tr id="​l526">​ +
-<td colspan="​2"​ align="​center">​ +
-Future Indicative Active ​1 & 2</td> +
-<td colspan="​3"​ align="​center">​ +
-Future Indicative Active 3,4,5</td> +
-</tr> +
- <​tr id="​l527">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-Ama-  | +
-Mone-  | +
-Duce-  | +
-Cape-  | +
-Audi-</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
- <​tr id="​l528">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-Amabo  | +
-Monebo ​ | +
-Ducam  | +
-Faciam ​ | +
-Audiam</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
- <​tr id="​l529">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-Amabis ​ | +
-Monebis ​ | +
-Duces  | +
-Facies ​ | +
-Audies</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
- <​tr id="​l530">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-Amabit ​ | +
-Monebit ​ | +
-Ducet  | +
-Faciet ​ | +
-Audiet</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
- <​tr id="​l531">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-Amabimus ​ | +
-Monebimus ​ | +
-Ducemus ​ | +
-Faciemus ​ | +
-Audiemus</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
- <​tr id="​l532">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-Amabitis ​ | +
-Monebitis ​ | +
-Ducetis ​ | +
-Facietis ​ | +
-Audietis</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
- <​tr id="​l533">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-Amabint ​ | +
-Monebint ​ | +
-Ducent ​ | +
-Facient ​ | +
-Audient</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
- <​tr id="​l534">​ +
-<td colspan="​2"​ align="​center">​ +
-Future Indicative Passive - 1 & 2</​td>​ +
-<td colspan="​3"​ align="​center">​ +
-Future Indicative Passive 3,​4,​5</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
- <​tr id="​l535">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-Amabor ​ | +
-Monebor ​ | +
-Ducar  | +
-Faciam ​ | +
-Audiam</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
- <​tr id="​l536">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-Amaberis ​ | +
-Moneberis ​ | +
-Duceris ​ | +
-Facieris ​ | +
-Audieris</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
- <​tr id="​l537">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-Amabitur ​ | +
-Monebitur ​ | +
-Ducetur ​ | +
-Facietur ​ | +
-Audietur</​td>​ +
-</tr> +
- <​tr id="​l538">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-Amabimur ​ | +
-Monebimur ​ | +
-Ducemur ​ | +
-Faciemur ​ | +
-Audiemur<​/td> +
-</tr> +
- <​tr id="​l539">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-Amabimini ​ | +
-Monebimini ​ | +
-Ducemini ​ | +
-Faciemini ​ | +
-Audiemini<​/td> +
-</tr> +
- <​tr id="​l540">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-Amabintur ​ | +
-Monebintur ​ | +
-Ducentur ​ | +
-Facientur ​ | +
-Audientur<​/td> +
-</tr> +
-</table> +
-</div>+
  
-    </ul> 
- 
- 
-<p id="​l542">​ 
-<​u>​Infinitive as Subject</​u>​ - then use neuter singular as predicate adjective. //Bonum est invocare deum//<​u>​Ablative of Specification</​u>​ //Servus (n.s) domini (gen.s) animo (abl.s) beatus (n.s) est.// The servant of the Lord is happy //in (with respect to) spirit//​. ​ 
- 
-<p id="​l545">​ 
 **Exercises** ​ **Exercises** ​
  
 ===Unit 10 - Perfect Active=== ===Unit 10 - Perfect Active===
-<p id="​l548">​+
 Used all the time - perfect active stem important - Consistent - If there is  **u**, ​ **v** or **x** think perfect. The tense is **perfect active stem + perfect active endings**. The pluperfect and future perfect are  **perfect active stem + tense suffix + perfect active endings**. Part of stem can can disappear in a contraction:​ //laudasti, laudastis// in place of //​laudastivisti,​ laudastivitis//​. The is simple past //I did// and present complete //I have done//​. ​ Used all the time - perfect active stem important - Consistent - If there is  **u**, ​ **v** or **x** think perfect. The tense is **perfect active stem + perfect active endings**. The pluperfect and future perfect are  **perfect active stem + tense suffix + perfect active endings**. Part of stem can can disappear in a contraction:​ //laudasti, laudastis// in place of //​laudastivisti,​ laudastivitis//​. The is simple past //I did// and present complete //I have done//​. ​
  
 +|laudavi ​ |laudavisti ​ |laudavit ​ |laudavimus ​ |laudavistis ​ |laudaverunt ​ |
 +|habui ​ |habuisti ​ |habuit ​ |habuimus ​ |habuistis ​ |habuerunt ​ |
 +|misi  |misisti ​ |misit ​ |misimus ​ |misitis ​ |miserunt ​ |
 +|audivi ​ |audivisti ​ |audivit ​ |audivimus ​ |audivistis ​ |audiverunt ​ |
 +|dixi  |dixisti ​ |dixit ​ |diximus ​ |dixistis ​ |dixerunt ​ |
 +|veni  |venisti ​ |venit* ​ |venimus* ​ |venistis ​ |venerunt ​ |
 +|fui  |fuisti ​ |fuit  |fuimus ​ |fuistis ​ |fuerunt ​ |
  
-    <ul>+  * these two forms are the same as present active indicative  
 +  * **qui quae quod** 
 +__Relative Pronoun__ Case follows use in the clause. Adjectival clauses //Deus, quem laudamus....//​ God whom we praise. Connective relative //Discipuli veniebant. Qui Jesum audiebant.//​ The disciples were coming, who (and they) gladly were listening to Jesus.__Interrogative Adjective__ Case follows the noun being modified. ​
  
 +^.  ^Sing M  ^Sing F  ^Sing N  ^Pl M  ^Pl F  ^Pl N  ^
 +|Nom Who.  |qui  |quae  |quod  |qui  |quae  |quae  |
 +|Gen. Whose  |cuius ​ |cuius ​ |cuius ​ |quorum ​ |quarum ​ |quorum ​ |
 +|Dat. To/for Whom  |cui  |cui  |cui  |quibus ​ |quibus ​ |quibus ​ |
 +|Acc. Whom  |quem  |quam  |quod  |quos  |quas  |quae  |
 +|Abl. From, By Whom  |quo  |qua  |quo  |quibus ​ |quibus ​ |quibus ​ |
  
-<div class="​wikitable">​ +__Suffixes__ + //-cumque// whichever ​//quocum// with whom //quem propter// on account of //qui quoniam// and because they...
-<table border="​1">​ +
- <​tr id="​l550">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-laudavi ​ | +
-laudavisti ​ | +
-laudavit ​ | +
-laudavimus ​ | +
-laudavistis ​ | +
-laudaverunt<​/td> +
-</tr> +
- <​tr id="​l551">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-habui  | +
-habuisti ​ | +
-habuit ​ | +
-habuimus ​ | +
-habuistis ​ | +
-habuerunt<​/td> +
-</tr> +
- <​tr id="​l552">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-misi  | +
-misisti ​ | +
-misit  | +
-misimus ​ | +
-misitis ​ | +
-miserunt<​/td> +
-</tr> +
- <​tr id="​l553">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-audivi ​ | +
-audivisti ​ | +
-audivit ​ | +
-audivimus ​ | +
-audivistis ​ | +
-audiverunt<​/td> +
-</tr> +
- <​tr id="​l554">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-dixi  | +
-dixisti ​ | +
-dixit  | +
-diximus ​ | +
-dixistis ​ | +
-dixerunt<​/td> +
-</tr> +
- <​tr id="​l555">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-veni  | +
-venisti ​ | +
-venit* ​ | +
-venimus* ​ | +
-venistis ​ | +
-venerunt<​/td> +
-</tr> +
- <​tr id="​l556">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-fui  | +
-fuisti ​ | +
-fuit  | +
-fuimus ​ | +
-fuistis ​ | +
-fuerunt</td> +
-</tr> +
-</table> +
-</div>+
  
-    </​ul>​ +**Exercises:​**1. Gloria in excelsis deo.Glory to God inthe highest!2. Minister et servi oraverunt: Kyrie, eleison!Minister and sevants pra3. Dominus, qui est bonus, desideria populi semper scivit.4. Servus, quem scis, ministro et aquam et vinum dedit.5. Verba Christi, quae audimus, apostoli tradiderunt.6. Qui discipuli in Galilaea sciverunt quod Jesus Nazarenus erat filius unigenitus Dei?7. Secundum tua verba perenniter operavimus et oravimus.8. Cui servo non carus fuit dominus?9. Per unigenitum Filium Deus debita nostrorum peccatorum solvit.10. Agnus Dei, qui tollit peccata mundi, a populo semper laudatur.11. Hodie(adv) Dominus(Ns) Deus(Ns) Filium(Ac.s) unigenitum(Ac.s) semper(adv) cunctos(Ac.pl) in caelo(ab.s.locative) et in terra(ab.s.locative) extulit(3s. perf.act.ind). Alleluja.Today the Lord God always lifts up the only Son in heaven and earth 
- +
- +
-<p id="​l557">​ +
-*these two forms are the same as present active indicative  +
- +
-<p id="​l559">​ +
-**qui quae quod**<​u>​Relative Pronoun</​u>​ Case follows use in the clause. Adjectival clauses //Deus, quem laudamus....//​ God whom we praise. Connective relative //Discipuli veniebant. Qui Jesum audiebant.//​ The disciples were coming, who (and they) gladly were listening to Jesus.<​u>​Interrogative Adjective</​u>​ Case follows the noun being modified.  +
- +
- +
-    <​ul>​ +
- +
- +
-<div class="​wikitable">​ +
-<table border="​1">​ +
- <​tr id="​l562">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-.  | +
-Sing M  | +
-Sing F  | +
-Sing N  | +
-Pl M  | +
-Pl F  | +
-Pl N</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
- <​tr id="​l563">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-Nom Who.  | +
-qui  | +
-quae  | +
-quod  | +
-qui  | +
-quae  | +
-quae</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
- <​tr id="​l564">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-Gen. Whose  | +
-cuius  | +
-cuius  | +
-cuius  | +
-quorum ​ | +
-quarum ​ | +
-quorum</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
- <​tr id="​l565">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-Dat. To/for Whom  | +
-cui  | +
-cui  | +
-cui  | +
-quibus ​ | +
-quibus ​ | +
-quibus</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
- <​tr id="​l566">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-Acc. Whom  | +
-quem  | +
-quam  | +
-quod  | +
-quos  | +
-quas  | +
-quae</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
- <​tr id="​l567">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-Abl. From, By Whom  | +
-quo  | +
-qua  | +
-quo  | +
-quibus ​ | +
-quibus ​ | +
-quibus</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-</​table>​ +
-</​div>​ +
- +
-    </​ul>​ +
- +
- +
-<p id="​l568">​ +
-<​u>​Suffixes</​u>​ + //-cumque// whichever // //quocum// with whom // //quem propter// on account of // //qui quoniam// and because they...**Exercises:​**1. Gloria in excelsis deo.Glory to God inthe highest!2. Minister et servi oraverunt: Kyrie, eleison!Minister and sevants pra3. Dominus, qui est bonus, desideria populi semper scivit.4. Servus, quem scis, ministro et aquam et vinum dedit.5. Verba Christi, quae audimus, apostoli tradiderunt.6. Qui discipuli in Galilaea sciverunt quod Jesus Nazarenus erat filius unigenitus Dei?7. Secundum tua verba perenniter operavimus et oravimus.8. Cui servo non carus fuit dominus?9. Per unigenitum Filium Deus debita nostrorum peccatorum solvit.10. Agnus Dei, qui tollit peccata mundi, a populo semper laudatur.11. Hodie(adv) Dominus(Ns) Deus(Ns) Filium(Ac.s) unigenitum(Ac.s) semper(adv) cunctos(Ac.pl) in caelo(ab.s.locative) et in terra(ab.s.locative) extulit(3s. perf.act.ind). Alleluja.Today the Lord God always lifts up the only Son in heaven and earth +
  
 ===Unit 11 - Pluperfect=== ===Unit 11 - Pluperfect===
  
-    ​<ul>+^**Pluperfect Active Indicative** = Perfect stem + Imperfect of **esse** ​ ^^^^^^ 
 +^.  ^I had loved  ^|I had advised ​ ^ I had ruled   ^I had taken   ^I had heard  ^ 
 +|Singular ​ |||||| 
 +|1.   ​|amaveram ​   |monueram ​    ​|rexeram ​    ​|ceperam ​    ​|audiveram ​ | 
 +|2.   ​|amaveras ​   |monueras ​    ​|rexeras ​    ​|ceperas ​    ​|audiveras ​ | 
 +|3.   ​|amaverat ​   |monuerat ​    ​|rexerat ​    ​|ceperat ​    ​|audiverat ​ | 
 +|PLURAL ​ |||||| 
 +|1.   ​|amaveramus ​  ​|monueramus ​   |rexeramus ​   |ceperamus ​   |audiveramus ​ | 
 +|2.   ​|amaveratis ​  ​|monueratis ​   |rexeratis ​   |ceperatis ​   |audiveratis ​ | 
 +|3.   ​|amaverant ​   |monuerant ​    ​|rexerant ​   |ceperant ​   |audiverant ​ |
  
 +^**Future Perfect Active Indicative** = Perfect stem + future.act.ind of **esse** ​ ^^^^^^
 +^SINGULAR ​ ^^^^^^
 +|I shall have loved   |I shall have advised ​  |I shall have ruled  |I shall have taken  |I shall have heard  |
 +|1.   ​|amavero ​    ​|monuero ​    ​|rexero ​   |cepero ​   |audivero ​ |
 +|2.   ​|amaveris ​   |monueris ​   |rexeris ​    ​|ceperis ​    ​|audiveris ​ |
 +|3.   ​|amaverit ​   |monuerit ​   |rexerit ​    ​|ceperit ​    ​|audiverit ​ |
 +|PLURAL ​ ||||||
 +|1.   ​|amaverimus ​  ​|monuerimus ​  ​|rexerimus ​   |ceperimus ​   |audiverimus ​ |
 +|2.   ​|amaveritis ​  ​|monueritis ​  ​|rexeritis ​   |ceperitis ​   |audiveritis ​ |
 +|3.   ​|amaverint ​   |monuerint ​   |rexerint ​    ​|ceperint ​    ​|audiverint ​ |
  
-<div class="​wikitable">​ +  ​__Ablative ​of cause__ - with or without the preposition e.  ​Beati sumus (e) victoria Domini. 
-<table border="​1">​ +  * __Direct quotations__ may have no change, or quia(quoniam) following dixitIt may have a commaTense in a quote needn'​t match //dixit// 
- <​tr id="​l586">​ +
-<td colspan="​6"​ align="​center">​ +
-**Pluperfect Active Indicative** = Perfect stem + Imperfect ​of **esse**</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
- <​tr id="​l587">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-.  ​| +
-I had loved   | +
-I had advised ​ +
- I had ruled   | +
-I had taken   | +
-I had heard</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
- <​tr id="​l588">​ +
-<td colspan="​6"​ align="​center">​ +
-Singular</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
- <​tr id="​l589">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-1.   | +
-amaveram ​   | +
-monueram ​    | +
-rexeram ​    | +
-ceperam ​    | +
-audiveram</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
- <​tr id="​l590">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-2.   | +
-amaveras ​   | +
-monueras ​    | +
-rexeras ​    | +
-ceperas ​    | +
-audiveras</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
- <​tr id="​l591">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-3.   | +
-amaverat ​   | +
-monuerat ​    | +
-rexerat ​    | +
-ceperat ​    | +
-audiverat</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
- <​tr id="​l592">​ +
-<td colspan="​6"​ align="​center">​ +
-PLURAL</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
- <​tr id="​l593">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-1.   | +
-amaveramus ​  | +
-monueramus ​   | +
-rexeramus ​   | +
-ceperamus ​   | +
-audiveramus</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
- <​tr id="​l594">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-2.   | +
-amaveratis ​  | +
-monueratis ​   | +
-rexeratis ​   | +
-ceperatis ​   | +
-audiveratis</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
- <​tr id="​l595">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-3.   | +
-amaverant ​   | +
-monuerant ​    | +
-rexerant ​   | +
-ceperant ​   | +
-audiverant</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
- <​tr id="​l596">​ +
-<td colspan="​6"​ align="​center">​ +
-**Future Perfect Active Indicative** = Perfect stem + future.act.ind of **esse**</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
- <​tr id="​l597">​ +
-<td colspan="​6"​ align="​center">​ +
-SINGULAR</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
- <​tr id="​l598">​ +
-<td colspan="​2"​ align="​center">​ +
-I shall have loved   | +
-I shall have advised ​  | +
-I shall have ruled  | +
-I shall have taken  | +
-I shall have heard</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
- <​tr id="​l599">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-1  | +
-amavero ​    | +
-monuero ​    | +
-rexero ​   | +
-cepero ​   | +
-audivero<​/td> +
-</tr> +
- <​tr id="​l600">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-2.   | +
-amaveris ​   | +
-monueris ​   | +
-rexeris ​    | +
-ceperis ​    | +
-audiveris<​/td> +
-</​tr>​ +
- <​tr id="​l601">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-3.   | +
-amaverit ​   | +
-monuerit ​   | +
-rexerit ​    | +
-ceperit ​    | +
-audiverit</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
- <​tr id="​l602">​ +
-<td colspan="​6"​ align="​center">​ +
-PLURAL</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
- <​tr id="​l603">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-1.   | +
-amaverimus ​  | +
-monuerimus ​  | +
-rexerimus ​   | +
-ceperimus ​   | +
-audiverimus</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
- <​tr id="​l604">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-2.   | +
-amaveritis ​  | +
-monueritis ​  | +
-rexeritis ​   | +
-ceperitis ​   | +
-audiveritis</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
- <​tr id="​l605">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-3.   | +
-amaverint ​   | +
-monuerint ​   | +
-rexerint ​    | +
-ceperint ​    | +
-audiverint</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-</​table>​ +
-</div>+
  
-    </ul> 
- 
- 
-<p id="​l606">​ 
-<​u>​Ablative of cause</​u>​ - with or without the preposition e. 
- 
- 
-    <ul> 
- 
-<p id="​l607">​ 
- Beati sumus (e) victoria Domini. 
- 
- 
-    </ul> 
- 
- 
-<p id="​l608">​ 
-<​u>​Direct quotations</​u>​ may have no change, or quia(quoniam) following dixit. It may have a comma. Tense in a quote needn'​t match //​dixit// ​ 
- 
-<p id="​l610">​ 
 **Exercises**1. Quoniam Hebraei (n.pl) columnam (acc.s) flammae (gen.pl) viderunt (3pl perf.ai), etiam hodie (adv) Pascham (acc.s) observant (3pl pres.ai).Because the Hebrews saw a column of flames, even today they observe the Pasch.2. Tunc caeli (n.pl) anti Jesum (acc.s) aperiebantur (3pl Imp.pass.ind).Then the heavens were opened before Jesus.3. Merito (adv) universa creatura (n.s) inocentiam (acc.s) Agni (gen.s) laudaverit (3s fut.perf.act.ind)Rightly every creature will have praised the innocence of the Lamb.4. Aula (n.s) laetitia (Abl.s cause) populi (Gen.s) resultaverat (3s plup.act.ind)The hall had resounded because the joy of the people.5. Jam (adv) Jesus (n.s) populo (dat.s) intrare (inf) in templum (Acc) dixerat (3pl plup.act.ind)Then Jesus had told to the people to enter the temple.6. Cuncti apostoli (n.pl) in cenaculo (abl.s locative) congregaverant (3pl plup.act.ind),​ et ibi (adv) Deum (acc.s) pereniter (adv) conglorificabant (3pl Imp.act.ind)All the apostles had congregated in the cenacle and there they continually glorified God.7. In principio (adv) erat (3s Imp.act.ind) Verbum (n.s), et Verbum (n.s) erat (3s Imp.act.ind) apud Deum (acc.s), et Deus (n.s) erat (3s Imp.act.ind) Verbum (n.s).In the beginning was the word and the word was with God and the word was God.8. Ob Adae (acc.s) culpam (acc.s) primam (acc.s) habemus (1.pl pai) Christum Dominum (acc.s).Because of the first fault of Adam, we have Christ the Lord.9. Nam (conj) Christus (n.s) mortuos (Acc.pl) a vivis (Abl.pl) separaverit (3.s fut.perf.act.ind)For Christ will have separated the dead from the living.10. Pascha (Abl.s) dolorosi (n.pl) efficiuntur (3pl pres.pass.ind) laeti (n.pl).Because of the pasch, sorrows are tuned into joys.11. In Judaea (Abl.s. locative) apostolus (n.s) viam (acc.s) Domini (gen.s) praeparaverat (3s plup.act.ind)In Judea, the apostle had prepared the way of the Lord.12. Qui (n.pl) semper (adv) et diligenter (adv) operaverint (3pl fut.perf.act.ind) pro Domino (abl.s) aeternum praemium (acc.s) habebunt (3.pl fut.act.ind) in regno (abl.s) caelorum (Gen.pl).Whoever will have operated always and everywhere for God, will have the eternal reward in the kingdom of the heavens.13. Parvuli (n.pl), qui ad Jesum (acc.s) in Petri (gen.s) domo (abl.s locative) venerant (3.pl plup.act.ind),​ benedicebantur (3.pl imp.pass.ind)The little children who had come to Jesus in Peter'​s house were being blessed.14. Sed ante annum (Acc) Paulus (n.s) Petrum (acc.s) in Galilaea (Abl.s locative) viderat (3.s plup.act.ind).But before the year Paul had seen Peter in Galilee.15. Parvus servus (n.s), qui cibum (acc.s) paraverat (3.s plup.act.ind),​ scivit (3.s pai) cunctos (acc) qui vocabantur (3.pl Imp.pass.ind).The small servant, who had prepared the food, knew all who were being called.16. Paulus (n.s) , magister (n.s) in Judaea (abl.s) clarus (n.s) , scripturas (acc.pl) bene (adv) sciverat (3.s plup.act.ind).Paul,​ a famous teacher in Judea, had known the scriptures well.17. Populus (n.s), qui in aula (abl.s locative) congregaverit (3.s fut.perf.act.ind),​ victoria (abl.s cause) Christi (gen.s) exsultabit (3.s fut.act.ind)The people, who in the hall will have congregated,​ will exult because of the victory of Christ.18. Discipuli (n.pl) congregaverunt (3.pl Perf.act.ind) in cenaculo (abl.s locative), et Petrus (n.s) dixit (3.s plup.act.ind) quia hodie (adv) est (3.s pai) magnum festum (n.s) Domini (gen.s).The disciples congregated in the cenacle and Peter had said "Today there is the great feast of the Lord"​19. Paulus (n.s) autem (conj) ad populum (acc.s) dixit (3.s plup.act.ind),​ Indignus (n.s) sum (1.s pai) esse (inf) etiam servus (n.s) Domini (gen.s) nostri Jesu Christi.Then Paul had said to the people, I am not worthy to be servant of the Lord Jesus Christ.20. Minister (n.s) enim et servi (n.s) se inclinaverint (3.pl fut.perf.act.ind) et ad Deum (acc.s) Dominum (acc.s) creaturae ​ (n.pl) oraverint (3.pl fut.perf.act.ind).The minister and the servants will have bowed and the creatures will have prayed to the Lord God21. Qui propheta (n.s) sanctis scripturis (abl.pl means) populum (acc.s) monuerat (3s plup.ai)?​What prophet warned the people by means of the holy scriptures?​22. Hinc minister (n.s) hostiam (acc.s) consecaverit (3s Fut.perf.ai) (consecrabit 3s Fut ai).Here the minister will (have) consecrated the host.23. Dixerat (3s plup.ai) diaconus (n.s), quoniam Paulus (n.s), cui erat (Imp.ai) potentia (n.s) Dei (gen.s) non furat  (3s plup.ai) unus (n.s) primorum apostolorum (Gen.pl).The deacon said "Paul who was the power of God, had not been one of the first apostles.24. Secundum Scripturas (acc.pl) beati (n.pl) erunt (3pl fut.ai) in aeternum (acc.s), qui mandata (acc.pl) Domini (gen.s) observaverint (3pl fut perf ai)According to the Scriptures, blessed in eternity will be those who will have observed the commands of the Lord.25. Hostia sanctificabitur (3s fut.pass.ind ) et efficietur (3s fut.pass.ind ) cibus (n.s) aeternae vitae (gen.s), quod nostro ministro (dat.sing) Deus (n.s) potentiam (acc.s) dedit (3s perf.act.ind).The food of eternal life  will be sanctified and be made effective by the hosts which God gave power to our minister.26. Erat (3s Imp.act.ind) autem hora tertia (n.s) Mk 15,25And it was the third hour.27. Dicit (3s pai) ei Jesus "Bene dixisti (2s perf act ind): 'Non habeo (1s pai) virum (acc.s)';​ quinque enim viros (acc.pl) habuisti (2s perf.ai), et nunc, quem habes, non est tuus vir Hoc vere dixisti. (2s perf.ai)"​Jesus says to her: Well you have said I have no man. Indeed you have had 5 men, and now the one you have is not your husband. You have spoken rightly. ​ **Exercises**1. Quoniam Hebraei (n.pl) columnam (acc.s) flammae (gen.pl) viderunt (3pl perf.ai), etiam hodie (adv) Pascham (acc.s) observant (3pl pres.ai).Because the Hebrews saw a column of flames, even today they observe the Pasch.2. Tunc caeli (n.pl) anti Jesum (acc.s) aperiebantur (3pl Imp.pass.ind).Then the heavens were opened before Jesus.3. Merito (adv) universa creatura (n.s) inocentiam (acc.s) Agni (gen.s) laudaverit (3s fut.perf.act.ind)Rightly every creature will have praised the innocence of the Lamb.4. Aula (n.s) laetitia (Abl.s cause) populi (Gen.s) resultaverat (3s plup.act.ind)The hall had resounded because the joy of the people.5. Jam (adv) Jesus (n.s) populo (dat.s) intrare (inf) in templum (Acc) dixerat (3pl plup.act.ind)Then Jesus had told to the people to enter the temple.6. Cuncti apostoli (n.pl) in cenaculo (abl.s locative) congregaverant (3pl plup.act.ind),​ et ibi (adv) Deum (acc.s) pereniter (adv) conglorificabant (3pl Imp.act.ind)All the apostles had congregated in the cenacle and there they continually glorified God.7. In principio (adv) erat (3s Imp.act.ind) Verbum (n.s), et Verbum (n.s) erat (3s Imp.act.ind) apud Deum (acc.s), et Deus (n.s) erat (3s Imp.act.ind) Verbum (n.s).In the beginning was the word and the word was with God and the word was God.8. Ob Adae (acc.s) culpam (acc.s) primam (acc.s) habemus (1.pl pai) Christum Dominum (acc.s).Because of the first fault of Adam, we have Christ the Lord.9. Nam (conj) Christus (n.s) mortuos (Acc.pl) a vivis (Abl.pl) separaverit (3.s fut.perf.act.ind)For Christ will have separated the dead from the living.10. Pascha (Abl.s) dolorosi (n.pl) efficiuntur (3pl pres.pass.ind) laeti (n.pl).Because of the pasch, sorrows are tuned into joys.11. In Judaea (Abl.s. locative) apostolus (n.s) viam (acc.s) Domini (gen.s) praeparaverat (3s plup.act.ind)In Judea, the apostle had prepared the way of the Lord.12. Qui (n.pl) semper (adv) et diligenter (adv) operaverint (3pl fut.perf.act.ind) pro Domino (abl.s) aeternum praemium (acc.s) habebunt (3.pl fut.act.ind) in regno (abl.s) caelorum (Gen.pl).Whoever will have operated always and everywhere for God, will have the eternal reward in the kingdom of the heavens.13. Parvuli (n.pl), qui ad Jesum (acc.s) in Petri (gen.s) domo (abl.s locative) venerant (3.pl plup.act.ind),​ benedicebantur (3.pl imp.pass.ind)The little children who had come to Jesus in Peter'​s house were being blessed.14. Sed ante annum (Acc) Paulus (n.s) Petrum (acc.s) in Galilaea (Abl.s locative) viderat (3.s plup.act.ind).But before the year Paul had seen Peter in Galilee.15. Parvus servus (n.s), qui cibum (acc.s) paraverat (3.s plup.act.ind),​ scivit (3.s pai) cunctos (acc) qui vocabantur (3.pl Imp.pass.ind).The small servant, who had prepared the food, knew all who were being called.16. Paulus (n.s) , magister (n.s) in Judaea (abl.s) clarus (n.s) , scripturas (acc.pl) bene (adv) sciverat (3.s plup.act.ind).Paul,​ a famous teacher in Judea, had known the scriptures well.17. Populus (n.s), qui in aula (abl.s locative) congregaverit (3.s fut.perf.act.ind),​ victoria (abl.s cause) Christi (gen.s) exsultabit (3.s fut.act.ind)The people, who in the hall will have congregated,​ will exult because of the victory of Christ.18. Discipuli (n.pl) congregaverunt (3.pl Perf.act.ind) in cenaculo (abl.s locative), et Petrus (n.s) dixit (3.s plup.act.ind) quia hodie (adv) est (3.s pai) magnum festum (n.s) Domini (gen.s).The disciples congregated in the cenacle and Peter had said "Today there is the great feast of the Lord"​19. Paulus (n.s) autem (conj) ad populum (acc.s) dixit (3.s plup.act.ind),​ Indignus (n.s) sum (1.s pai) esse (inf) etiam servus (n.s) Domini (gen.s) nostri Jesu Christi.Then Paul had said to the people, I am not worthy to be servant of the Lord Jesus Christ.20. Minister (n.s) enim et servi (n.s) se inclinaverint (3.pl fut.perf.act.ind) et ad Deum (acc.s) Dominum (acc.s) creaturae ​ (n.pl) oraverint (3.pl fut.perf.act.ind).The minister and the servants will have bowed and the creatures will have prayed to the Lord God21. Qui propheta (n.s) sanctis scripturis (abl.pl means) populum (acc.s) monuerat (3s plup.ai)?​What prophet warned the people by means of the holy scriptures?​22. Hinc minister (n.s) hostiam (acc.s) consecaverit (3s Fut.perf.ai) (consecrabit 3s Fut ai).Here the minister will (have) consecrated the host.23. Dixerat (3s plup.ai) diaconus (n.s), quoniam Paulus (n.s), cui erat (Imp.ai) potentia (n.s) Dei (gen.s) non furat  (3s plup.ai) unus (n.s) primorum apostolorum (Gen.pl).The deacon said "Paul who was the power of God, had not been one of the first apostles.24. Secundum Scripturas (acc.pl) beati (n.pl) erunt (3pl fut.ai) in aeternum (acc.s), qui mandata (acc.pl) Domini (gen.s) observaverint (3pl fut perf ai)According to the Scriptures, blessed in eternity will be those who will have observed the commands of the Lord.25. Hostia sanctificabitur (3s fut.pass.ind ) et efficietur (3s fut.pass.ind ) cibus (n.s) aeternae vitae (gen.s), quod nostro ministro (dat.sing) Deus (n.s) potentiam (acc.s) dedit (3s perf.act.ind).The food of eternal life  will be sanctified and be made effective by the hosts which God gave power to our minister.26. Erat (3s Imp.act.ind) autem hora tertia (n.s) Mk 15,25And it was the third hour.27. Dicit (3s pai) ei Jesus "Bene dixisti (2s perf act ind): 'Non habeo (1s pai) virum (acc.s)';​ quinque enim viros (acc.pl) habuisti (2s perf.ai), et nunc, quem habes, non est tuus vir Hoc vere dixisti. (2s perf.ai)"​Jesus says to her: Well you have said I have no man. Indeed you have had 5 men, and now the one you have is not your husband. You have spoken rightly. ​
  
 ===Unit 12  - Possum=== ===Unit 12  - Possum===
 +|Present act. ind.  |I am able, powerful ​ |possum ​ |potes ​ |potest ​ |possumus ​ |potestis ​ |possunt ​ |
 +|Imperfect act. ind.  |I could   ​|poteram ​ |poteras ​ |poterat ​ |poseramus ​ |poteratis ​ |poterant ​ |
 +|Future act. ind.  |I will be able  |potero ​ |poteris ​ |poterit ​ |poterimus ​ |poteritis ​ |poterunt ​ |
 +|Perf act ind   | I was able   ​|potui ​  ​|potuisti ​  ​|potuit ​  ​|potuimus ​ |potuistis ​  ​|potuerunt ​  |
 +|Pluperf act.ind. ​  |I had been able  |potueram ​ |potueras ​ |potuerat ​   |potueramus ​ |potuatis ​ |potuerant ​ |
 +|Future Perf.act.ind. ​  | I will have been able  |potuero ​ |potueris ​ |potuerit ​   |potuerimus ​ |potueritis ​ |potuer**i**nt ​ |
  
-    <ul>+**Complementary Infinitive** //Dominum **laudare** possumus// - we can (to) praise the lord. 
 +**Object Infinitive** //Pueri sciunt **orare**// - the boys know (how) to pray 
  
 +**Perfect-Passive Stem** ​
  
-<div class="​wikitable">​ +|to form the   ​|pluperfect passive  ​|perfect passive and   |future perfect passive.  | 
-<table border="​1">​ +|use the appropriate form of esse:  ​| ​sum,   |eram,   |ero  ​
- <​tr id="​l667">​ +|meaning ​ ​| ​have been   |had been   |will have been  |
-<​td>​ +
-Present act. ind.  ​| +
-I am ablepowerful  ​| +
-possum ​ | +
-potes  | +
-potest ​ | +
-possumus ​ | +
-potestis ​ | +
-possunt</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
- <​tr id="​l668">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-Imperfect act. ind.  | +
-I could   | +
-poteram ​ | +
-poteras ​ | +
-poterat ​ | +
-poseramus ​ | +
-poteratis ​ | +
-poterant</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
- <​tr id="​l669">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-Future act. ind.  | +
-I will be able  ​| +
-potero ​ | +
-poteris ​ | +
-poterit ​ | +
-poterimus ​ | +
-poteritis ​ | +
-poterunt</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
- <​tr id="​l670">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-Perf act ind   | +
- I was able   | +
-potui   +
-potuisti ​  | +
-potuit ​  | +
-potuimus ​ | +
-potuistis ​  | +
-potuerunt </​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
- <​tr id="​l671">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-Pluperf act.ind. ​  | +
-had been able  | +
-potueram ​ | +
-potueras ​ | +
-potuerat ​   | +
-potueramus ​ | +
-potuatis ​ | +
-potuerant</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
- <​tr id="​l672">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-Future Perf.act.ind. ​  | +
- ​I ​will have been able  | +
-potuero ​ | +
-potueris ​ | +
-potuerit ​   | +
-potuerimus ​ | +
-potueritis ​ | +
-potuer**i**nt</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-</​table>​ +
-</​div>​+
  
-    </ul>+**perfect passive participle** - the 4th principal part of the verb. The participle ending will be in the nominative to match the subject. You can substitute fui, fuisti, etc with no change in meaning. = stem + t + ending: lauda + t + us. The perfect participle can also be 
 +  * an adjective Puer laudatus venit or   
 +  * a substantive. E.g. Laudatus beatus est. 
 +  * an adverbial clause. Puer, laudatus, beatus, est. Because the boy is praised, he is happy. 
 +  * //Postquam// + perfect tense (in english it is pluperfect/​perfect) After he had come, he did ... 
 +  * //​Antequam//​ + perfect tense, then pluperfect. (in english it is perfect/​pluperfect) Before he came, he had done ... 
 +  * //​Potentiam//​ is power, but it is always power over and the object of the power is in the genitive. 
 +  * //Dum// always takes present indicitative Dum operat, orabat. But in english imperfect: while he was working, he was praying. ​
  
 +**Exercises** 1. Per Jesu (acc.s) potentiam (acc.s) Petrus (n.s) valebat (3pl imp.ai) populo (abl.s) debita (acc.pl) dimittere (inf).Through the power of Jesus, Peter was able to release the sins for the people.2. Nunc (adv) dimittis (2s pai) servum (acc.s) tuum.Now you dismiss your servant.3. Certe (adv) Deum (acc.s) laudere (inf) non desinemus (1pl pai). Nam (conj) Dominus (n.s) est in aeternum (acc.s). Amen.Surely we do not cease to praise God for the Lord is forever. Amen.4. Postquam (adv) Paulus (n.s) aulam (acc.s) reliquit (3s perf.ai), sub tectum (acc.s) discipuli (gen.s) venit (3s pai).After Paul quit the hall, he went under the roof of the disciple.5. Eva (n.s) Adae (dat.s) a Deo (abl.s agency) data (n.s).Eve is given to Adam by God.6, Postquam (conj) Christus (n.s) Jesus a mortuis (abl.pl origin) ​ resurexit (3s perf.act.ind),​ vivus (n.s) in Galilaea () a quibusdam discipulis (abl.pl agency) visus est (3s plup.pass.ind)After Christ Jesus rose from the dead, He was seen alive in Galilee by certain diciples.7 ​ Petrus (n.s) puero (n.s) permisit (3s perf.ai) cibum (acc.s) et vinum (acc.s) mittere (inf) ad familiam (acc.s).Peter permitted the boy to send food and wine to the family.8. Antequam (conj) minister (n.s) collectam (acc.s) oravit (3s perf.ai), in silentio (abl.s manner) se inclinavit (3s perf.ai).Before the minister prayed the collect, he bowed in silence.9. Dimissus (n.s) a Petro (abl.s agency), vir (n.s) tamen (adv) ad Jesum (acc.s) acclamabat (3s imp.ai).Dismissed by Peter, the man nevertheless was crying out to Jesus.10. Antequam (conj) apostoli (n.s) a Jesu () relicti sunt (3pl plup.pas.ind),​ acceperunt (3pl perf.act.ind) potentiam (acc.s) peccati (gen.s).Before the apostles had been left by Jesus, they had received power over sin.11. Quoniam Jesus (n.s) discipulis (dat.pl) verba sautifera (acc.pl) dedit (3s pai), ad Deum (acc.s) orare (inf) cum gaudio (abl.s manner) debemus (1pl pai).Since Jesus gave healing words to the apostles, We must pray to God with joy.12. De populi (gen.s) vita (abl.s) scire (inf) poterunt (3pl fut.act.ind),​ sed scientis (part. gen.s) de Dei (gen.s) gloria (abl.s).They aren't able to know of the life of the people, but knowledge of the glory of God13. Quidam discipuli (n.s) , non nimis excepti, Galilaeam (acc.s) reliquerunt (3pl . perf act ind)Certain disciples, not very much exception, left Jerusalem.14. Populus contritus (n.s), a Paulo (abl.s agency) bene (adv) monitus (part), incepit (3s pai) secuudum Jesu praecepta (acc) vivere (inf).The contrite people, well admonished by Paul, began to live by the precepts of Jesus.15. In Iiturgia (abl.s) misericordia (n.s) Domini (gen.s) a populo (abl.s agency) saepe (adv) est (3s pai) Iaudata (part).In liturgy, the mercy of God is often praised by the people.16. De Jesu (gen.s) vita (abl.s spec) carus (n.s) apostolus (n.s) scivit (3s perf act ind) mira scribere (inf).The dear apostle knew how to write the wonders of the life of Jesus.17. Jam (adv) Eva (n.s) primum filium (acc.s) conceperat (3s plup act ind).Now Eve had conceived the first son.18. Hodie (adv) ante (prep) mensam (acc.s) Domini (gen.s) convenimus (1pl pai) Christiani (n.pl).Today,​ before the altar of the Lord, we christians gather.19. Optimum magister vinum (acc.s) adhuc (adv) servavit (3s perf ai).Till now, the teacher served the best wine.20. Universum (n.s) salutifera (abl.s) Dei (gen.s) potentia (abl.s) semper (adv) rectum (n.s) fuit (3s perf ai).All men, by the healing power of God, was always virtuous.21. ​ Discipuli (n.pl) igtur (conj) visi sunt (3pl pass.perf.ind) certum capere (inf) praemium (acc.s).The disciples therefore are seen to take the certain prize.22. Malus servus (n.s), a bono (abl.s agency) monitus (part), nimis (adv) maledicere (inf) domino (dat.s) desiit (3s perf ai).The bad servant, warned by the good, stopped too much cursing of the lord.23. Tunc (adv) optimus et maximus vir (n.s) Judaeam (acc.s) gubernabat (3s Imp.act.ind)?​Then was the best and greatest man governing Judea?24. Puer aurum, quod Petro dederat (3s plup act ind), subito (adv) recepit (3s perf ai) atque (conj) familiae (gen.s) dedit (3s perf ai).The boy hearing that Peter surrendered,​ suddenly received and gave of the family???​25. In Jesu (abl.s) adimpleta sunt (3.pl perf pass.ind) verba (n.pl) antiquorum prophetarum (gen.pl).In Jesus the words of the ancient profets are fulfilled.26. Beati sunt qui parvulos (acc.pl) ante domum (acc) congregatos (acc.pl) adjuvare (inf) possunt (3pl pai).Blessed are they who are able to help the little ones congregating before the house.27. Et universorum (Gen.pl) vincula (n.s) soluta (n.s) sunt (3.pl pai). Acts 16,26And the bonds of everyone are dissolved.28. Ipsi gloria (n.s) et imperium (n.s) in saecula saeculorum. Amen. Rev 1,6To him gloria and power forever and ever. Amen.29. Amen, amen dico (1s pai) vobis (Dat.pl): Venit (3s pai) hora (n.s), et nunc (adv) est (3s pai). Jn 5, 25Amen, Amen, I say to you: The hour comes and now is.30. Vobis (Dat.pl) datum (n.s) est mysterium (acc.s) regni (gen.s) Dei (gen.s). Mk 4,11To you is given the mystery of the reign of God.31. Ecce video (1s pai) caelos (acc.pl) apertos (acc.pl). Acts 7,​56.Behold,​ I see the heavens open.Ablative absolute:​Cantantibus organis, Caecilia in corde suo Deum adoravit,​Although the organ was playing, Cecilia adored God in her heart. ​
  
-<p id="​l674">​ +===Unit 13 Perfect Passive===
-**Complementary Infinitive** //Dominum **laudare** possumus// - we can (to) praise the lord.**Object Infinitive** //Pueri sciunt **orare//** - the boys know (how) to pray**Perfect-Passive ​Stem** ​+
  
- 
-    <ul> 
- 
- 
-<div class="​wikitable">​ 
-<table border="​1">​ 
- <​tr id="​l677">​ 
-<td> 
-to form the   | 
-pluperfect passive, ​  | 
-perfect passive and   | 
-future perfect passive.</​td>​ 
-</tr> 
- <​tr id="​l678">​ 
-<td> 
-use the appropriate form of esse:  | 
- ​sum, ​  | 
-eram,   | 
-ero</​td>​ 
-</tr> 
- <​tr id="​l679">​ 
-<td> 
-meaning ​ | 
- have been   | 
-had been   | 
-will have been</​td>​ 
-</tr> 
-</​table>​ 
-</​div>​ 
-<p id="​l680">​ 
- + the perfect passive participle - the 4th principal part of the verb. The participle ending will be in the nominative to match the subject. You can substitute fui, fuisti, etc with no change in meaning. ​ 
- 
- 
-    </ul> 
- 
- 
-<p id="​l682">​ 
-**perfect passive participle**:​ stem + t + ending: lauda + t + us. The perfect participle can also be 
- 
- 
-    <ul> 
- 
-    <li> 
-<p id="​l683">​ 
- an adjective Puer laudatus venit or 
-  |<p id="​l684">​ 
- a substantive. E.g. Laudatus beatus est. 
-  |<p id="​l685">​ 
- an adverbial clause. Puer, laudatus, beatus, est. Because the boy is praised, he is happy.<p id="​l686">​ 
- //​Postquam//​ + perfect tense (in english it is pluperfect/​perfect) After he had come, he did ...<p id="​l687">​ 
- //​Antequam//​ + perfect tense, then pluperfect. (in english it is perfect/​pluperfect) Before he came, he had done ...<p id="​l688">​ 
- //​Potentiam//​ is power, but it is always power over and the object of the power is in the genitive.<​p id="​l689">​ 
- //​Dum//​ always takes present indicitative Dum operat, orabat. But in english imperfect: while he was working, he was praying. ​ 
- 
-</li> 
- 
-    </ul> 
- 
- 
-<p id="​l691">​ 
-**Exercises**1. Per Jesu (acc.s) potentiam (acc.s) Petrus (n.s) valebat (3pl imp.ai) populo (abl.s) debita (acc.pl) dimittere (inf).Through the power of Jesus, Peter was able to release the sins for the people.2. Nunc (adv) dimittis (2s pai) servum (acc.s) tuum.Now you dismiss your servant.3. Certe (adv) Deum (acc.s) laudere (inf) non desinemus (1pl pai). Nam (conj) Dominus (n.s) est in aeternum (acc.s). Amen.Surely we do not cease to praise God for the Lord is forever. Amen.4. Postquam (adv) Paulus (n.s) aulam (acc.s) reliquit (3s perf.ai), sub tectum (acc.s) discipuli (gen.s) venit (3s pai).After Paul quit the hall, he went under the roof of the disciple.5. Eva (n.s) Adae (dat.s) a Deo (abl.s agency) data (n.s).Eve is given to Adam by God.6, Postquam (conj) Christus (n.s) Jesus a mortuis (abl.pl origin) ​ resurexit (3s perf.act.ind),​ vivus (n.s) in Galilaea () a quibusdam discipulis (abl.pl agency) visus est (3s plup.pass.ind)After Christ Jesus rose from the dead, He was seen alive in Galilee by certain diciples.7 ​ Petrus (n.s) puero (n.s) permisit (3s perf.ai) cibum (acc.s) et vinum (acc.s) mittere (inf) ad familiam (acc.s).Peter permitted the boy to send food and wine to the family.8. Antequam (conj) minister (n.s) collectam (acc.s) oravit (3s perf.ai), in silentio (abl.s manner) se inclinavit (3s perf.ai).Before the minister prayed the collect, he bowed in silence.9. Dimissus (n.s) a Petro (abl.s agency), vir (n.s) tamen (adv) ad Jesum (acc.s) acclamabat (3s imp.ai).Dismissed by Peter, the man nevertheless was crying out to Jesus.10. Antequam (conj) apostoli (n.s) a Jesu () relicti sunt (3pl plup.pas.ind),​ acceperunt (3pl perf.act.ind) potentiam (acc.s) peccati (gen.s).Before the apostles had been left by Jesus, they had received power over sin.11. Quoniam Jesus (n.s) discipulis (dat.pl) verba sautifera (acc.pl) dedit (3s pai), ad Deum (acc.s) orare (inf) cum gaudio (abl.s manner) debemus (1pl pai).Since Jesus gave healing words to the apostles, We must pray to God with joy.12. De populi (gen.s) vita (abl.s) scire (inf) poterunt (3pl fut.act.ind),​ sed scientis (part. gen.s) de Dei (gen.s) gloria (abl.s).They aren't able to know of the life of the people, but knowledge of the glory of God13. Quidam discipuli (n.s) , non nimis excepti, Galilaeam (acc.s) reliquerunt (3pl . perf act ind)Certain disciples, not very much exception, left Jerusalem.14. Populus contritus (n.s), a Paulo (abl.s agency) bene (adv) monitus (part), incepit (3s pai) secuudum Jesu praecepta (acc) vivere (inf).The contrite people, well admonished by Paul, began to live by the precepts of Jesus.15. In Iiturgia (abl.s) misericordia (n.s) Domini (gen.s) a populo (abl.s agency) saepe (adv) est (3s pai) Iaudata (part).In liturgy, the mercy of God is often praised by the people.16. De Jesu (gen.s) vita (abl.s spec) carus (n.s) apostolus (n.s) scivit (3s perf act ind) mira scribere (inf).The dear apostle knew how to write the wonders of the life of Jesus.17. Jam (adv) Eva (n.s) primum filium (acc.s) conceperat (3s plup act ind).Now Eve had conceived the first son.18. Hodie (adv) ante (prep) mensam (acc.s) Domini (gen.s) convenimus (1pl pai) Christiani (n.pl).Today,​ before the altar of the Lord, we christians gather.19. Optimum magister vinum (acc.s) adhuc (adv) servavit (3s perf ai).Till now, the teacher served the best wine.20. Universum (n.s) salutifera (abl.s) Dei (gen.s) potentia (abl.s) semper (adv) rectum (n.s) fuit (3s perf ai).All men, by the healing power of God, was always virtuous.21. ​ Discipuli (n.pl) igtur (conj) visi sunt (3pl pass.perf.ind) certum capere (inf) praemium (acc.s).The disciples therefore are seen to take the certain prize.22. Malus servus (n.s), a bono (abl.s agency) monitus (part), nimis (adv) maledicere (inf) domino (dat.s) desiit (3s perf ai).The bad servant, warned by the good, stopped too much cursing of the lord.23. Tunc (adv) optimus et maximus vir (n.s) Judaeam (acc.s) gubernabat (3s Imp.act.ind)?​Then was the best and greatest man governing Judea?24. Puer aurum, quod Petro dederat (3s plup act ind), subito (adv) recepit (3s perf ai) atque (conj) familiae (gen.s) dedit (3s perf ai).The boy hearing that Peter surrendered,​ suddenly received and gave of the family???​25. In Jesu (abl.s) adimpleta sunt (3.pl perf pass.ind) verba (n.pl) antiquorum prophetarum (gen.pl).In Jesus the words of the ancient profets are fulfilled.26. Beati sunt qui parvulos (acc.pl) ante domum (acc) congregatos (acc.pl) adjuvare (inf) possunt (3pl pai).Blessed are they who are able to help the little ones congregating before the house.27. Et universorum (Gen.pl) vincula (n.s) soluta (n.s) sunt (3.pl pai). Acts 16,26And the bonds of everyone are dissolved.28. Ipsi gloria (n.s) et imperium (n.s) in saecula saeculorum. Amen. Rev 1,6To him gloria and power forever and ever. Amen.29. Amen, amen dico (1s pai) vobis (Dat.pl): Venit (3s pai) hora (n.s), et nunc (adv) est (3s pai). Jn 5, 25Amen, Amen, I say to you: The hour comes and now is.30. Vobis (Dat.pl) datum (n.s) est mysterium (acc.s) regni (gen.s) Dei (gen.s). Mk 4,11To you is given the mystery of the reign of God.31. Ecce video (1s pai) caelos (acc.pl) apertos (acc.pl). Acts 7,​56.Behold,​ I see the heavens open.Ablative absolute:​Cantantibus organis, Caecilia in corde suo Deum adoravit,​Although the organ was playing, Cecilia adored God in her heart. ​ 
- 
-===Unit 13 Perfect Passive=== 
-<p id="​l759">​ 
 //Duco, ducere, duxi, ductus// lead  //Duco, ducere, duxi, ductus// lead 
  
 +^Perfect Indicative Passive - have been  ^^
 +|Ductus, a um sum  |ducti ae a sumus  |
 +|Ductus, a um es  |ducti ae a estis  |
 +|Ductus, a um est  |ducti ae a sunt  |
 +|Pluperfect Indicative Passive - had been  ||
 +|Ductus, a um eram  |ducti ae a eramus ​ |
 +|Ductus, a um eras  |ducti ae a eratis ​ |
 +|Ductus, a um erat  |ducti ae a erant  |
 +|Future Perfect Indicative Passive - Will have been  ||
 +|Ductus, a um ero  |ducti ae a erimus ​ |
 +|Ductus, a um eris  |ducti ae a eritis ​ |
 +|Ductus, a um erit  |ducti ae a erunt  |
  
-    <ul>+  * Can substitute future perfect fuero fueris fuerit, etc with no change in meaning.  
 +  * __Ablative Absolute__ **Noun + Participle** ​ (here perfect passive participle) The ablative absolute influences the meaning of the main clause. 
 +  * Cena (abl.s) praeparata, pueri in domum intraverunt. 
 +  * With the dinner prepared, the boys entered the house. Also: because, when, although. There are a lot of English clauses that can be translated with the ablative absolute.  
 +  * __Temporal Clauses__ Cum (ubi, ut) Jesus surrexit, apolsoli erant laeti. ​
  
- 
-<div class="​wikitable">​ 
-<table border="​1">​ 
- <​tr id="​l761">​ 
-<td colspan="​2"​ align="​center">​ 
-Perfect Indicative Passive - have been</​td>​ 
-</tr> 
- <​tr id="​l762">​ 
-<td> 
-Ductus, a um sum  | 
-ducti ae a sumus</​td>​ 
-</tr> 
- <​tr id="​l763">​ 
-<td> 
-Ductus, a um es  | 
-ducti ae a estis</​td>​ 
-</tr> 
- <​tr id="​l764">​ 
-<td> 
-Ductus, a um est  | 
-ducti ae a sunt</​td>​ 
-</tr> 
- <​tr id="​l765">​ 
-<td colspan="​2"​ align="​center">​ 
-Pluperfect Indicative Passive - had been</​td>​ 
-</tr> 
- <​tr id="​l766">​ 
-<td> 
-Ductus, a um eram  | 
-ducti ae a eramus</​td>​ 
-</tr> 
- <​tr id="​l767">​ 
-<td> 
-Ductus, a um eras  | 
-ducti ae a eratis</​td>​ 
-</tr> 
- <​tr id="​l768">​ 
-<td> 
-Ductus, a um erat  | 
-ducti ae a erant</​td>​ 
-</tr> 
- <​tr id="​l769">​ 
-<td colspan="​2"​ align="​center">​ 
-Future Perfect Indicative Passive - Will have been</​td>​ 
-</tr> 
- <​tr id="​l770">​ 
-<td> 
-Ductus, a um ero  | 
-ducti ae a erimus</​td>​ 
-</tr> 
- <​tr id="​l771">​ 
-<td> 
-Ductus, a um eris  | 
-ducti ae a eritis</​td>​ 
-</tr> 
- <​tr id="​l772">​ 
-<td> 
-Ductus, a um erit  | 
-ducti ae a erunt</​td>​ 
-</tr> 
-</​table>​ 
-</​div>​ 
-<p id="​l773">​ 
- Can substitute future perfect fuero fueris fuerit, etc with no change in meaning. ​ 
- 
- 
-    </ul> 
- 
- 
-<p id="​l775">​ 
-<​u>​Ablative Absolute</​u>​ **Noun + Participle** ​ (here perfect passive participle) The ablative absolute influences the meaning of the main clause. 
- 
- 
-    <ul> 
- 
-<p id="​l776">​ 
- Cena (abl.s) praeparata, pueri in domum intraverunt.<​p id="​l777">​ 
- With the dinner prepared, the boys entered the house. Also: because, when, although. There are a lot of English clauses that can be translated with the ablative absolute. ​ 
- 
- 
-    </ul> 
- 
- 
-<p id="​l779">​ 
-<​u>​Temporal Clauses</​u>​ Cum (ubi, ut) Jesus surrexit, apolsoli erant laeti. ​ 
- 
-<p id="​l781">​ 
 **Exercises**1. Hymno dicto (abl absolute) apostoli (nom.pl) domum (acc.s) reliquerunt (3pl perf.act.ind)With hymns said, the apostles left the house.2. Antequam (conj) puer (n.s) ad cenam (acc.s) missus est (3s perf.ind.pass),​ primum (adv) in domini (gen.s) agro(abl.s location) cunctis (abl.pl manner) cum servis (abl.pl) operavit (3s perf.act.ind). Before the boy was sent to dinner, first he worked with all the servants in the field of the master.3. Tunc (adv) Galilaei (n.s) a Romanis (abl agency) saepe (adv) despecci sunt (3pl perf.ind.pass),​ quoniam (conj) deos (acc.pl) Romanorum (gen.pl) non adorabant (3pl Imp.act.ind). Then the Galilaeans were often dispised by the romans since they didn't adore the gods of the romans.4. Cum verba Jesu audita erunt, qui vir (n.s) non credet (3s Fut.ai). When Jesus' words will have been heard, what man will not believe.5. Dum operat (3s pai), orabat (3s imp.act.ind). While he works he was praying.6. Si mandata (n.pl) mea a populo (abl agency) observata (n.pl) fuerint (3pl fut.perf.ind.pass),​ habebunt (3pl fai) vitam (acc.s) aeternam. If my commandments will have been observed by the people, they will have eternal life.7. Petrus (n.s) populo (dat) mira (abl spec) Domini (gen.s) dicet (3s pai), donec (conj.) Paulus (n.s) advenerit (3s fut.perf.ind.act). Peter speaks to the people about the marvels of God until Paul will have come.8. Stella (n.s) in caelo (abl. loc) visa (part.), viri (n.pl) ex agris (abl.pl loc) venerunt (3pl perf.act.ind) atque (conj) adoraverunt (3pl perf.act.ind) natum (acc.s) Jesum. When the star was seen in the sky, the men came out of the fields and adored the child Jesus.9. Ut Jesus (ns) circumspexit (3s perf.act.ind) viri (n.pl) erant (3pl imperf.act.ind) maesti (n.pl) et non unum verbum (acc.s) dixerunt (3pl perf.act.ind). Sciverunt (3pl perf.act.ind) enim quod Jesus (ns) //vera// (acc.pl) dixerat (3s plup.act.ind). When Jesus looked around, the men were sad and didn't say a word. They knew that truly Jesus had spoken the truth.10. Cum viderint (3pl fut.perf.act.ind) oculi (n.pl) mei Dominum (acc.s), meam (acc.s) vitam finire (inf) potero (1s fut.act.ind). When my eyes will have seen the Lord, my life will be able to finish.11. Ubi angelus (ns) Domini (gen.s) visus erit (3s fut.perf.pass.ind),​ tuba (n.s) victoriae (gen.s) super universam (acc.s) terram audietur (3s fut.pass.ind). When the angel of the Lord will be seen, the trumpet of victory will be heard over the whole land.12. Etiam (conj) in deserto (abl.s location) Judaeae (gen.s) baptista (n.s) Jesum (acc.s) scivit (3s perf ai). Jesu enim (conj) primum respecto, dixit (3s perf ai): Ecce agnus (ns) Dei (gen.s).And in the desert of Judea the baptist knew Jesus and first looking at Jesus said: Behold the Lamb of God.13. Etsi est (3s pai) parvulus (ns), puer (ns) in domo (abl.s loc) restat (3s pai).Although he is small, the boy remains at home.14. Baptista (n.s) autem traditio, venit Jesus in Galilaeam, ubi populo Evangelium dicere incepit.The Baptist surrendering,​ Jesus came in Galilee where he began to teach the Gospel to the people.15. Maria primum natum peperit (3s perf ai), et vocatus est (3s perf.pass.ind) Jesus.Mary gave birth to the first child, and he is called Jesus.16. Sanctus vir (n.s) dextera (abl.s) puerum (acc.s) cepit (3s perf act ind) et duxit (3s perf act ind) in domum (acc.s).The holy man took hold of the boy on the right and led him into the house.17. Ubi (conj) Judaei (n.pl) digitum (acc.s) Dei (gen.s) in caelis (abl.pl) spexerunt (3pl perf.act.ind),​ laeti potentiam (acc.s) misericordiamque (acc.s) laudaverunt (3pl perf.act.ind).When the Judeans saw the finger of God in the heavens, the joyful praised power and mercy.18. In principio (adv.clause) Deus (n.s) mundum (acc.s) creavit (3s perf ai) ac vitae (gen.s) praestitit (3s perf ai) donum (acc.s).In the beginning, God created the world and gave the gift of life.19. Natura immutata (n.s) est (3s pai) nostra (n.s), ut Filius (n.s) incarnatus est (3s pref.pass.ind)?​Is our nature unchanged when the Son has been incarnated.20. Natus (n.s) in brachiis (abl.pl loc) Mariae (gen.s) habitus fuerat (3s plup.pass.ind).The child in the arms of Mary had been found.21. Postquam (adv) vir (n.s) malus aurum (acc.s) condidit (3s perf.ai), ad dexteram (acc.s) Petri (gen.s) in silentio (abl.s manner) astitit (3s perf.ai).After the bad man put away the gold, he stood at the right of peter on silence.22. Vir (n.s), qui (rel.pron) vitam (acc.s) perdidit (3s perf.act.ind),​ a Judaeis (abl.pl) laudatus fuerat (3s plup.pass.ind).The man, who lost his life, by the Judeans had been praised.23. Romani (n.pl) qui (rel.pron) circumsteterant (3pl plup.act.ind) puero (dat.s) instabant (3pl imp.act.ind).The Romans who had been standing around threatened the boy.24. Nisi mea verba (n.pl) effecta (n.pl) fuerint (3pl fut.perf.ai) , beati (n.pl) non eritis (2pl fut.perf.pass.ind).Unless my words will have been effective, they will not be blessed25. Christianis ubique inventis (abl.pl ), Paulus (n.s), bene satiatus (n.s), in domo (abl.s loc) Petri (gen.s) cum gaudio (abl.s manner) restabat (3s imp.ai).Christians being found everywhere, Paul, well satisfied , in the house of Peter with joy was resting.26. Mea Culpa (abl.s), mea culpa, mea maxima culpa.By my fault, by my fault, by my most grevious fault.27. Et traditus est (3s perf.pass.ind) Jesu (dat.s) liber (n.s) prophetae (gen.pl).And the book of the prophets was handed to Jesus28. Non est hic, sed surrexit. Lk 24,6He is not here, but he has risen. ​ **Exercises**1. Hymno dicto (abl absolute) apostoli (nom.pl) domum (acc.s) reliquerunt (3pl perf.act.ind)With hymns said, the apostles left the house.2. Antequam (conj) puer (n.s) ad cenam (acc.s) missus est (3s perf.ind.pass),​ primum (adv) in domini (gen.s) agro(abl.s location) cunctis (abl.pl manner) cum servis (abl.pl) operavit (3s perf.act.ind). Before the boy was sent to dinner, first he worked with all the servants in the field of the master.3. Tunc (adv) Galilaei (n.s) a Romanis (abl agency) saepe (adv) despecci sunt (3pl perf.ind.pass),​ quoniam (conj) deos (acc.pl) Romanorum (gen.pl) non adorabant (3pl Imp.act.ind). Then the Galilaeans were often dispised by the romans since they didn't adore the gods of the romans.4. Cum verba Jesu audita erunt, qui vir (n.s) non credet (3s Fut.ai). When Jesus' words will have been heard, what man will not believe.5. Dum operat (3s pai), orabat (3s imp.act.ind). While he works he was praying.6. Si mandata (n.pl) mea a populo (abl agency) observata (n.pl) fuerint (3pl fut.perf.ind.pass),​ habebunt (3pl fai) vitam (acc.s) aeternam. If my commandments will have been observed by the people, they will have eternal life.7. Petrus (n.s) populo (dat) mira (abl spec) Domini (gen.s) dicet (3s pai), donec (conj.) Paulus (n.s) advenerit (3s fut.perf.ind.act). Peter speaks to the people about the marvels of God until Paul will have come.8. Stella (n.s) in caelo (abl. loc) visa (part.), viri (n.pl) ex agris (abl.pl loc) venerunt (3pl perf.act.ind) atque (conj) adoraverunt (3pl perf.act.ind) natum (acc.s) Jesum. When the star was seen in the sky, the men came out of the fields and adored the child Jesus.9. Ut Jesus (ns) circumspexit (3s perf.act.ind) viri (n.pl) erant (3pl imperf.act.ind) maesti (n.pl) et non unum verbum (acc.s) dixerunt (3pl perf.act.ind). Sciverunt (3pl perf.act.ind) enim quod Jesus (ns) //vera// (acc.pl) dixerat (3s plup.act.ind). When Jesus looked around, the men were sad and didn't say a word. They knew that truly Jesus had spoken the truth.10. Cum viderint (3pl fut.perf.act.ind) oculi (n.pl) mei Dominum (acc.s), meam (acc.s) vitam finire (inf) potero (1s fut.act.ind). When my eyes will have seen the Lord, my life will be able to finish.11. Ubi angelus (ns) Domini (gen.s) visus erit (3s fut.perf.pass.ind),​ tuba (n.s) victoriae (gen.s) super universam (acc.s) terram audietur (3s fut.pass.ind). When the angel of the Lord will be seen, the trumpet of victory will be heard over the whole land.12. Etiam (conj) in deserto (abl.s location) Judaeae (gen.s) baptista (n.s) Jesum (acc.s) scivit (3s perf ai). Jesu enim (conj) primum respecto, dixit (3s perf ai): Ecce agnus (ns) Dei (gen.s).And in the desert of Judea the baptist knew Jesus and first looking at Jesus said: Behold the Lamb of God.13. Etsi est (3s pai) parvulus (ns), puer (ns) in domo (abl.s loc) restat (3s pai).Although he is small, the boy remains at home.14. Baptista (n.s) autem traditio, venit Jesus in Galilaeam, ubi populo Evangelium dicere incepit.The Baptist surrendering,​ Jesus came in Galilee where he began to teach the Gospel to the people.15. Maria primum natum peperit (3s perf ai), et vocatus est (3s perf.pass.ind) Jesus.Mary gave birth to the first child, and he is called Jesus.16. Sanctus vir (n.s) dextera (abl.s) puerum (acc.s) cepit (3s perf act ind) et duxit (3s perf act ind) in domum (acc.s).The holy man took hold of the boy on the right and led him into the house.17. Ubi (conj) Judaei (n.pl) digitum (acc.s) Dei (gen.s) in caelis (abl.pl) spexerunt (3pl perf.act.ind),​ laeti potentiam (acc.s) misericordiamque (acc.s) laudaverunt (3pl perf.act.ind).When the Judeans saw the finger of God in the heavens, the joyful praised power and mercy.18. In principio (adv.clause) Deus (n.s) mundum (acc.s) creavit (3s perf ai) ac vitae (gen.s) praestitit (3s perf ai) donum (acc.s).In the beginning, God created the world and gave the gift of life.19. Natura immutata (n.s) est (3s pai) nostra (n.s), ut Filius (n.s) incarnatus est (3s pref.pass.ind)?​Is our nature unchanged when the Son has been incarnated.20. Natus (n.s) in brachiis (abl.pl loc) Mariae (gen.s) habitus fuerat (3s plup.pass.ind).The child in the arms of Mary had been found.21. Postquam (adv) vir (n.s) malus aurum (acc.s) condidit (3s perf.ai), ad dexteram (acc.s) Petri (gen.s) in silentio (abl.s manner) astitit (3s perf.ai).After the bad man put away the gold, he stood at the right of peter on silence.22. Vir (n.s), qui (rel.pron) vitam (acc.s) perdidit (3s perf.act.ind),​ a Judaeis (abl.pl) laudatus fuerat (3s plup.pass.ind).The man, who lost his life, by the Judeans had been praised.23. Romani (n.pl) qui (rel.pron) circumsteterant (3pl plup.act.ind) puero (dat.s) instabant (3pl imp.act.ind).The Romans who had been standing around threatened the boy.24. Nisi mea verba (n.pl) effecta (n.pl) fuerint (3pl fut.perf.ai) , beati (n.pl) non eritis (2pl fut.perf.pass.ind).Unless my words will have been effective, they will not be blessed25. Christianis ubique inventis (abl.pl ), Paulus (n.s), bene satiatus (n.s), in domo (abl.s loc) Petri (gen.s) cum gaudio (abl.s manner) restabat (3s imp.ai).Christians being found everywhere, Paul, well satisfied , in the house of Peter with joy was resting.26. Mea Culpa (abl.s), mea culpa, mea maxima culpa.By my fault, by my fault, by my most grevious fault.27. Et traditus est (3s perf.pass.ind) Jesu (dat.s) liber (n.s) prophetae (gen.pl).And the book of the prophets was handed to Jesus28. Non est hic, sed surrexit. Lk 24,6He is not here, but he has risen. ​
  
 ===Unit 14 Third Declension=== ===Unit 14 Third Declension===
  
-    <ul>+  * __Third Declension Nouns__ **-is** in the genitive singular: junk declention - anything that doesn'​t fit elsewhere comes here. Endings are always the same, but the stem changes. Genitive plural ending in -ium. Genitive plural in -um if number of syllables in nominitive is less than genitive, except those ending in -r. 
  
-<p id="​l830">​ + |nom, gen, dat, acc, abl   | nom, gen, dat, acc, abl    | 
- <​u>​Third Declension Nouns</​u>​ **-is** in the genitive singular: junk declention - anything that doesn'​t fit elsewhere comes here. Endings are always the same, but the stem changes. Genitive plural ending in -ium. Genitive plural in -um if number of syllables in nominitive is less than genitive, except those ending in -r.  +|masc. fem  | -- -is, -i, -em, -e   | -es, -um, -ibus, -es, -ibus  | 
-<div class="​wikitable">​ +  |rex, regis, regi, regem, rege   | reges, regum, regibus, reges, regibus ​ | 
-<table border="​1">​ +  |mater, matris, matri, matrem, matre   | matres, matrum, matribus, matres, matribus ​ | 
- <​tr id="​l831">​ +|Neuter ​ | -- -is, -i, -- -e   | -a, -um, -ibus, -a, -ibus  | 
-<​td>​ +  |corpus, corporis, -pori, -pus, -pore   | -pora, -porum, -poribus, -pora, -poribus ​ | 
-  | +-ium masc. fem  | -- -is, -i, -em, -e   | -es, -ium, -ibus, -es, -ibus  | 
-nom, gen, dat, acc, abl   | +-ium masc. fem  | pars, partis, parti, partem, parte   | partes, part**i**um,​ partibus, partes, partibus ​ | 
- nom, gen, dat, acc, abl  </​td>​ +|Neuter ​ | -- -is, -i, -- -e   | -ia, -ium, -ibus, -ia, -ibus  | 
-</​tr>​ +|Neuter ​ | mare, maris, mari, mare, mari   | mar**i**a, mar**i**um, maribus, mar**i**a, maribus ​ |
- <​tr id="​l832">​ +
-<td> +
-masc. fem  | +
- &​mdash;, ​-is, -i, -em, -e   | +
- -es, -um, -ibus, -es, -ibus</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
- <​tr id="​l833">​ +
-<td> +
-   | +
-rex, regis, regi, regem, rege   | +
- reges, regum, regibus, reges, regibus</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
- <​tr id="​l834">​ +
-<td> +
-   | +
-mater, matris, matri, matrem, matre   | +
- matres, matrum, matribus, matres, matribus</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
- <​tr id="​l835">​ +
-<td> +
-Neuter ​ | +
- &​mdash;, ​-is, -i, &mdash;, -e   | +
- -a, -um, -ibus, -a, -ibus</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
- <​tr id="​l836">​ +
-<td> +
-   | +
-corpus, corporis, -pori, -pus, -pore   | +
- -pora, -porum, -poribus, -pora, -poribus</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
- <​tr id="​l837">​ +
-<td> +
- -ium masc. fem  | +
- &​mdash;, ​-is, -i, -em, -e   | +
- -es, -ium, -ibus, -es, -ibus</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
- <​tr id="​l838">​ +
-<td> +
- -ium masc. fem  | +
- pars, partis, parti, partem, parte   | +
- partes, part**i**um,​ partibus, partes, partibus</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
- <​tr id="​l839">​ +
-<td> +
-Neuter ​ | +
- &​mdash;, ​-is, -i, &​mdash;, ​-e   | +
- -ia, -ium, -ibus, -ia, -ibus</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
- <​tr id="​l840">​ +
-<td> +
-Neuter ​ | +
- mare, maris, mari, mare, mari   | +
- mar**i**a, mar**i**um, maribus, mar**i**a, maribus</​td>​ +
-</tr>+
  
 +  * __Genitive of Description__ describe a noun: people of mercy, people of joyful mind. //homines laeti animi// ​
 +  * __Ablative of Description__ man of great soul //vir magna anima// ​
 +  *  __Subjective and Objective Genitive__ Genitive may be used as subject or object. //Propter __Dei__ misericordiam __hominum__ gratias agimus.// We give thanks on account of God's pity toward humans. //Amor Dei// (love of God, or love for God) 
 +  * __Dative of Reference__ evil to my people: //mala meo populo// - dative of advantage or disadvantage. ​
 +  * __Apposition__ Noun in apposition - same number and case. 
 +  * __Concessive Clauses__ Although //etsi, quamquam// ​
 +  * Antiquus is all ancient things, vetus refers to old, but it means more in relation to persons vetus vir.
 +  * KULeuven library founded in 1636 with less than 1,000 books, 200 years after the university started. And it was considered at the time to be an important library. ​
  
-</​table>​ +**Exercises** ​1. Quamquam (conj) princeps (n.s) sacerdotum (gen.pl) verba (acc.pl) Jesu (gen.s) audivit (3s perf.ai), inhaesit tamen antiquis (dat.pl) modis, et non credidit (3s perf ai).Although the prince of priests (high priest) heard the words of Jesus, nevertheless he clung to the ancient ways and did not believe.2. In templo (acc.s loc) Jesus (n.s) a libro (abl.s) prophetae (gen.s) orationem (acc.s) legit (3s pres/perf ai).In the temple, Jesus read a prayer from the book of the prophets.3. Ergo (conj) apostuli (n.pl) cibum (acc.pl) collegerunt (3pl perf.ai) et dederunt (3pl perf.ai) populo (dat.s).Therefore the apostles collected food and gave it to the people.4. Scripto libro (abl.s absolute), apostolus (n.s) iterum (adv) venit (3s pres/​perf.ai) ad terram (acc.s) ubi a Jesu (abl.s agency) ante multos annos (acc.pl) electus erat (3s plup.pass.ind) .When the book was written, the apostle again came to the land where by Jesus he had been chosen many years before.5. Scis (2s pai) quia Joannes (n.s) dicebatur (3s imp.pass.ind) dilectus discipulus (n.s)?Do you know that John was called the beloved apostle?6. Si nostra deprecatio (n.s) a Patre (abl.s agency) suscepta erit (3s fut.perf.pass.ind),​ laeti erimus (3ps fut.ai).If our prayer is accepted by the Father, we will be happy.7. Mater (n.s) dolorosa corpus (acc.s) Jesu (gen.s) in brachiis (abl.pl) suscepit (3s, perf.ai), postea (adv) corpus (n.s) in terra (abl.s) conditum est (3s perf.pass.i).The sorrowful mother received the body of Jesus in the arms, afterwards the body was buried in the earth.8. Sanctus Petrus (n.s), homo (n.s) pacis (gen.s) et bonae voluntatis (gen.s), electus est (3s perf.pass.ind) princeps (n.s) cunctorum (gen.pl) apostolorum (gen.pl).Holy peter, a man of peace and good will, was elected prince of all the apostles.9. Nostra (n.pl) peccata a Redemptore (abl.s), Jesu Christo (abl.s), detersa sunt (3pl perf.pass.ind.)Our sins have been wiped clean by the redeemer, Jesus Christ.10. Novus discipulus (n.s) , quamquam unus (n.s) apostolorum (gen.pl) non erat (3s imp.act.ind),​ hominibus cunctis (dat.pl) Evangelium (acc.s) scripsit (3s perf.act.ind).The new disciple, although he was not one of the apostles, wrote a Gospel for all people.11. Discipuli (gen.s objective) Evangelium (n.s) Jesu (gen.s) Christi per universas terras (acc.pl) semper (adv) lectum est (3s perf.pass.ind). Nam (conj) in libro (abl.s) vitam (acc.s) Jesu (gen.s) descripsit (3s perf.act.ind).The Gospel of Jesus Christ of the disciple for all the lands was read, for in the book, he described the life of Jesus.12. Tunc (adv) familia (n.s) Jesu (gen.s) ad Bethlehem (acc.s) venit (3s perf.act.ind) et descripta est (3s perf.pass.ind).Then the family of Jesus came to bethlehem and was enrolled (described).13. Postquam (adv) Ioannes (n.s) traditus est (3s perf.pass.ind),​ Jesus (ns) ministerium (acc.s) incepit (3s perf.ai).After John was betrayed, Jesus began ministry.14. Propter regem (n.s) hominem (acc.s) malo animo (abl.s) familia terram (acc.s) patrum reliquit (3s perf.act.ind).On account of the king, a man of bad spirit, the family abandonded the father land.15. Postquam (adv) sacerdos (n.s) noster orationem (acc.s) legit (3s pres/​perf.ai),​ subdidimus (1pl perf.ai): Amen.After the Priest read the prayer, we supplied: Amen.16. Maria (n.s), et virgo (n.s) et mater (n.s), ab homimbus (abl.pl) cunctis laudata (n.s).Mary, both virgin and mother, is praised by all men.17. Sancta familia (n.s) per multos annos (acc.pl) vixit (3s perf.ai) ​ in terra Aegyptia (abl.loc), dum (adv) rex impius (n.s) in Galilaea (abl.s) regnat (3s pai).The holy family, for many years lived in the land of Egypt, while an evil king reigns in Galilee.18. Nomine (abl.s absolute) Jesu (gen.s) a sacerdote (abl.s agency) dicto (abl.s absolute), populus se inclinavit (3s perf.ai).When the name of Jesus was spoken by the priest, the people bowed.19. Ubi lumen est, vita est.Where there is light, there is life.20. Deum (n.s) de Deo (abl.s), lumen (n.s) de lumine (abl.s), Deum verum (n.s) de Deo vero (abl.s)....God from God, light from light, true God from True God....21. Ideo (adv) Patrem (acc.s) invocavimus (1pl perf.ai) et magnas (acc.pl) Filio (dat.s) egimus gratias (acc.pl).Therefore,​ we invoked the father and gave great thanks to the Son.22 Baptismate (abl s)  Joannis (abl.s) Judaei peccatis (abl.s ) liberati sunt (3s perf.pass.ind).When baptized by John, the judeans were freed from their sins.23 Primo Dei Testamento genus (n.s) Judaeum (gen.s) effectum est (3s perf.pass.ind) universo (dat.s) lumen (n.s) mundo.The first testament of God, the race of Judea has brought about light to the whole world.24. Hebraei (n.pl) a Domino (abl.s agency) per aquam (acc.s) sicco vestigio?? (abl.s) recti sunt (3pl perf.pass.ind).The Hebrews by the Lord were made right through water &mdash; dry steps??25 Aurum gladiique (n.pl), munera (n.pl) populi (gen.s), regi (dat.s) iam data (n.pl) erant (3ps plup.pass.ind).Now,​ gold and swords, gifts of the people, were given to the king26. Postquam (adv) Paulus (n.s) Romanis (dat.pl) scripsit (3s perf.ai), discipulus (n.s) Paulo () cenam (acc.s) parare poterat (3s imp.act.ind).After Paul wrote to the Romans, the disciple was able to prepare dinner for paul.27. Hic (this) est Jesus Rex Judaeorum. Mt. xxvii, 37.This is the king of the Jews.28. Et ecce aperti sunt Jesu caeli. Mt. iii, 16, adapted..And behold the heavens were open to Jesus. ​
-</​div>​ +
-<p id="​l842">​ +
- <​u>​Genitive of Description</​u>​ describe a noun: people of mercy, people of joyful mind. //homines laeti animi//  +
- +
-<p id="​l844">​ +
- <​u>​Ablative of Description</​u>​ man of great soul //vir magna anima//  +
- +
-<p id="​l846">​ +
- <​u>​Subjective and Objective Genitive</​u>​ Genitive may be used as subject or object. //Propter <​u>​Dei</​u>​ misericordiam <​u>​hominum</​u>​ gratias agimus.// We give thanks on account of God's pity toward humans. //Amor Dei// (love of God, or love for God)  +
- +
-<p id="​l848">​ +
- <​u>​Dative of Reference</​u>​ evil to my people: //mala meo populo// - dative of advantage or disadvantage.  +
- +
-<p id="​l850">​ +
- <​u>​Apposition</​u>​ Noun in apposition - same number and case.  +
- +
-<p id="​l852">​ +
- <​u>​Concessive Clauses</​u>​ Although //etsi, quamquam//  +
- +
-<p id="​l854">​ +
- ​Antiquus is all ancient things, vetus refers to old, but it means more in relation to persons vetus vir.<p id="​l855">​ +
- ​KULeuven library founded in 1636 with less than 1,000 books, 200 years after the university started. And it was considered at the time to be an important library.  +
- +
- +
-    </​ul>​ +
- +
- +
-<p id="​l857">​ +
-1. Quamquam (conj) princeps (n.s) sacerdotum (gen.pl) verba (acc.pl) Jesu (gen.s) audivit (3s perf.ai), inhaesit tamen antiquis (dat.pl) modis, et non credidit (3s perf ai).Although the prince of priests (high priest) heard the words of Jesus, nevertheless he clung to the ancient ways and did not believe.2. In templo (acc.s loc) Jesus (n.s) a libro (abl.s) prophetae (gen.s) orationem (acc.s) legit (3s pres/perf ai).In the temple, Jesus read a prayer from the book of the prophets.3. Ergo (conj) apostuli (n.pl) cibum (acc.pl) collegerunt (3pl perf.ai) et dederunt (3pl perf.ai) populo (dat.s).Therefore the apostles collected food and gave it to the people.4. Scripto libro (abl.s absolute), apostolus (n.s) iterum (adv) venit (3s pres/​perf.ai) ad terram (acc.s) ubi a Jesu (abl.s agency) ante multos annos (acc.pl) electus erat (3s plup.pass.ind) .When the book was written, the apostle again came to the land where by Jesus he had been chosen many years before.5. Scis (2s pai) quia Joannes (n.s) dicebatur (3s imp.pass.ind) dilectus discipulus (n.s)?Do you know that John was called the beloved apostle?6. Si nostra deprecatio (n.s) a Patre (abl.s agency) suscepta erit (3s fut.perf.pass.ind),​ laeti erimus (3ps fut.ai).If our prayer is accepted by the Father, we will be happy.7. Mater (n.s) dolorosa corpus (acc.s) Jesu (gen.s) in brachiis (abl.pl) suscepit (3s, perf.ai), postea (adv) corpus (n.s) in terra (abl.s) conditum est (3s perf.pass.i).The sorrowful mother received the body of Jesus in the arms, afterwards the body was buried in the earth.8. Sanctus Petrus (n.s), homo (n.s) pacis (gen.s) et bonae voluntatis (gen.s), electus est (3s perf.pass.ind) princeps (n.s) cunctorum (gen.pl) apostolorum (gen.pl).Holy peter, a man of peace and good will, was elected prince of all the apostles.9. Nostra (n.pl) peccata a Redemptore (abl.s), Jesu Christo (abl.s), detersa sunt (3pl perf.pass.ind.)Our sins have been wiped clean by the redeemer, Jesus Christ.10. Novus discipulus (n.s) , quamquam unus (n.s) apostolorum (gen.pl) non erat (3s imp.act.ind),​ hominibus cunctis (dat.pl) Evangelium (acc.s) scripsit (3s perf.act.ind).The new disciple, although he was not one of the apostles, wrote a Gospel for all people.11. Discipuli (gen.s objective) Evangelium (n.s) Jesu (gen.s) Christi per universas terras (acc.pl) semper (adv) lectum est (3s perf.pass.ind). Nam (conj) in libro (abl.s) vitam (acc.s) Jesu (gen.s) descripsit (3s perf.act.ind).The Gospel of Jesus Christ of the disciple for all the lands was read, for in the book, he described the life of Jesus.12. Tunc (adv) familia (n.s) Jesu (gen.s) ad Bethlehem (acc.s) venit (3s perf.act.ind) et descripta est (3s perf.pass.ind).Then the family of Jesus came to bethlehem and was enrolled (described).13. Postquam (adv) Ioannes (n.s) traditus est (3s perf.pass.ind),​ Jesus (ns) ministerium (acc.s) incepit (3s perf.ai).After John was betrayed, Jesus began ministry.14. Propter regem (n.s) hominem (acc.s) malo animo (abl.s) familia terram (acc.s) patrum reliquit (3s perf.act.ind).On account of the king, a man of bad spirit, the family abandonded the father land.15. Postquam (adv) sacerdos (n.s) noster orationem (acc.s) legit (3s pres/​perf.ai),​ subdidimus (1pl perf.ai): Amen.After the Priest read the prayer, we supplied: Amen.16. Maria (n.s), et virgo (n.s) et mater (n.s), ab homimbus (abl.pl) cunctis laudata (n.s).Mary, both virgin and mother, is praised by all men.17. Sancta familia (n.s) per multos annos (acc.pl) vixit (3s perf.ai) ​ in terra Aegyptia (abl.loc), dum (adv) rex impius (n.s) in Galilaea (abl.s) regnat (3s pai).The holy family, for many years lived in the land of Egypt, while an evil king reigns in Galilee.18. Nomine (abl.s absolute) Jesu (gen.s) a sacerdote (abl.s agency) dicto (abl.s absolute), populus se inclinavit (3s perf.ai).When the name of Jesus was spoken by the priest, the people bowed.19. Ubi lumen est, vita est.Where there is light, there is life.20. Deum (n.s) de Deo (abl.s), lumen (n.s) de lumine (abl.s), Deum verum (n.s) de Deo vero (abl.s)....God from God, light from light, true God from True God....21. Ideo (adv) Patrem (acc.s) invocavimus (1pl perf.ai) et magnas (acc.pl) Filio (dat.s) egimus gratias (acc.pl).Therefore,​ we invoked the father and gave great thanks to the Son.22 Baptismate (abl s)  Joannis (abl.s) Judaei peccatis (abl.s ) liberati sunt (3s perf.pass.ind).When baptized by John, the judeans were freed from their sins.23 Primo Dei Testamento genus (n.s) Judaeum (gen.s) effectum est (3s perf.pass.ind) universo (dat.s) lumen (n.s) mundo.The first testament of God, the race of Judea has brought about light to the whole world.24. Hebraei (n.pl) a Domino (abl.s agency) per aquam (acc.s) sicco vestigio?? (abl.s) recti sunt (3pl perf.pass.ind).The Hebrews by the Lord were made right through water &mdash; dry steps??25 Aurum gladiique (n.pl), munera (n.pl) populi (gen.s), regi (dat.s) iam data (n.pl) erant (3ps plup.pass.ind).Now,​ gold and swords, gifts of the people, were given to the king26. Postquam (adv) Paulus (n.s) Romanis (dat.pl) scripsit (3s perf.ai), discipulus (n.s) Paulo () cenam (acc.s) parare poterat (3s imp.act.ind).After Paul wrote to the Romans, the disciple was able to prepare dinner for paul.27. Hic (this) est Jesus Rex Judaeorum. Mt. xxvii, 37.This is the king of the Jews.28. Et ecce aperti sunt Jesu caeli. Mt. iii, 16, adapted..And behold the heavens were open to Jesus. ​+
  
 ===Unit 15 Third Declension -i stem=== ===Unit 15 Third Declension -i stem===
  
-    <​ul>​ +  * Masculine and Feminine ​__-ium in genitive ​plural__ ​- this is indicated in the vocabulary. They either end in two consonants (2nd isn't **L** or **R**) or have equal number of syllables in nominative and genitive singular. Neuter -ium in genitive plural, also i in ablative singular and ia in nom and accusative plural. Most nominatives are in -e, -ar or -al. See table in Unit 14 above.<p id="​l916">​ 
- +  * __Partitive Genitive__ ​genitive indicates the whole after a word denoting a part: //multos discipulorum//​. The whole is in the genitive.<​p id="​l917">​ 
-<p id="​l915">​ +  * __Dative ​with certain ​adjectives__ ​pleasing to, near to, dear to, similar to, dissimilar to, difficult to, easy to, useful, jucundus: Deo gratum. Similar to the dative of advantage or dative or disadvantage. Compound verbs quite often take the dative.<​p id="​l918">​ 
- Masculine and Feminine ​<u>-ium in genitive ​plural</​u> ​- this is indicated in the vocabulary. They either end in two consonants (2nd isn't **L** or **R**) or have equal number of syllables in nominative and genitive singular. Neuter -ium in genitive plural, also i in ablative singular and ia in nom and accusative plural. Most nominatives are in -e, -ar or -al. See table in Unit 14 above.<p id="​l916">​ +  * __Predicate Accusative__ ​//Christus Jesus Petrum **apostolum** fecit.//<​p id="​l919">​ 
- <​u>​Partitive Genitive</​u> ​genitive indicates the whole after a word denoting a part: //multos discipulorum//​. The whole is in the genitive.<​p id="​l917">​ +  * __Cognate Accusative__ ​//Vitam// bonam //vixit//. = Bene vixit. ​
- <​u>​Dative ​with certain ​adjectives</​u> ​pleasing to, near to, dear to, similar to, dissimilar to, difficult to, easy to, useful, jucundus: Deo gratum. Similar to the dative of advantage or dative or disadvantage. Compound verbs quite often take the dative.<​p id="​l918">​ +
- <​u>​Predicate Accusative</​u> ​//Christus Jesus Petrum **apostolum** fecit.//<​p id="​l919">​ +
- <​u>​Cognate Accusative</​u> ​//Vitam// bonam //vixit//. = Bene vixit. ​ +
- +
- +
-    </​ul>​ +
  
-<p id="​l921">​ +**Exercises** ​1. Multi (n.s) hominum (gen.pl) a Jesu (abl.s agency) sanatorum (gen.pl) gratias Deo (dat.s) non egerunt (3pl perf.ai).Many people who were healed by Jesus didn't give thanks to God.2. Joannes (n.s) viam (acc.s) Domini (gen.s) paravit (3s perf.ai); multi (n.pl) Iudaeorum (gen.pl), corde (abl/dat.s) contriti (gen.s / n.pl), a Joanne (abl.s agency) baptisma (acc.pl) aquae (gen.s) acceperunt (3pl perf.act.ind);​ Jesus (n.s) quoque ad Joannem (acc.s) venit (3s p/perf ai) in baptisma (acc.pl); secundum Joannem debemus Jesum vocare Agnum Dei.John prepared the way of the Lord, Many of the Judeans, contrite of heart, accepted baptism of water by john; likewise Jesus came to John in baptism; according to John we should call Jesus: Lamb of God.3. Ad saeculi (gen.s) finem (acc.s) tuba (acc.pl) justitiae (gen.s) insonuerit (3s fut.perf.act.ind).At the end of the ages, the trumpets of justice will have sounded.4. In primis (adv) ad ambonem (acc.s) lector (n.s) primam (acc.s) lectionem leget (3s p/perf.ai); hinc (adv) cantor (n.s) canticum (acc.s) cantabit (3s fut.act.ind).First the lector reads the first reading from the pulpit, then the cantor will sing. (from there??)5. Sanguis (gen.s) agni (gen.s) in postibus (abl.pl location) fecit (3s perf.ai) antiquos (acc.pl) hebraeos salvos.Of the blood of the lamb on the doorposts made safe the ancient jews.6. Ad Pascham (acc.s) laeti sumus (1pl perf.pass.ind),​ quoniam (conj) per resurrectionem (acc.s) Redemptoris (gen.s) effecti sumus (1pl perf.pass.ind) novae vitae (gen.s) participes (n.pl).We are joyful at the pasch, since by the resurrection of the redeemer are made participants of new life.7. Hebraei (n.pl), quorum (gen.pl) corda (n.pl) erant (3pl Imp.act.ind) apta ad Domini ministerium,​ per Mare Rubrum (acc.s) ducti sunt (3pl perf.pass.ind).Hebrews,​ whose hearts were suitable for the ministry of the Lord, were lead through the Red Sea.8. Fugatur (3s pres.pass.ind) caligo ​ iniquitatis (gen.s); lumen (n.s) Christi (gen.s) a cunctis hominibus (abl.pl. agency) videtur. Alleluja.The mist of iniquity was put to flight; the light of christ was seen by all people. Alleluia.9. Praeter cunctos homines (acc.pl) Mariam (acc.s), Stellam Maris, laudamus (1pl pai), quia Mater (n.s) Dei est.Above all people, we praise mary, Star of the Sea, for she is mother of God.10. Nisi (conj) meum (acc.s) corpus manducaveritis (2pl fut.perf.act.ind) et biberitis (2pl fut.perf.act.ind) meum (acc.s) sanguinem, in regnum (acc.s) caelorum (gen.pl) non intrabitis (2pl fut.ai).Unless you all will have eaten my body and drunk my blood, you will not enter into the kingdom of heaven.11. Sanguine (abl.s) agni (gen.s) in postibus (abl.pl) Hebraeorum (gen.pl) viso (abl.s), sub tecta (acc.pl) angelus (n.s) Dei (gen.s) non intravit (3s perf.act.ind).Seeing the blood of the lamb on the posts of the Hebrews, the angel of God did not enter under the roofs.12. Propter Christi (gen.s) victoriam (acc.s) mortis (gen.s) aula (n.s) laetis (abl.pl) hymnis personuit (3s perf.ai).On account of the victory of Christ, the hall resounded with the joyous hymns of the death.13. Turba (n.pl) satis panis (acc.pl) habuerunt (3pl perf.ai)? Nisi (conj) satis (acc.pl) manducaverint (3pl fut.perf.ai),​ pars populi (gen.s partitive) in via (abl.s) deficient (3pl fut.ai).Did the crowds have enough bread? Unless they will have eaten enough, some of the people will fail in the way.14. Petrus (n.s) primus (n.s) Jesum (acc.s) vocavit (3s perf.ai) Christum (acc.s)? Quamquam (conj) Petrus (n.s) multa non scivit (3s perf.ai), vidit (3s perf.ai) quod (rel.pron) Jesus (n.s) erat (3s Imp.ai) Dominus (n.s).Was Peter first to call Jesus the Christ? Although Peter didn't know much, he saw that Jesus was the Lord15. Viri (n.pl),a diacono (abl.s agency) formati (n.pl), nunc (adv) sunt (3pl pai) baptismati (n.pl) apti?The men, educated by the deacon, now are ready for baptism.16. Joannes(n.s),​ Jesu (gen.s) cordi (loc.s) proximus (n.s), ad dextram (acc.s) Mariae (gen.s) astitit (3s perf.ai).John,​ close to the heart of Jesus, stood at the right of Mary.17. Morte (abl.s) Jesu (gen.s) apostoli, quoniam erant humani, effecti sunt maesti, sed resurrectione,​ laeti.When Jesus died, the apostles, because they were human, became but at the resurrection,​ they became joyful.18. Jesus, redemptor ​ humani generis, prae cunctis (abl.ps) ubique laudatur (3s pres.pass.ind).Jesus,​ redeemer of the human race, before everyone, everywhere is praised.19. Etsi (conj) mentem (acc.s) Dei (gen.s) scire (inf) non semper possumus (1pl pai), boni (n.pl) Domino () credunt (3pl pai).Although we cannot always know the mind of God, the good believe in the Lord.20. Per boni (gen.s) Domini largitatem (acc.s) plena (n.s) est mensa (n.s) nostra cibo (abl.s).Throught the abundance of the good Lord, our table is full of food.21. Etiam (conj) pars (n.s) hominum (gen.pl partitive) optimorum a malo (abl.s) seducti sunt (3pl perf.pass.ind).Now part of the best persons are lead away from evil.22. Audivisti (2s perf.ai) quia cunctae creaturae (n.pl) a mari (abl.s) primum (adv) venerunt (3pl perf.ai)?​Have you heard that all creatures first came from the sea?23. Post Evangelii (gen.s) lectionem (acc.s) popolus (n.s) responsum (acc.s) acclamavit (3s perf ai).After the reading of the Gospel, the people proclaimed the response.24. Humani (voc.pl), qui in mondo (abl.s) vivimus (1pl pai), laudamus (1pl pai) Patrem (acc.s), qui mundum (acc.s) condidit (3s perf.ai).People,​ we who live in the world praise the Father who preserved the world.25. Episcopus Romanus, etsi homo bonus et justus, satis beatam vitam non vixit.The bishop of rome, although a good and upright man, did not live a sufficiently holy life.26. Mariam Reginam Caeli vocamus, quoniam est Mater Dei.We call Mary the Queen of heaven because she is the Mother of God.27. Semper et ubique misericordiam Domini in mente habebimus.Always and everywhere, we will have in mind the mercy of God.28. Aeterno cibo maducato, orationem subdimus ante missae finem.When the eternal food is eaten, we say the prayer before the end of Mass.29. Relicta Galilaea, iterum Jesus cum apostolis ad fines Judaeae venit.When he returned to Galilee, again, Jesus with the apostles when to the border of Judea.30. Dominus mentes nostras ad superna desideria erigit.The lord leads our minds to supreme desire.31. Beati mundo corde, quoniam ipsi ('​they'​) Deum videbunt Mt. v 8.Blest the pure of heart, they shall see God.32. Adoramus (1pl pai) quod scimus (1pl pai) quia salus ex Judaeis est. Jn iv 22We adore what we know since salvation is from the Judeans ​
-1. Multi (n.s) hominum (gen.pl) a Jesu (abl.s agency) sanatorum (gen.pl) gratias Deo (dat.s) non egerunt (3pl perf.ai).Many people who were healed by Jesus didn't give thanks to God.2. Joannes (n.s) viam (acc.s) Domini (gen.s) paravit (3s perf.ai); multi (n.pl) Iudaeorum (gen.pl), corde (abl/dat.s) contriti (gen.s / n.pl), a Joanne (abl.s agency) baptisma (acc.pl) aquae (gen.s) acceperunt (3pl perf.act.ind);​ Jesus (n.s) quoque ad Joannem (acc.s) venit (3s p/perf ai) in baptisma (acc.pl); secundum Joannem debemus Jesum vocare Agnum Dei.John prepared the way of the Lord, Many of the Judeans, contrite of heart, accepted baptism of water by john; likewise Jesus came to John in baptism; according to John we should call Jesus: Lamb of God.3. Ad saeculi (gen.s) finem (acc.s) tuba (acc.pl) justitiae (gen.s) insonuerit (3s fut.perf.act.ind).At the end of the ages, the trumpets of justice will have sounded.4. In primis (adv) ad ambonem (acc.s) lector (n.s) primam (acc.s) lectionem leget (3s p/perf.ai); hinc (adv) cantor (n.s) canticum (acc.s) cantabit (3s fut.act.ind).First the lector reads the first reading from the pulpit, then the cantor will sing. (from there??)5. Sanguis (gen.s) agni (gen.s) in postibus (abl.pl location) fecit (3s perf.ai) antiquos (acc.pl) hebraeos salvos.Of the blood of the lamb on the doorposts made safe the ancient jews.6. Ad Pascham (acc.s) laeti sumus (1pl perf.pass.ind),​ quoniam (conj) per resurrectionem (acc.s) Redemptoris (gen.s) effecti sumus (1pl perf.pass.ind) novae vitae (gen.s) participes (n.pl).We are joyful at the pasch, since by the resurrection of the redeemer are made participants of new life.7. Hebraei (n.pl), quorum (gen.pl) corda (n.pl) erant (3pl Imp.act.ind) apta ad Domini ministerium,​ per Mare Rubrum (acc.s) ducti sunt (3pl perf.pass.ind).Hebrews,​ whose hearts were suitable for the ministry of the Lord, were lead through the Red Sea.8. Fugatur (3s pres.pass.ind) caligo ​ iniquitatis (gen.s); lumen (n.s) Christi (gen.s) a cunctis hominibus (abl.pl. agency) videtur. Alleluja.The mist of iniquity was put to flight; the light of christ was seen by all people. Alleluia.9. Praeter cunctos homines (acc.pl) Mariam (acc.s), Stellam Maris, laudamus (1pl pai), quia Mater (n.s) Dei est.Above all people, we praise mary, Star of the Sea, for she is mother of God.10. Nisi (conj) meum (acc.s) corpus manducaveritis (2pl fut.perf.act.ind) et biberitis (2pl fut.perf.act.ind) meum (acc.s) sanguinem, in regnum (acc.s) caelorum (gen.pl) non intrabitis (2pl fut.ai).Unless you all will have eaten my body and drunk my blood, you will not enter into the kingdom of heaven.11. Sanguine (abl.s) agni (gen.s) in postibus (abl.pl) Hebraeorum (gen.pl) viso (abl.s), sub tecta (acc.pl) angelus (n.s) Dei (gen.s) non intravit (3s perf.act.ind).Seeing the blood of the lamb on the posts of the Hebrews, the angel of God did not enter under the roofs.12. Propter Christi (gen.s) victoriam (acc.s) mortis (gen.s) aula (n.s) laetis (abl.pl) hymnis personuit (3s perf.ai).On account of the victory of Christ, the hall resounded with the joyous hymns of the death.13. Turba (n.pl) satis panis (acc.pl) habuerunt (3pl perf.ai)? Nisi (conj) satis (acc.pl) manducaverint (3pl fut.perf.ai),​ pars populi (gen.s partitive) in via (abl.s) deficient (3pl fut.ai).Did the crowds have enough bread? Unless they will have eaten enough, some of the people will fail in the way.14. Petrus (n.s) primus (n.s) Jesum (acc.s) vocavit (3s perf.ai) Christum (acc.s)? Quamquam (conj) Petrus (n.s) multa non scivit (3s perf.ai), vidit (3s perf.ai) quod (rel.pron) Jesus (n.s) erat (3s Imp.ai) Dominus (n.s).Was Peter first to call Jesus the Christ? Although Peter didn't know much, he saw that Jesus was the Lord15. Viri (n.pl),a diacono (abl.s agency) formati (n.pl), nunc (adv) sunt (3pl pai) baptismati (n.pl) apti?The men, educated by the deacon, now are ready for baptism.16. Joannes(n.s),​ Jesu (gen.s) cordi (loc.s) proximus (n.s), ad dextram (acc.s) Mariae (gen.s) astitit (3s perf.ai).John,​ close to the heart of Jesus, stood at the right of Mary.17. Morte (abl.s) Jesu (gen.s) apostoli, quoniam erant humani, effecti sunt maesti, sed resurrectione,​ laeti.When Jesus died, the apostles, because they were human, became but at the resurrection,​ they became joyful.18. Jesus, redemptor ​ humani generis, prae cunctis (abl.ps) ubique laudatur (3s pres.pass.ind).Jesus,​ redeemer of the human race, before everyone, everywhere is praised.19. Etsi (conj) mentem (acc.s) Dei (gen.s) scire (inf) non semper possumus (1pl pai), boni (n.pl) Domino () credunt (3pl pai).Although we cannot always know the mind of God, the good believe in the Lord.20. Per boni (gen.s) Domini largitatem (acc.s) plena (n.s) est mensa (n.s) nostra cibo (abl.s).Throught the abundance of the good Lord, our table is full of food.21. Etiam (conj) pars (n.s) hominum (gen.pl partitive) optimorum a malo (abl.s) seducti sunt (3pl perf.pass.ind).Now part of the best persons are lead away from evil.22. Audivisti (2s perf.ai) quia cunctae creaturae (n.pl) a mari (abl.s) primum (adv) venerunt (3pl perf.ai)?​Have you heard that all creatures first came from the sea?23. Post Evangelii (gen.s) lectionem (acc.s) popolus (n.s) responsum (acc.s) acclamavit (3s perf ai).After the reading of the Gospel, the people proclaimed the response.24. Humani (voc.pl), qui in mondo (abl.s) vivimus (1pl pai), laudamus (1pl pai) Patrem (acc.s), qui mundum (acc.s) condidit (3s perf.ai).People,​ we who live in the world praise the Father who preserved the world.25. Episcopus Romanus, etsi homo bonus et justus, satis beatam vitam non vixit.The bishop of rome, although a good and upright man, did not live a sufficiently holy life.26. Mariam Reginam Caeli vocamus, quoniam est Mater Dei.We call Mary the Queen of heaven because she is the Mother of God.27. Semper et ubique misericordiam Domini in mente habebimus.Always and everywhere, we will have in mind the mercy of God.28. Aeterno cibo maducato, orationem subdimus ante missae finem.When the eternal food is eaten, we say the prayer before the end of Mass.29. Relicta Galilaea, iterum Jesus cum apostolis ad fines Judaeae venit.When he returned to Galilee, again, Jesus with the apostles when to the border of Judea.30. Dominus mentes nostras ad superna desideria erigit.The lord leads our minds to supreme desire.31. Beati mundo corde, quoniam ipsi ('​they'​) Deum videbunt Mt. v 8.Blest the pure of heart, they shall see God.32. Adoramus (1pl pai) quod scimus (1pl pai) quia salus ex Judaeis est. Jn iv 22We adore what we know since salvation is from the Judeans ​+
  
 ===Unit 16 Third Declension Adjectives=== ===Unit 16 Third Declension Adjectives===
-<p id="​l987">​ 
-<​u>​Third Declension Adjectives</​u>​ like 3 declension nouns. All three genders have -i in abl.s, -ium in gen.pl and nom and acc pl of neuter have -ia.  
  
 +  * __Third Declension Adjectives__ like 3 declension nouns. All three genders have -i in abl.s, -ium in gen.pl and nom and acc pl of neuter have -ia. 
  
-    ​<ul>+|3 endings ​ |||||| 
 +||SINGULAR ​  ||| PLURAL ​ ||| 
 +|   ​|MASC. ​  | FEM.   ​| ​ NEUT.    |  MASC.     ​|    FEM.    |      NEUT.  | 
 +|Nom    |acer    | acris   | acre      | acres        | acres        | acria  | 
 +|Gen    |  acris      |||  acrium ​ ||| 
 +|Dat    |  acri       ​||| ​ acribus ​ ||| 
 +|Acc    |acrem ​   |acrem ​   |acre     ​|acris,​ -es    |acris, -es    |acria ​ | 
 +|Abl    |  acri       ​| ​ acribus ​ |
  
 +|2 endings ​ |  SINGULAR ​  ​|| ​ PLURAL ​ ||
 +|   ​| ​ M AND F    |  NEUT.      |  M AND F      |NEUT. ​ |
 +|Nom    |  omnis    |  omne   ​| ​ omnes   ​| ​ omnia  |
 +|Gen    |  omnis   ​|| ​ omnium ​ ||
 +|Dat    |  omni   ​|| ​ omnibus ​ ||
 +|Acc    |  omnem   ​| ​ omne  |  omnis, -es   ​| ​ omnia  |
 +|Abl    |  omni    ||  omnibus ​ ||
  
-<div class="​wikitable">​ +|  one ending ​  ​|  ​SINGULAR ​  |||  PLURAL ​ |
-<table border="​1">​ +|Nom.   ​|  ​felix   |||   ​felices felicia ​ | 
- <​tr id="​l988">​ +|Gen  ​ ​felicis ​  |||  felicium ​  || 
-<​td>​ +|Dat.   |  ​felici ​   |||  felicibus ​ || 
-3 endings</​td>​ +|Acc.   |felicem ​  felicam ​  |felix  ​ ​felices ​  ​| ​ felicia  ​
-<td colspan="​3"​ align="​center">​ +|Abl.   ​| ​ felici ​  ​||| ​  ​felicibus ​ ||
-SINGULAR ​</​td>​ +
-<td colspan="​3"​ align="​center">​ +
- ​PLURAL</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
- <​tr id="​l989">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-   | +
-MASC.   +
- FEM.   | +
-  NEUT.    ​| +
-  MASC.     +
-    ​FEM. ​   ​| +
-      NEUT.</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
- <​tr id="​l990">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-Nom    ​| +
-acer    ​| +
- ​acris ​  | +
- ​acre ​     ​+
- acres        ​| +
- ​acres ​       ​| +
- ​acria</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
- <​tr id="​l991">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-Gen  </​td>​ +
-<td colspan="​3"​ align="​center">​ +
-//​acris ​   </​td>​ +
-<td colspan="​3"​ align="​center">​ +
-acrium//</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
- <​tr id="​l992">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-Dat  </​td>​ +
-<td colspan="​3"​ align="​center">​ +
-//​acri ​    </​td>​ +
-<td colspan="​3"​ align="​center">​ +
-//​acribus//</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
- <​tr id="​l993">​ +
-<td> +
-Acc    | +
-acrem    ​| +
-acrem    ​| +
-acre     | +
-acris, -es    ​+
-acris, -es    ​| +
-acria</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
- <​tr id="​l994">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-Abl  ​</​td>​ +
-<td colspan="​3"​ align="​center">​ +
-//​acri ​    </​td>​ +
-<td colspan="​3"​ align="​center">​ +
-//​acribus//</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-</​table>​ +
-</​div>​+
  
-<div class="​wikitable">​ +  ​* parpart STEM pari- BASE par
-<table border="​1">​ +
- <​tr id="​l996">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-2 endings</​td>​ +
-<td colspan="​2"​ align="​center">​ +
-SINGULAR </​td>​ +
-<td colspan="​3"​ align="​center">​ +
-PLURAL</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
- <​tr id="​l997">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-   ​+
-M AND F    | +
-NEUT.      | +
-M AND F    | +
-NEUT.</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
- <​tr id="​l998">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-Nom    | +
-omnis    | +
-omne   | +
-omnes        | +
-omnia</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
- <​tr id="​l999">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-Gen  </​td>​ +
-<td colspan="​2"​ align="​center">​ +
-//omnis </​td>​ +
-<td colspan="​2"​ align="​center">​ +
-omnium//</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
- <​tr id="​l1000">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-Dat  </​td>​ +
-<td colspan="​2"​ align="​center">​ +
-//omni </​td>​ +
-<td colspan="​2"​ align="​center">​ +
-omnibus//</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
- <​tr id="​l1001">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-Acc    | +
-omnem   | +
-omne  | +
-omnis, -es   | +
-omnia</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
- <​tr id="​l1002">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-Abl  </​td>​ +
-<td colspan="​2"​ align="​center">​ +
-//​omni ​ </​td>​ +
-<td colspan="​2"​ align="​center">​ +
-omnibus//</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-</​table>​ +
-</​div>​+
  
-<div class="​wikitable">​ +|one ending ​  |  ​SINGULAR ​  ||  ​PLURAL ​ || 
-<table border="​1">​ +|.  |M AND F  |NEUT. ​  |M AND F  |NEUT. ​ | 
- <​tr id="​l1004">​ +|Nom.   |  par   ​||pares ​  ​|paria ​ | 
-<​td>​ +|Gen.   |paris ​  ​|| ​ parium ​ || 
-one ending ​</​td>​ +|Dat.   |  pari    |  paribus ​ | 
-<td colspan="​3"​ align="​center">​ +|Acc.   |parem   |par   |paris, -es   ​|paria ​ | 
-SINGULAR ​</​td>​ +|Abl.   |  pari    |  paribus ​ |
-<td colspan="​2"​ align="​center">​ +
-PLURAL</td> +
-</​tr>​ +
- <​tr id="​l1005">​ +
-<td> +
-Nom. </​td>​ +
-<td colspan="​3"​ align="​center">​ +
-felix </​td>​ +
-<td colspan="​2"​ align="​center">​ +
- ​felices felicia</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
- <​tr id="​l1006">​ +
-<td> +
-Gen. </​td>​ +
-<td colspan="​3"​ align="​center">​ +
-felicis </​td>​ +
-<td colspan="​2"​ align="​center">​ +
- ​felicium </​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
- <​tr id="​l1007">​ +
-<td> +
-Dat. </​td>​ +
-<td colspan="​3"​ align="​center">​ +
-felici ​ </​td>​ +
-<td colspan="​2"​ align="​center">​ +
- ​felicibus</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
- <​tr id="​l1008">​ +
-<td> +
-Acc.   | +
-felicem ​  | +
- ​felicam ​  | +
-felix  | +
- felices ​  | +
-felicia</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
- <​tr id="​l1009">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-Abl. </​td>​ +
-<td colspan="​3"​ align="​center">​ +
-felici </​td>​ +
-<td colspan="​2"​ align="​center">​ +
- ​felicibus</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-</​table>​ +
-</​div>​+
  
-    </ul>+__Present active participle__ formed by adding -ns to the present stem. In -io verbs of the third conjugation,​ and in the fourth conjugation,​ the stem is modified by the addition of -e-, as capi-e-ns, audi-e-ns. It is declined like an adjective of one ending of the **third declension** above. ​
  
 +|   ​|nominative singular ​ |other cases  |
 +|   |stem + ns  |stem + nt + endings ​ |
 +|1st   ​|laudans ​ | laudantis ​ |
 +|2nd  | monens ​ |monentis ​ |
 +|3rd  |ducens ​ |ducentis ​ |
 +|   ​|capiens ​ |capientis ​ |
 +|4th  |audiens ​ |audientis ​ |
  
-<p id="​l1011">​ +**Uses:** 
-parpart STEM pariBASE par+  - Adjectival: //clamans vir// - the shouting man 
 +  - Adverbial: subordinate clauses //virclamans, tamen a jesu non auditus est.// The man, though shouting, wasn't heard by jesus. 
 +  ​Ablative Absolute: //Petro in domum intrante....//​ When Peter entered the house... ​ //aqua fervente// ​while the water was boiling....  
 +  - __Fourth Declension Nouns__ ritus, m., ceremony gen..., n., kneeSTEMS ritu- genu-BASES rit- gen- 
 +  - No adjectives - both masculine and neuter, only about 4 or 5 feminine. ​
  
  
-    <ul>+|   ​|Nom ​   |Gen  |Dat  |Acc  |Abl   ​|Nom ​   |Gen  |Dat  |Acc  |Abl   | 
 +|MASC. ​ |rit**us** ​ |**rit**us ​ |**rit**ui (u)  |**rit**um ​ |**rit**u (e)  |**rit**us ​  ​|**rit**uum ​ |**rit**ibus ​ |**rit**us ​ |**rit**ibus ​ | 
 +|NEUT. ​  ​|gen**u **   ​|**gen**us ​   |**gen**u (ui)  |**gen**u ​ |**gen**u ​  ​|**gen**ua ​ |**gen**uum ​ |**gen**ibus ​ |**gen**ua ​ |**gen**ibus ​ |
  
- +**Exercises** 1. In nomine (abl.s) Patris (gen.s) et Filii (gen.s) et Spiritus (gen.s) Sancti. Amen.In the name of the father and of the son and of the holy spirit. Amen.2. Et sanguis (n.s) meus (n.s) verus (n.s) est (3s pai) potus (n.s) Jn vi, 55And my blod is true drink.3. Apostoli (n.pl) dederunt (3pl perf.ai) panes (acc.pl) miros hominibus in terra (abl.a) reclinatis ().The apostles gave miracle bread to people reclined on the land.4. Corpus (n.s) vestrum templum (n.s) est (3s pai) Spiritus (gen.s)Sancti,​ qui in vobis (abl.s) est (3s pai), quem (acc.s) habetis (2pl ) a deo (abl.s), et non estis (2pl pai) vestri (n.pl). 1 Cor vi 19.Your body is a temple of the holy spirit who is in you, whom you have from God and you are not yours.5. Tunc Jesus (n.s) et apostoli (n.pl) intra domum (acc.s) erant (3pl imp.ai), manducantes Pascha. Unus (n.s) autem Dominum (acc.s) jam tradiderat (3s plup.ai).Then Jesus and the apostles were in the house eating the pasch. But one had already betrayed the Lord.6. Parvula ancilla (n.s), adveniens ad jesum, cum innocentia (acc.s) dixit (3s perf.ai): Scio (1s pai) quia sanare (inf) potes (2s pai) male habentes (acc.s). Non sanabis (2s fut.ai) matrem (acc.s) meam? Et Jesus (n.s) domum (acc.s) intravit (3s perf.ai) et matrem (acc.s) ancillae (gen.s) sanavit (3s perf.ai).The little servant, coming to Jesus, with innocence said: I know that you can heal those who are sick. Will you heal my mother? And Jesus entered the house and healed the monther of the servant.7. a. Dum Jesus autem ambulat ad mare, vidit Petrum.While Jesus walked to the sea, he saw Peter.b. Donec Jesus autem ambulabat ad mare, vidit Petrum.While Jesus was walking to the sea, he saw Peter.c. Jesus autem, ambulans ad mare, vidit Petrum monentem felicem populum.And Jesus, walking to the sea, saw Peter teaching the happy people.8. Et vidit omnis populus eum ambulantem et laudantem Deum Acts iii, 9And all the people saw him walking and praised God.9. Discipuli autem collegerunt confractos panes a populo relictos.And the disciples collected the broken bread left by the people.10. Gloria Patri et Filio et Spiritui Sancto.Glory to the Father and to the Son and to the Holy Spirit.11. Accepit panem et gratias agens fregit et dixit: Hoc est corpus meum. I Cor xi, 23-24.He took bread and giving thanks broke and said: this is my body.12. Hic calix novum testamentum est in meo sanguine I Cor xi, 25This chalice is the new testament in my blood.13. Christus Jesus enim effundit sanguinem pro mundi vita.Indeed Christ Jesus pours out blood for the life of the world.14. Nos autem non spiritum mundi accepimus, sed Spiritum, qui ex Deo est. I Cor ii, 12And we do not accept the spirit of the world but the spirit who is from God.15. In oratione genuflectentes,​ semper laudabimus Dominum, qui passione et morte in cruce et resurrectione mundum salvum fecit.Genuflecting in prayer, we always prais the Lord who through the passion and death on the cross and resurrection caused the salvation of the world.16. Vino autem in calicem fuso, Jesus benedixit et dedit apostolis, dicens: Hic est meus sanguis, Si biberitis, vivetis in aeternum.But when the win was poured in the chalice, Jesus blest and gave to the apostles saying: this is my blood. If you will have drunk, you will live eternally.17. Quis nos separabit a caritate Christi?Who will separate us from the love of Christ?18. Jesus (n.s) memor autem Patris omnipotentis ascendit in templum atque aspexit (3s perf.ai) vultus (acc.pl) orantium (gen.pl). Et intra templum invenit (3s perf/​pres.ai) multos, et felices et acres.But Jesus mindful of the almighty father went up into the temple and he saw faces of prayer (entreaty). And in the temple he found many both happy and bitter.19. Paschalis (n.s) ritus (n.s) memores videmus (1pl pres.perf.ai) suavitatem et misericordiam et caritatem Dei Patris....We see the goodness and mercy and love of God the Father.20. Et Petrus invenit Jesum in cornu orantem pro omnibus hominibus.And peter found jesus on the mountain praying for all people.21. Venit Filus hominis manducans et bibens. Mt xi, 19The Son of Man came eating and drinking.22. Justorum autem animae in manu Dei sunt. Wisdom iii, 1But the souls of the just are in the hand of God.23. Quapropter salutare praeceptum Domini felices audivimus, et diligimus omnes, et nobis similes et dissimiles.Wherefore we have heard and we love everyone, bothe like and dislike24. Jesus, reclinatus in cenaculo, cum apostolis panem frangebat.Jesus,​ reclining in the cenacle, was breaking bread with the apostles.25. Per omnia saecula saeculorum.Forever and ever. 
-<div class="​wikitable">​ +
-<table border="​1">​ +
- <​tr id="​l1013">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-one ending </​td>​ +
-<td colspan="​2"​ align="​center">​ +
-SINGULAR </​td>​ +
-<td colspan="​2"​ align="​center">​ +
-PLURAL</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
- <​tr id="​l1014">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-.  | +
-M AND F  | +
-NEUT.   | +
-M AND F  | +
-NEUT.</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
- <​tr id="​l1015">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-Nom. </​td>​ +
-<td colspan="​2"​ align="​center">​ +
-par   | +
-pares   | +
-paria</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
- <​tr id="​l1016">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-Gen. </​td>​ +
-<td colspan="​2"​ align="​center">​ +
-paris </​td>​ +
-<td colspan="​2"​ align="​center">​ +
-parium</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
- <​tr id="​l1017">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-Dat. </​td>​ +
-<td colspan="​2"​ align="​center">​ +
-pari  </​td>​ +
-<td colspan="​2"​ align="​center">​ +
-paribus</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
- <​tr id="​l1018">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-Acc.   | +
-parem   | +
-par   | +
-paris, -es   | +
-paria</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
- <​tr id="​l1019">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-Abl. </​td>​ +
-<td colspan="​2"​ align="​center">​ +
-pari  </​td>​ +
-<td colspan="​2"​ align="​center">​ +
-paribus</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-</​table>​ +
-</​div>​ +
- +
-    </​ul>​ +
- +
- +
-<p id="​l1021">​ +
-<​u>​Present active participle</​u>​ formed by adding -ns to the present stem. In -io verbs of the third conjugation,​ and in the fourth conjugation,​ the stem is modified by the addition of -e-, as capi-e-ns, audi-e-ns. It is declined like an adjective of one ending of the **third declension** above.  +
- +
- +
-    <​ul>​ +
- +
- +
-<div class="​wikitable">​ +
-<table border="​1">​ +
- <​tr id="​l1022">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-   | +
-nominative singular ​ | +
-other cases</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
- <​tr id="​l1023">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-   | +
-stem + ns  | +
-stem + nt + endings</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
- <​tr id="​l1024">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-1st   | +
-laudans ​ | +
- ​laudantis</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
- <​tr id="​l1025">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-2nd  | +
- ​monens ​ | +
-monentis</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
- <​tr id="​l1026">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-3rd  | +
-ducens ​ | +
-ducentis</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
- <​tr id="​l1027">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-   | +
-capiens ​ | +
-capientis</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
- <​tr id="​l1028">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-4th  | +
-audiens ​ | +
-audientis</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-</​table>​ +
-</​div>​ +
- +
-    </​ul>​ +
- +
- +
-<p id="​l1029">​ +
-Uses: +
- +
- +
-    <ol type="​1">​ +
- +
-    <​li>​ +
-<p id="​l1030">​ +
-Adjectival: //clamans vir// - the shouting man +
-  |<p id="​l1031">​ +
-Adverbial: subordinate clauses //vir, clamans, tamen a jesu non auditus est.// The man, though shouting, wasn't heard by jesus. +
-  |<p id="​l1032">​ +
-Ablative Absolute: //Petro in domum intrante....//​ When Peter entered the house... ​ // //aqua fervente// - while the water was boiling....  +
- +
-</​li>​ +
- +
-    </​ol>​ +
- +
- +
-<p id="​l1034">​ +
-<​u>​Fourth Declension Nouns</​u>​ritus,​ m., ceremony gen����������������,​ n., kneeSTEMS ritu- genu-BASES rit- gen- +
- +
- +
-    <​ul>​ +
- +
-<p id="​l1038">​ +
- No adjectives - both masculine and neuter, only about 4 or 5 feminine.  +
- +
- +
-    </​ul>​ +
- +
- +
- +
-<div class="​wikitable">​ +
-<table border="​1">​ +
-<tr id="​l1039">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-   | +
-Nom    | +
-Gen  | +
-Dat  | +
-Acc  | +
-Abl   | +
-Nom    | +
-Gen  | +
-Dat  | +
-Acc  | +
-Abl </​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-<tr id="​l1040">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-MASC.  | +
-rit**us ​   | +
-**rit**us ​   | +
-**rit**ui (u)   | +
-**rit**um ​  | +
-**rit**u (e)  | +
-**rit**us ​  | +
-**rit**uum ​ | +
-**rit**ibus ​ | +
-**rit**us ​ | +
-**rit**ibus**</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-<tr id="​l1041">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-NEUT.   | +
-gen**u ​   | +
-**gen**us ​   | +
-**gen**u (ui)  | +
-**gen**u ​ | +
-**gen**u ​  | +
-**gen**ua ​ | +
-**gen**uum ​ | +
-**gen**ibus ​ | +
-**gen**ua ​ | +
-**gen**ibus**</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-</​table>​ +
-</​div>​ +
-<p id="​l1043">​ +
-**Exercises**1. In nomine (abl.s) Patris (gen.s) et Filii (gen.s) et Spiritus (gen.s) Sancti. Amen.In the name of the father and of the son and of the holy spirit. Amen.2. Et sanguis (n.s) meus (n.s) verus (n.s) est (3s pai) potus (n.s) Jn vi, 55And my blod is true drink.3. Apostoli (n.pl) dederunt (3pl perf.ai) panes (acc.pl) miros hominibus in terra (abl.a) reclinatis ().The apostles gave miracle bread to people reclined on the land.4. Corpus (n.s) vestrum templum (n.s) est (3s pai) Spiritus (gen.s)Sancti,​ qui in vobis (abl.s) est (3s pai), quem (acc.s) habetis (2pl ) a deo (abl.s), et non estis (2pl pai) vestri (n.pl). 1 Cor vi 19.Your body is a temple of the holy spirit who is in you, whom you have from God and you are not yours.5. Tunc Jesus (n.s) et apostoli (n.pl) intra domum (acc.s) erant (3pl imp.ai), manducantes Pascha. Unus (n.s) autem Dominum (acc.s) jam tradiderat (3s plup.ai).Then Jesus and the apostles were in the house eating the pasch. But one had already betrayed the Lord.6. Parvula ancilla (n.s), adveniens ad jesum, cum innocentia (acc.s) dixit (3s perf.ai): Scio (1s pai) quia sanare (inf) potes (2s pai) male habentes (acc.s). Non sanabis (2s fut.ai) matrem (acc.s) meam? Et Jesus (n.s) domum (acc.s) intravit (3s perf.ai) et matrem (acc.s) ancillae (gen.s) sanavit (3s perf.ai).The little servant, coming to Jesus, with innocence said: I know that you can heal those who are sick. Will you heal my mother? And Jesus entered the house and healed the monther of the servant.7. a. Dum Jesus autem ambulat ad mare, vidit Petrum.While Jesus walked to the sea, he saw Peter.b. Donec Jesus autem ambulabat ad mare, vidit Petrum.While Jesus was walking to the sea, he saw Peter.c. Jesus autem, ambulans ad mare, vidit Petrum monentem felicem populum.And Jesus, walking to the sea, saw Peter teaching the happy people.8. Et vidit omnis populus eum ambulantem et laudantem Deum Acts iii, 9And all the people saw him walking and praised God.9. Discipuli autem collegerunt confractos panes a populo relictos.And the disciples collected the broken bread left by the people.10. Gloria Patri et Filio et Spiritui Sancto.Glory to the Father and to the Son and to the Holy Spirit.11. Accepit panem et gratias agens fregit et dixit: Hoc est corpus meum. I Cor xi, 23-24.He took bread and giving thanks broke and said: this is my body.12. Hic calix novum testamentum est in meo sanguine I Cor xi, 25This chalice is the new testament in my blood.13. Christus Jesus enim effundit sanguinem pro mundi vita.Indeed Christ Jesus pours out blood for the life of the world.14. Nos autem non spiritum mundi accepimus, sed Spiritum, qui ex Deo est. I Cor ii, 12And we do not accept the spirit of the world but the spirit who is from God.15. In oratione genuflectentes,​ semper laudabimus Dominum, qui passione et morte in cruce et resurrectione mundum salvum fecit.Genuflecting in prayer, we always prais the Lord who through the passion and death on the cross and resurrection caused the salvation of the world.16. Vino autem in calicem fuso, Jesus benedixit et dedit apostolis, dicens: Hic est meus sanguis, Si biberitis, vivetis in aeternum.But when the win was poured in the chalice, Jesus blest and gave to the apostles saying: this is my blood. If you will have drunk, you will live eternally.17. Quis nos separabit a caritate Christi?Who will separate us from the love of Christ?18. Jesus (n.s) memor autem Patris omnipotentis ascendit in templum atque aspexit (3s perf.ai) vultus (acc.pl) orantium (gen.pl). Et intra templum invenit (3s perf/​pres.ai) multos, et felices et acres.But Jesus mindful of the almighty father went up into the temple and he saw faces of prayer (entreaty). And in the temple he found many both happy and bitter.19. Paschalis (n.s) ritus (n.s) memores videmus (1pl pres.perf.ai) suavitatem et misericordiam et caritatem Dei Patris....We see the goodness and mercy and love of God the Father.20. Et Petrus invenit Jesum in cornu orantem pro omnibus hominibus.And peter found jesus on the mountain praying for all people.21. Venit Filus hominis manducans et bibens. Mt xi, 19The Son of Man came eating and drinking.22. Justorum autem animae in manu Dei sunt. Wisdom iii, 1But the souls of the just are in the hand of God.23. Quapropter salutare praeceptum Domini felices audivimus, et diligimus omnes, et nobis similes et dissimiles.Wherefore we have heard and we love everyone, bothe like and dislike24. Jesus, reclinatus in cenaculo, cum apostolis panem frangebat.Jesus,​ reclining in the cenacle, was breaking bread with the apostles.25. Per omnia saecula saeculorum.Forever and ever. +
  
 ===Unit 17 Volo and Eo=== ===Unit 17 Volo and Eo===
  
-    <ul>+Irregular verb **volo, velle volui** wish 
  
-<p id="​l1100">​ +|Present ​ |volo  |vis  |vult  |volumus ​ |vultis ​ |volunt ​ | 
- ​Irregular verb **volo, velle volui** wish  +|Imperfect ​ |volebam ​ |volebas ​ |volebat ​ |volebamus ​ |volebatis ​ |volebant ​ | 
-<div class="​wikitable">​ +|Future ​ |volam ​ |voles ​ |volet ​ |volemus ​ |voletis ​ |volent ​ | 
-<table border="​1">​ +|Perfect ​ |volui ​ |voluisti ​ |voluit ​ |voluimus ​ |voluistis ​ |voluerunt ​ | 
- <​tr id="​l1101">​ +|Pluperfect ​ |volueram ​ |volueras ​ |voluerat ​ |volueramus ​ |volueratis ​ |voluerant ​ | 
-<​td>​ +|Future Perfect ​ |voluero ​ |volueris ​ |voluerit ​ |voluerimus ​ |volueritis ​ |voluerint ​ | 
-Present ​ | +|subj Pres  |velim ​ |velis ​ |velit ​ |velimus ​ |velitis ​ |velint ​ | 
-volo  | + if the //L// is followed by a vowel, you find an //O// otherwise "​U//​. ​ |||||||
-vis  | +
-vult  | +
-volumus ​ | +
-vultis ​ | +
-volunt</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
- <​tr id="​l1102">​ +
-<td> +
-Imperfect ​ | +
-volebam ​ | +
-volebas ​ | +
-volebat ​ | +
-volebamus ​ | +
-volebatis ​ | +
-volebant</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
- <​tr id="​l1103">​ +
-<td> +
-Future ​ | +
-volam  | +
-voles  | +
-volet  | +
-volemus ​ | +
-voletis ​ | +
-volent</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
- <​tr id="​l1104">​ +
-<td> +
-Perfect ​ | +
-volui  | +
-voluisti ​ | +
-voluit ​ | +
-voluimus ​ | +
-voluistis ​ | +
-voluerunt</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
- <​tr id="​l1105">​ +
-<td> +
-Pluperfect ​ | +
-volueram ​ | +
-volueras ​ | +
-voluerat ​ | +
-volueramus ​ | +
-volueratis ​ | +
-voluerant</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
- <​tr id="​l1106">​ +
-<td> +
-Future Perfect ​ | +
-voluero ​ | +
-volueris ​ | +
-voluerit ​ | +
-voluerimus ​ | +
-volueritis ​ | +
-voluerint</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
- <​tr id="​l1107">​ +
-<td> +
-subj Pres  | +
-velim  | +
-velis  | +
-velit  | +
-velimus ​ | +
-velitis ​ | +
-velint</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
- <​tr id="​l1108">​ +
-<td colspan="​6"​ align="​center">​ +
-  if the //L// is followed by a vowel, you find an //O// otherwise "U//.</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-</​table>​ +
-</​div>​ +
-<p id="​l1109">​ +
- ​Irregular verb **eo, ire, ivi, itus** go  +
-<div class="​wikitable">​ +
-<table border="​1">​ +
- <​tr id="​l1110">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-Present ​ | +
-eo  ​| +
-is  ​| +
-it  ​| +
-imus  ​| +
-itis  ​| +
-eunt</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
- <​tr id="​l1111">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-Imperfect  ​| +
-ibam  | +
-ibas  | +
-ibat  | +
-ibamus ​ | +
-ibatis ​ | +
-ibant</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
- <​tr id="​l1112">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-Future ​ | +
-ibo  | +
-ibis  | +
-ibit  | +
-ibimus ​ | +
-ibitis ​ | +
-ibunt</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
- <​tr id="​l1113">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-Perfect ​ | +
-ivi  | +
-ivisti ​ | +
-ivit  | +
-ivimus ​ | +
-ivistis ​ | +
-iverunt</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
- <​tr id="​l1114">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-Pluperfect ​ | +
-iveram ​ | +
-iveras ​ | +
-iverat ​ | +
-iveramus ​ | +
-iveratis ​ | +
-iverant</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
- <​tr id="​l1115">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-Future Perfect ​ | +
-ivero  | +
-iveris ​ | +
-iverit ​ | +
-iverimus ​ | +
-iveritis ​ | +
-iverunt</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
- <​tr id="​l1116">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-Perfect ​ | +
-ii  | +
-isti  | +
-iit  | +
-iimus  | +
-istis  | +
-ierunt</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
- <​tr id="​l1117">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-Pluperfect ​ | +
-ieram  | +
-ieras  | +
-ierat  | +
-ieramus ​ | +
-ieratis ​ | +
-ierant</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
- <​tr id="​l1118">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-Future Perfect ​ | +
-iero  | +
-ieris  | +
-ierit  | +
-ierimus ​ | +
-ieritis ​ | +
-ierint</​td>​ +
-</tr>+
  
 +Irregular verb **eo, ire, ivi, itus** go 
  
-</​table>​ +|Present ​ |eo  |is  |it  |imus  |itis  |eunt  | 
-</​div>​ +|Imperfect ​ |ibam  |ibas  |ibat  |ibamus ​ |ibatis ​ |ibant ​ | 
-<p id="​l1120">​ +|Future ​ |ibo  |ibis  |ibit  |ibimus ​ |ibitis ​ |ibunt ​ | 
- <​u>​Accustative of place to</​u>​ place to which **ad, in** with accusative is motion into.   **ad, in** can be omitted with domum (house) or big cities. //​Petrus ​ivit Romanum//​.// ​+|Perfect ​ |ivi  |ivisti ​ |ivit  ​|ivimus ​ |ivistis ​ |iverunt ​ | 
 +|Pluperfect ​ |iveram ​ |iveras ​ |iverat ​ |iveramus ​ |iveratis ​ |iverant ​ | 
 +|Future Perfect ​ |ivero ​ |iveris ​ |iverit ​ |iverimus ​ |iveritis ​ |iverunt ​ | 
 +|Perfect ​ |ii  |isti  |iit  |iimus ​ |istis ​ |ierunt ​ | 
 +|Pluperfect ​ |ieram ​ |ieras ​ |ierat ​ |ieramus ​ |ieratis ​ |ierant ​ | 
 +|Future Perfect ​ |iero  |ieris ​ |ierit ​ |ierimus ​ |ieritis ​ |ierint ​ |
  
-<p id="​l1122">​ +  * __Accustative ​of place to__ place to which **ad, in** with accusative is motion into.   **ad, in** can be omitted with domum (house) or big cities. ​//Petrus ivit Romanum//​.//​  
- <​u>​Ablative ​of location<​/u> place where you are **in** with ablative ​ with cities and towns the **in** isn't necessary. ​+  * __Ablative of location__ ​place where you are **in** with ablative ​ with cities and towns the **in** isn't necessary.  
 +  * __Ablative of place from__ with **a (ab, abs), e (ex)** //Paulus venit a Roma// ​ with cities and towns the a, ex, ab isn't necessary.  
 +  * __Locative case__ signifying place where; for 1st and 2nd declensions it is the genitive singular / ablative plural. Louvanii, Athenis - 3rd declention always ablative
  
-<p id="​l1124">​ 
- <​u>​Ablative of place from</​u>​ with **a (ab, abs), e (ex)** //Paulus venit a Roma// ​ with cities and towns the a, ex, ab isn't necessary. ​ 
- 
-<p id="​l1126">​ 
- <​u>​Locative case</​u>​ signifying place where; for 1st and 2nd declensions it is the genitive singular / ablative plural. Louvanii, Athenis - 3rd declention always ablative. ​ 
- 
- 
-    </ul> 
- 
- 
-<p id="​l1128">​ 
 Peter of Amian first crusade: //Deus Vult// ​ Peter of Amian first crusade: //Deus Vult// ​
  
-<p id="​l1130">​ 
 **Exercises**1. Postquam turbae satis manducaverunt,​ apostoli ierunt et omnes panes relictos collegerunt.After the crowds had eaten enough, the apostles went and collected all the remaining bread fragments.2. Qui enim voluerit animam suam salvam facere, perdet eam; qui autem perdiderit animam suam propter me et evangelium, salvam faciet eam.Whoever will have wanted to save his soul, will loose it; whoever will loose his soul for me and the gospel, will save it.3. Vere dignum et justum est, invisibilem Deum Patrem omnipotentem Filiumque unigenitum Dominum nostrum Jesum Christum, personare.It is truly right and just to praise the invisible almight father God, and the only son our lord Jesus Christ.4. a. Jesus in mundum inivit in remissionem peccatorum nostrorum, et pro omnibus crucifixus est.Jesus came into the world to forgive of our sins and on behalf of all was crucified.b. Jesus, qui in mundum invit in remissionem peccatorum nostrum, pro omnibus hominibus crucifixus est.Jesus who came into the world to forgive our sins, for all people was crucified.c. Jesus Salvator, iniens in mundum in remissionem peccatorum, voluntatem Patris clementis fecit.Jesus the Savior, coming into the world for the forgiveness of sins, did the will of the merciful father.5. O dilectio caritatis! Pater noster enim Filium unigenitum misit.O delight of love. Our father sent the only begotten Son.6. Credo in unum Deum, Patrem omnipotentem,​ factorem caeli et terrae, visibilium omnium et invisibilium.I believe into one God, the Almight Father, maker of heaven and of earth, of all things visible and invisible.7. Supplices igitur volumus ad Dominum pietatis acceptabile sacrificium facere.We supplicants must therefore make to the Lord of mercy an acceptible sacrifice.8. Angelus Domini ad Mariam annuntiavit:​ Quod mater Dei eris.The angle of the Lord announced to Mary you will be mother of God.9. Paulo autem volente intrare in populum, non permiserunt discipuli. Acts xix, 30.Although Paul wanted to enter among the people, the disciples did not let him through.10. Libri veteris testamenti ac novi, in numero multi, prosunt omnibus credentibus in Deum.Books of the old and new testaments, many in number, are advantageous to all believers in God.11. Jesus circuibat Galilaeam, et populum monebat. Postea rediit Hierosolymam,​ ubi dixit apostolis de morte et resurrectione.Jesus was going around Galilee and teaching the people. Afterwards he returned to Jerusalem, where he spoke to the apostole of death and resurrection.12. Sciebat autem et Judas, qui tradebat eum, locum. John xviii, 2.And Judas knew the place where he was handing him over.13. Scriptum est in libro veteris testamenti primo (adv) quoniam (conj) Deus spiritum emisit et vivificavit Adam.It is written in the book of the old testament that first God sent the spirit and gave life to Adam.14. Diaconus, deprecationes pro populo effundens, laudem (acc.s) cerei (loc.s) diligenter (adv) implevit (3s perf.ai).The deacon, pouring out prayers for the people, diligently fulfilled the praise at the candle.15. Paulus, adventum gloriosum Filii nuntians, confundebat Judeos qui in templo aderant.Paul,​ announcing the coming glory of the Son, was confounding the Jews who were present in the temple.16. Sanctus Petrus, servus et apostolus Jesu Christi, Romae primus episcopalem potentiam habebat.Holy Peter, servant and apostle of Jesus Christ, the first of rome had the episcopal power.17. Volo ergo viros (acc.pl) orare in omni loco.Therefore I want men to pray in every place18. Noster panis, fructus telluris, a sacerdote benedictus, erit omnibus panis vitae aeternae.Our bread, fruit of the earth, blessed by the priest, is for all the bread of eternal life.19. Deo volente, omnis natura purgabitur.When God wills, all nature will pass away.20. Ob felicem culpam Adae, Jesus venit in mundum atque Patri omnes filios Adae placavit.From the happy fault of Adam, Jesus came into the world and he placated to the Father the all the sons of adam.21. Apostoli, a Jesu admissi, male habentes sanare et pecata remittere valebant.The apostles, sent by Jesus, were powerful to heal the sick and to forgive sins.22. Petrus autem et Joannes ascendebant in templum ad horam orationis nonam.And peter and john were going up to the temple at the ninth hour to pray.  **Exercises**1. Postquam turbae satis manducaverunt,​ apostoli ierunt et omnes panes relictos collegerunt.After the crowds had eaten enough, the apostles went and collected all the remaining bread fragments.2. Qui enim voluerit animam suam salvam facere, perdet eam; qui autem perdiderit animam suam propter me et evangelium, salvam faciet eam.Whoever will have wanted to save his soul, will loose it; whoever will loose his soul for me and the gospel, will save it.3. Vere dignum et justum est, invisibilem Deum Patrem omnipotentem Filiumque unigenitum Dominum nostrum Jesum Christum, personare.It is truly right and just to praise the invisible almight father God, and the only son our lord Jesus Christ.4. a. Jesus in mundum inivit in remissionem peccatorum nostrorum, et pro omnibus crucifixus est.Jesus came into the world to forgive of our sins and on behalf of all was crucified.b. Jesus, qui in mundum invit in remissionem peccatorum nostrum, pro omnibus hominibus crucifixus est.Jesus who came into the world to forgive our sins, for all people was crucified.c. Jesus Salvator, iniens in mundum in remissionem peccatorum, voluntatem Patris clementis fecit.Jesus the Savior, coming into the world for the forgiveness of sins, did the will of the merciful father.5. O dilectio caritatis! Pater noster enim Filium unigenitum misit.O delight of love. Our father sent the only begotten Son.6. Credo in unum Deum, Patrem omnipotentem,​ factorem caeli et terrae, visibilium omnium et invisibilium.I believe into one God, the Almight Father, maker of heaven and of earth, of all things visible and invisible.7. Supplices igitur volumus ad Dominum pietatis acceptabile sacrificium facere.We supplicants must therefore make to the Lord of mercy an acceptible sacrifice.8. Angelus Domini ad Mariam annuntiavit:​ Quod mater Dei eris.The angle of the Lord announced to Mary you will be mother of God.9. Paulo autem volente intrare in populum, non permiserunt discipuli. Acts xix, 30.Although Paul wanted to enter among the people, the disciples did not let him through.10. Libri veteris testamenti ac novi, in numero multi, prosunt omnibus credentibus in Deum.Books of the old and new testaments, many in number, are advantageous to all believers in God.11. Jesus circuibat Galilaeam, et populum monebat. Postea rediit Hierosolymam,​ ubi dixit apostolis de morte et resurrectione.Jesus was going around Galilee and teaching the people. Afterwards he returned to Jerusalem, where he spoke to the apostole of death and resurrection.12. Sciebat autem et Judas, qui tradebat eum, locum. John xviii, 2.And Judas knew the place where he was handing him over.13. Scriptum est in libro veteris testamenti primo (adv) quoniam (conj) Deus spiritum emisit et vivificavit Adam.It is written in the book of the old testament that first God sent the spirit and gave life to Adam.14. Diaconus, deprecationes pro populo effundens, laudem (acc.s) cerei (loc.s) diligenter (adv) implevit (3s perf.ai).The deacon, pouring out prayers for the people, diligently fulfilled the praise at the candle.15. Paulus, adventum gloriosum Filii nuntians, confundebat Judeos qui in templo aderant.Paul,​ announcing the coming glory of the Son, was confounding the Jews who were present in the temple.16. Sanctus Petrus, servus et apostolus Jesu Christi, Romae primus episcopalem potentiam habebat.Holy Peter, servant and apostle of Jesus Christ, the first of rome had the episcopal power.17. Volo ergo viros (acc.pl) orare in omni loco.Therefore I want men to pray in every place18. Noster panis, fructus telluris, a sacerdote benedictus, erit omnibus panis vitae aeternae.Our bread, fruit of the earth, blessed by the priest, is for all the bread of eternal life.19. Deo volente, omnis natura purgabitur.When God wills, all nature will pass away.20. Ob felicem culpam Adae, Jesus venit in mundum atque Patri omnes filios Adae placavit.From the happy fault of Adam, Jesus came into the world and he placated to the Father the all the sons of adam.21. Apostoli, a Jesu admissi, male habentes sanare et pecata remittere valebant.The apostles, sent by Jesus, were powerful to heal the sick and to forgive sins.22. Petrus autem et Joannes ascendebant in templum ad horam orationis nonam.And peter and john were going up to the temple at the ninth hour to pray. 
  
 ===Unit 18 Future Participles=== ===Unit 18 Future Participles===
-<p id="​l1182">​ 
 **Lauda - tur - us / a / um** fu**tur**e active participle - I am about to praise -  active in meaning, so takes a direct object. Convey likelihood or purpose.**Lauda - nd - us / a / um** future passive participle - will be praised - must be praised. ​ Stem vowels are short before //nd//. Often convey the notion of duty or necessity. With future passive participle, the actor is put in the dative, called dative of agency. ​ **Lauda - tur - us / a / um** fu**tur**e active participle - I am about to praise -  active in meaning, so takes a direct object. Convey likelihood or purpose.**Lauda - nd - us / a / um** future passive participle - will be praised - must be praised. ​ Stem vowels are short before //nd//. Often convey the notion of duty or necessity. With future passive participle, the actor is put in the dative, called dative of agency. ​
  
 +|   ​| ​ Participles ​ ||||
 +|   ​| ​ Active ​ ||  Passive ​ ||
 +|   ​|Present ​  ​|Future ​ | Perfect ​  ​|Future ​ |
 +|CONJ. I   ​|amans ​  ​|amaturus ​  ​|amatus ​  | amandus ​ |
 +|   ​|loving ​  ​|about to love   ​|loved,​ having been loved   | to be loved  |
 +|CONJ. II  |monens ​  ​|moniturus ​  ​|monitus ​  ​|monendus ​  |
 +|   ​|advising ​  ​|about to advise advised, ​  ​|having been advised ​  | to be advised ​  |
 +|CONJ. III   ​|regens ​ |recturus ​    ​|rectus ​  ​|regendus ​  |
 +|   ​|ruling ​  ​|about to rule   ​|ruled,​ having been ruled   |
 +|   ​|capiens ​    ​|capturus ​   |captus ​  | capiendus ​  |
 +|   ​|taking ​  ​|about to take   | taken, having been taken   |
 +|CONJ. IV   ​|audiens ​ |auditurus ​ |auditus ​  ​|audiendus ​  |
 +|   ​|hearing ​  ​|about to hear   ​|heard,​ having been heard   | to be heard   |
  
-    <​ul>​ +Present passive and perfect active participles are lacking.
- +
- +
-<div class="​wikitable">​ +
-<table border="​1">​ +
- <​tr id="​l1185">​ +
-<​td>​ +
- </​td>​ +
-<td colspan="​4"​ align="​center">​ +
-Participles</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
- <​tr id="​l1186">​ +
-<​td>​ +
- </​td>​ +
-<td colspan="​2"​ align="​center">​ +
-Active</​td>​ +
-<td colspan="​2"​ align="​center">​ +
- ​Passive</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
- <​tr id="​l1187">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-   | +
-Present ​  | +
-Future ​ | +
- ​Perfect ​  | +
-Future</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
- <​tr id="​l1188">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-CONJ. I   | +
-amans   | +
-amaturus ​  | +
-amatus ​  | +
- ​amandus</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
- <​tr id="​l1189">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-   | +
-loving ​  | +
-about to love   | +
-loved, having been loved   | +
- to be loved</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
- <​tr id="​l1190">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-CONJ. II  | +
-monens ​  | +
-moniturus ​  | +
-monitus ​  | +
-monendus </​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
- <​tr id="​l1191">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-   | +
-advising ​  | +
-about to advise advised, ​  | +
-having been advised ​  | +
- to be advised </​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
- <​tr id="​l1192">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-CONJ. III   | +
-regens ​ | +
-recturus ​    | +
-rectus ​  | +
-regendus </​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
- <​tr id="​l1193">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-   | +
-ruling ​  | +
-about to rule   | +
-ruled, having been ruled </​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
- <​tr id="​l1194">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-   | +
-capiens ​    | +
-capturus ​   | +
-captus ​  | +
- ​capiendus </​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
- <​tr id="​l1195">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-   | +
-taking ​  | +
-about to take   | +
- ​taken,​ having been taken </​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
- <​tr id="​l1196">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-CONJ. IV   | +
-audiens ​ | +
-auditurus ​ | +
-auditus ​  | +
-audiendus </​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
- <​tr id="​l1197">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-   | +
-hearing ​  | +
-about to hear   | +
-heard, having been heard   | +
- to be heard </​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-</​table>​ +
-</​div>​ +
- +
-        <​ul>​ +
- +
-<p id="​l1198">​ +
-  ​Present passive and perfect active participles are lacking. +
- +
- +
-        </​ul>​ +
- +
- +
-<p id="​l1199">​ +
- ​Periphrastic conjugations:​ Future active //-rus// (intention) and passive participles //-dus// (necessity, propriety) used with //sum// to form a regular tense  +
-<div class="​wikitable">​ +
-<table border="​1">​ +
- <​tr id="​l1200">​ +
-<​td>​ +
- ​Present Active Periphrastic ​ | +
- //​laudaturus sum//  | +
- I am going to praise </​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
- <​tr id="​l1201">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-Imperfect Active Periphrastic ​  | +
- //​laudaturus eram// ​  | +
- I was intending to praise </​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
- <​tr id="​l1202">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-Pluperfect Active Periphrastic ​  | +
- //​laudaturus fueram// ​  | +
- I had been about to praise </​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-</​table>​ +
-</​div>​ +
-<p id="​l1203">​ +
- ​Participles determines voice, the form of //sum// determines person, number, tense and mood.  +
-<div class="​wikitable">​ +
-<table border="​1">​ +
- <​tr id="​l1204">​ +
-<​td>​ +
- ​Present Passive Periphrastic ​ | +
- //​audiendus est//  | +
- he must be heard </​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
- <​tr id="​l1205">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-Future Passive Periphrastic ​  | +
- //​audienda erit// ​  | +
- she will have to be heard </​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-</​table>​ +
-</​div>​+
  
 +Periphrastic conjugations:​ Future active //-rus// (intention) and passive participles //-dus// (necessity, propriety) used with //sum// to form a regular tense 
  
 +| Present Active Periphrastic ​ |  //​laudaturus sum//  |  I am going to praise ​  |
 +|Imperfect Active Periphrastic ​  ​| ​  //​laudaturus eram// ​  ​| ​   I was intending to praise ​  |
 +|Pluperfect Active Periphrastic ​  ​| ​ //​laudaturus fueram// ​  ​| ​ I had been about to praise ​  |
  
-    </ul>+Participles determines voice, the form of //sum// determines person, number, tense and mood. 
  
 +|  Present Passive Periphrastic ​ |  //audiendus est//  |  he must be heard   |
 +|  Future Passive Periphrastic ​  ​| ​ //audienda erit// ​  ​| ​ she will have to be heard   |
  
-<p id="​l1206">​ 
 adj //vera religio//​adv //vere dignum// - using adverb to modify an adjectiveadv //vero amare// - adverb to modify verbAdverbs are never declined.Periphrastic tenses take dative of agency. ​ adj //vera religio//​adv //vere dignum// - using adverb to modify an adjectiveadv //vero amare// - adverb to modify verbAdverbs are never declined.Periphrastic tenses take dative of agency. ​
  
-<p id="​l1212">​ 
 **Exercises**1. Quicumque facit legem secundum Patris voluntatem, aeternam gloriam perventurus est in regno caelorum.Whoever does the law according to the will of the father, is about to come to eternal glory in the reign of heaven.2. Ritu incepto, devoti conveniunt circum festum altare Domini, arte humanitatis factum.When the ceremony begins, the devoted come together around the festive altar of the Lord, made by the skill of humanity.3. Non veni (1s perf.ai) solvere Legem aut Prophetas; non veni solvere, sed adimplere.I did not come to dissolve the law or the prophets, I did not come to dissolve but to fulfill.4. Pater benignus humanitati panem cotidianum semper dat.Good father always gives daily bread to humanity.5. Post Jesu ascensionem apostoli Galilaeae astiterunt, aspicientes in caelos.After the ascension of Jesus, the apostles stood in Galilee, looking into heaven.6. Prima lectione lecta, principium Evangelii secundum Lucam Levitae legendum erat. Lectione finita, populus acclamavit.After the first reading was read, the biginning of the Gospel according to luke was read by the Deacon. The reading being finished, the people cried out.7. Vir autem, Jesum intendens, exclamavit: Quia me salvum facere potes. Concedes (2s fut ai) igitur (conj) indigno (dat.s) homini (dat.s) clementiam (acc.s) tuam?And the man, stretching out to Jesus exclaimed: You can save me. Will you concede your mercy therefore to the unworthy man?8. Sapientia clementiaque Dei omnibus Christianis semper et ubique laudandae sunt.The wisdom and mercy of God must be praised by all christians always and everywhere.9. Etsi in tenebris incedentes, tamen Christum, lumen indeficiens,​ habemus. Qui enim populo viam semper ostendit.Although walking in darkness, yet we have Christ the unfailing light who indeed always shows the way to the people.10. Dominus Jesus apostolis saepe ostendebat quod mors eius in salutem mundi suffectura erat.The Lord Jesus was often showing to the apostles that his death would be sufficient for the salvation of the world.11. Ubi (conj) de monte descendi et supervenit Jesus, statim.Whereby Jesus descending from the mountain and arrived immediately.??​12. Jesus autem non volebat in Judaea circuire, quia Judaei dicebant quod interficiendus erat.And Jesus did not want to go around in Judea because the Judeans were saying that he was going to be killed.13. Ut apostoli in cenaculo conclusi sunt, Jesus, vinculis mortis solutis, accessit et dixit: Ecce adsum.While the apostles were locked in the cenacle, Jesus, after dissolving the bonds of death, came to them and said behold I am here.14. Baptizarus autem Jesus, confestim ascendit de aqua. Mt iii,16And Jesus was baptized, and immediately he came out of the water.15. Missa incepta, sacerdos dicebat: Introibo ad altare Dei.When the mass began, the priest was saying, I will go in to the altar of God.16. Joannes bapista dixit quoniam Jesu baptizandus fuit.John the baptist said that Jesus had been baptized.17. Postquam autem resurrexero,​ praecedam vos in Galilaeam. Mt xxvi, 32.After I am raised, I will go before you into Galilee.18. Tunc sacerdos, manibus (abl.pl manner) extensis, dicit orationem.Then the priest, with hands extended, says the prayer.19. Et respiciens Jesum ambulatem dicit: Ecce agnus dei. Jn i, 36And seeing Jesus walking, he says, Behold the lamb of God.20. Credimus in Spiritum Sanctum, Dominum et vivificantem,​ qui ex Patre Filioque procedit.21. Corpus Christi custodiet me in vitam aeternam.The body of Christ will guard me into eternal life.22. Perficere autem bonum, non invenio.To accomplish the good, I do not find.23. Inde angelus Domini accessurus est ad pastores in agris greges custodientes.Thence the angle of the lord is coming upon the shepherds in the field guarding sheep.24. Ecce enim evangelizo vobis gaudium magnum quod erit omni populo. Evangelium secundum Lucam. ii, 10Behold, indeed, I proclaim to you great joy which shall be to all people.25. Ego sum Alpha et Omega, dicit Dominus deus, qui est et qui erat et qui venturus est, Omnipotens. Rev i, 8I am the Alpha and Omega, said the Lord God, who is, who was and who is to come, the Almighty.26. Beati qui ambulant in lege Domini.Blessed those who walk in the Law of the Lord.  **Exercises**1. Quicumque facit legem secundum Patris voluntatem, aeternam gloriam perventurus est in regno caelorum.Whoever does the law according to the will of the father, is about to come to eternal glory in the reign of heaven.2. Ritu incepto, devoti conveniunt circum festum altare Domini, arte humanitatis factum.When the ceremony begins, the devoted come together around the festive altar of the Lord, made by the skill of humanity.3. Non veni (1s perf.ai) solvere Legem aut Prophetas; non veni solvere, sed adimplere.I did not come to dissolve the law or the prophets, I did not come to dissolve but to fulfill.4. Pater benignus humanitati panem cotidianum semper dat.Good father always gives daily bread to humanity.5. Post Jesu ascensionem apostoli Galilaeae astiterunt, aspicientes in caelos.After the ascension of Jesus, the apostles stood in Galilee, looking into heaven.6. Prima lectione lecta, principium Evangelii secundum Lucam Levitae legendum erat. Lectione finita, populus acclamavit.After the first reading was read, the biginning of the Gospel according to luke was read by the Deacon. The reading being finished, the people cried out.7. Vir autem, Jesum intendens, exclamavit: Quia me salvum facere potes. Concedes (2s fut ai) igitur (conj) indigno (dat.s) homini (dat.s) clementiam (acc.s) tuam?And the man, stretching out to Jesus exclaimed: You can save me. Will you concede your mercy therefore to the unworthy man?8. Sapientia clementiaque Dei omnibus Christianis semper et ubique laudandae sunt.The wisdom and mercy of God must be praised by all christians always and everywhere.9. Etsi in tenebris incedentes, tamen Christum, lumen indeficiens,​ habemus. Qui enim populo viam semper ostendit.Although walking in darkness, yet we have Christ the unfailing light who indeed always shows the way to the people.10. Dominus Jesus apostolis saepe ostendebat quod mors eius in salutem mundi suffectura erat.The Lord Jesus was often showing to the apostles that his death would be sufficient for the salvation of the world.11. Ubi (conj) de monte descendi et supervenit Jesus, statim.Whereby Jesus descending from the mountain and arrived immediately.??​12. Jesus autem non volebat in Judaea circuire, quia Judaei dicebant quod interficiendus erat.And Jesus did not want to go around in Judea because the Judeans were saying that he was going to be killed.13. Ut apostoli in cenaculo conclusi sunt, Jesus, vinculis mortis solutis, accessit et dixit: Ecce adsum.While the apostles were locked in the cenacle, Jesus, after dissolving the bonds of death, came to them and said behold I am here.14. Baptizarus autem Jesus, confestim ascendit de aqua. Mt iii,16And Jesus was baptized, and immediately he came out of the water.15. Missa incepta, sacerdos dicebat: Introibo ad altare Dei.When the mass began, the priest was saying, I will go in to the altar of God.16. Joannes bapista dixit quoniam Jesu baptizandus fuit.John the baptist said that Jesus had been baptized.17. Postquam autem resurrexero,​ praecedam vos in Galilaeam. Mt xxvi, 32.After I am raised, I will go before you into Galilee.18. Tunc sacerdos, manibus (abl.pl manner) extensis, dicit orationem.Then the priest, with hands extended, says the prayer.19. Et respiciens Jesum ambulatem dicit: Ecce agnus dei. Jn i, 36And seeing Jesus walking, he says, Behold the lamb of God.20. Credimus in Spiritum Sanctum, Dominum et vivificantem,​ qui ex Patre Filioque procedit.21. Corpus Christi custodiet me in vitam aeternam.The body of Christ will guard me into eternal life.22. Perficere autem bonum, non invenio.To accomplish the good, I do not find.23. Inde angelus Domini accessurus est ad pastores in agris greges custodientes.Thence the angle of the lord is coming upon the shepherds in the field guarding sheep.24. Ecce enim evangelizo vobis gaudium magnum quod erit omni populo. Evangelium secundum Lucam. ii, 10Behold, indeed, I proclaim to you great joy which shall be to all people.25. Ego sum Alpha et Omega, dicit Dominus deus, qui est et qui erat et qui venturus est, Omnipotens. Rev i, 8I am the Alpha and Omega, said the Lord God, who is, who was and who is to come, the Almighty.26. Beati qui ambulant in lege Domini.Blessed those who walk in the Law of the Lord. 
  
 ===Unit 19 Fifth Declension Nouns=== ===Unit 19 Fifth Declension Nouns===
-<p id="​l1268">​+
 Nouns of the fifth declension are feminine except //dies//, day, and //​meridies//,​ midday, which are usually masculine. Genitive ends -ei.  Nouns of the fifth declension are feminine except //dies//, day, and //​meridies//,​ midday, which are usually masculine. Genitive ends -ei. 
  
 +|word  |stem  |base  |nom  |gen  |dat  |acc  |abl  |
 +|dies  |die-  |di-  |dies  |diei  |diei  |diem  |die  |
 +|res  |re-  |r-  |res  |rei  |rei  |rem  |re  |
 +|endings ​ |   ​| ​  | -es  |-ie  |-ie  |-em  |-e  |
 +|Plural ​  ​| ​  ​| ​  ​|dies ​ |dierum ​ |diebus ​ |dies  |diebus ​ |
 +|Plural ​  ​| ​  ​| ​  ​|res ​ |rerum ​ |rebus ​ |res  |rebus ​ |
  
-    <ul> 
- 
- 
-<div class="​wikitable">​ 
-<table border="​1">​ 
- <​tr id="​l1269">​ 
-<td> 
-word  | 
-stem  | 
-base  | 
-nom  | 
-gen  | 
-dat  | 
-acc  | 
-abl</​td>​ 
-</tr> 
- <​tr id="​l1270">​ 
-<td> 
-dies  | 
-die-  | 
-di-  | 
-dies  | 
-diei  | 
-diei  | 
-diem  | 
-die</​td>​ 
-</tr> 
- <​tr id="​l1271">​ 
-<td> 
-res  | 
-re-  | 
-r-  | 
-res  | 
-rei  | 
-rei  | 
-rem  | 
-re</​td>​ 
-</tr> 
- <​tr id="​l1272">​ 
-<td> 
-endings ​ | 
-   | 
-   | 
- ​-es ​ | 
--ie  | 
--ie  | 
--em  | 
--e</​td>​ 
-</tr> 
- <​tr id="​l1273">​ 
-<td> 
-Plural ​  | 
-   | 
-   | 
-dies  | 
-dierum ​ | 
-diebus ​ | 
-dies  | 
-diebus</​td>​ 
-</tr> 
- <​tr id="​l1274">​ 
-<td> 
-Plural ​  | 
-   | 
-   | 
-res  | 
-rerum  | 
-rebus  | 
-res  | 
-rebus</​td>​ 
-</tr> 
-</​table>​ 
-</​div>​ 
- 
-    </ul> 
- 
- 
-<p id="​l1276">​ 
 Imperative Present active - all four conjugations ​ The present stem in the signular, add **-te** for the plural: ​ Imperative Present active - all four conjugations ​ The present stem in the signular, add **-te** for the plural: ​
  
 +|    |  ACTIVE[1] ​  ​|| ​ PASSIVE ​ ||
 +|   ​| ​ SINGULAR ​  | PLURAL ​ |  SINGULAR ​  ​| ​ PLURAL ​ |
 +|I.   |ama, love thou   ​|amate,​ love ye  |amare, ​  ​|amamini, ​ |
 +|   ​|lauda,​ praise! ​  ​|laudate,​ praise! ​  ​|laudare ​  ​|laudamini be praised! ​  |
 +|II.   ​|mone,​ advise thou   ​|monete,​ advise ye  |monere, ​  ​|monemini, ​ |
 +|III. (a)   ​|rege,​ rule thou   ​|regite,​ rule ye  |regere, ​  ​|regimini, ​ |
 +|     ​(b) ​  ​|cape,​ take thou   ​|capite,​ take ye  |capere, ​  ​|capimini, ​ |
 +|IV.   ​|audi,​ hear thou   ​|audite,​ hear ye  |audire, ​  ​|audimini, ​ |
 +|sum (irregular) ​  |es, esto, be thou   ​|este,​ estote, be ye  |   ​| ​  |
 +|eo  |i  |ite  |   ​| ​  |
  
-    <ul>+  * Note the second person present IMP passive is also the second person present IND passive (Singular and Plural) Chapter 7. The verbs //dico//, say; //duco//, lead; and //facio//, make, have the irregular forms //dic - dicite//, //duc - ducite//, and //fac - facite// //fer - ferite//. There is no imperative for //volo// or //possum//.  
 +  * __Vocative__ All like the nominitive except second declension masculine that end in **-e**. Domine, Care apostole. 
 +  * Exceptions: second declension **-ius** goes to **-i**, Jesus vocative is Jesu. Agnus and Deus use nominative. Nouns in **-ir** or **-er** use nominative. Meus is either **meus** or **mi**.  
 +  * __Personal Pronouns__ ​
  
 +|SINGULAR ​ |FIRST PERSON ​ |SECOND PERSON ​ |
 +|Nom.   |ego, I   |tu, you  |
 +|Gen.   |mei, of me   |tui, of you  |
 +|Dat.   ​|mihi,​ to or for me   ​|tibi,​ to or for you  |
 +|Acc.   |me, me   |te, you  |
 +|Abl.   |me, with, from me   |te, with, from you  |
 +|PLURAL ​ |FIRST PERSON ​ |SECOND PERSON ​ |
 +|Nom.   |nos, we   |vos, you  |
 +|Gen.   ​|nostrum or nostri, of us   ​|vestrum or vestri, of you  |
 +|Dat.   ​|nobis,​ to or for us   ​|vobis,​ to or for you  |
 +|Acc.   |nos, us   |vos, you  |
 +|Abl.   ​|nobis,​ witi, from us  |vobis, with, from you  |
  
-<div class="​wikitable">​ +  ​* __Double Accusative__ Some verbs, e.gask or teachtake an accusative of thing and accusative of person: **Dicaonus pueros evangelium docebat** Verbs: desiderodoceo  
-<table border="​1">​ +  ​//Secundusaum// - but secundum can also be in declinable prepositional:​ according to + accusative. You can tell the difference from the context - or from the declention.//Autem// //de// in greek - conjunction that doesn'​t always need tranlsation. Context tells translation. ​
- <​tr id="​l1278">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-  </​td>​ +
-<td colspan="​2"​ align="​center">​ +
-ACTIVE[1] </​td>​ +
-<td colspan="​2"​ align="​center">​ +
-PASSIVE</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
- <​tr id="​l1279">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-   ​+
- ​SINGULAR ​  | +
-PLURAL ​ | +
- ​SINGULAR ​  | +
-PLURAL</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
- <​tr id="​l1280">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-I  | +
-ama, love thou   | +
-amate, love ye  | +
-amare, ​  | +
-amamini,</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
- <​tr id="​l1281">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-   | +
-lauda, praise! ​  | +
-laudate, praise! ​  | +
-laudare ​  | +
-laudamini be praised! </​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
- <​tr id="​l1282">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-II  | +
-moneadvise thou   | +
-moneteadvise ye  | +
-monere, ​  | +
-monemini,</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
- <​tr id="​l1283">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-III. (a)   | +
-rege, rule thou   | +
-regite, rule ye  +
-regere, ​  | +
-regimini,<​/td> +
-</tr> +
- <​tr id="​l1284">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-     ​(b) ​  | +
-capetake thou   | +
-capite, take ye  | +
-capere, ​  | +
-capimini,</td> +
-</tr> +
- <​tr id="​l1285">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-IV  | +
-audi, hear thou   | +
-audite, hear ye  | +
-audire, ​  | +
-audimini,<​/td> +
-</tr> +
- <​tr id="​l1286">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-sum (irregular) ​  | +
-es, esto, be thou   | +
-este, estote, be ye  | +
-   | +
- </td> +
-</tr> +
- <​tr id="​l1287">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-eo  | +
-i  | +
-ite  | +
-   | +
- </td> +
-</tr> +
-</table> +
-</div>+
  
-    </ul> 
- 
- 
-<p id="​l1289">​ 
-Note the second person present IMP passive is also the second person present IND passive (Singular and Plural) Chapter 7. The verbs //dico//, say; //duco//, lead; and //facio//, make, have the irregular forms //dic - dicite//, //duc - ducite//, and //fac - facite// //fer - ferite//. There is no imperative for //volo// or //​possum//​. ​ 
- 
-<p id="​l1291">​ 
-<​u>​Vocative</​u>​ All like the nominitive except second declension masculine that end in **-e**. Domine, Care apostole. 
- 
- 
-    <ul> 
- 
-<p id="​l1292">​ 
- ​Exceptions:​ second declension **-ius** goes to **-i**, Jesus vocative is Jesu. Agnus and Deus use nominative. Nouns in **-ir** or **-er** use nominative. Meus is either **meus** or **mi**. ​ 
- 
- 
-    </ul> 
- 
- 
-<p id="​l1294">​ 
-<​u>​Personal Pronouns</​u> ​ 
- 
- 
-    <ul> 
- 
- 
-<div class="​wikitable">​ 
-<table border="​1">​ 
- <​tr id="​l1295">​ 
-<td> 
- </​td>​ 
-<td colspan="​2"​ align="​center">​ 
-SINGULAR</​td>​ 
-</tr> 
- <​tr id="​l1296">​ 
-<td> 
-   | 
-FIRST PERSON ​ | 
- ​SECOND PERSON</​td>​ 
-</tr> 
- <​tr id="​l1297">​ 
-<td> 
-Nom.   | 
-ego, I   | 
-tu, you</​td>​ 
-</tr> 
- <​tr id="​l1298">​ 
-<td> 
-Gen.   | 
-mei, of me   | 
-tui, of you</​td>​ 
-</tr> 
- <​tr id="​l1299">​ 
-<td> 
-Dat.   | 
-mihi, to or for me   | 
-tibi, to or for you</​td>​ 
-</tr> 
- <​tr id="​l1300">​ 
-<td> 
-Acc.   | 
-me, me   | 
-te, you</​td>​ 
-</tr> 
- <​tr id="​l1301">​ 
-<td> 
-Abl.   | 
-me, with, from me   | 
-te, with, from you</​td>​ 
-</tr> 
- <​tr id="​l1302">​ 
-<td> 
- </​td>​ 
-<td colspan="​2"​ align="​center">​ 
-PLURAL</​td>​ 
-</tr> 
- <​tr id="​l1303">​ 
-<td> 
-Nom.   | 
-nos, we   | 
-vos, you</​td>​ 
-</tr> 
- <​tr id="​l1304">​ 
-<td> 
-Gen.   | 
-nostrum or nostri, of us   | 
-vestrum or vestri, of you</​td>​ 
-</tr> 
- <​tr id="​l1305">​ 
-<td> 
-Dat.   | 
-nobis, to or for us   | 
-vobis, to or for you</​td>​ 
-</tr> 
- <​tr id="​l1306">​ 
-<td> 
-Acc.   | 
-nos, us   | 
-vos, you</​td>​ 
-</tr> 
- <​tr id="​l1307">​ 
-<td> 
-Abl.   | 
-nobis, witi, from us  | 
-vobis, with, from you</​td>​ 
-</tr> 
-</​table>​ 
-</​div>​ 
- 
-    </ul> 
- 
- 
-<p id="​l1309">​ 
-<​u>​Double Accusative</​u>​ Some verbs, e.g. ask or teach, take an accusative of thing and accusative of person: **Dicaonus pueros evangelium docebat** Verbs: desidero, doceo  
- 
-<p id="​l1311">​ 
-//Secundus, a, um// - but secundum can also be in declinable prepositional:​ according to + accusative. You can tell the difference from the context - or from the declention.//​Autem//​ - //de// in greek - conjunction that doesn'​t always need tranlsation. Context tells translation. ​ 
- 
-<p id="​l1314">​ 
 **Exercises**1. Agnus Dei, qui tollis (2s pai) peccata mundi, dona nobis pacem.Lamb of God who takes away the sins of the world, give us peace.2. Fili, dimittuntur tibi peccata tua.Child, your sin is forgiven you.3. Deinde dilectus apostolus discipulis dixit res quae in secunda die inciderant (3ps plup.act.ind) Hierosolymis.Then the beloved apostle said to the disciples the things that had happened the second day in Jerusalem.4. Panis autem, quem ego dabo, caro mea est pro mundi vita.And the bread that I will give is my flesh for the life of the world.5. Dominus (n.s) vobiscum (abl.pl). Et cum spiritu (abl.pl) tuo. Sursum corda (acc.pl). Habemus ad Dominum (acc.s).The Lord be with you. And with your spirit. Lift up (your) hearts. We have (lifted them) to the Lord.6.Curans (pres.act.ppl) nos (acc.pl), Jesus (n.s) in latere (abl.s) vulneratus est (3s perf.pass.ind) et effudit (3s perf.ai) sanguinem (acc.s) salutis (gen.s).Caring for us, Jesus was wounded in the side and he shed blood of salvation.7. Benedicta (n.s) tu (n.s) inter mulieres (acc.pl). Lk i, 42Blest are you among women.8. A quibus (abl.pl) custodientes (acc.pl) vos bene agetis (2pl fut.ai). Acts xv, 29You will do well guarding (refraining) from them.9. Tu (n.s) credis (2s pai) in filium (acc.s) hominis (gen.s)? Jn ix, 35Do you believe in the son of man.10. Effundentes (n/acc.pl) preces nostras, desideramus (1pl pai) fideles (n/​acc.pl) ​ tuam salutem nostri, O dulcis (voc.s) Jesu. Veni (s act.imp), Domine (voc.s) Jesu.Pouring out our prayer, we the faithful desire your salvation of us, o sweet jesus, come lord jesus.11. Justus ex fide vivet (3s fut ai). Gal iii, 11Justice will live from faith,12. Volo autem vos scire quod omnis viri caput Christus est, caput autem mulieris vir, caput vero Christi Deus. I Cor xi, 3.I wish you to know that Christ is the head of all men, and man is the head of women and God is the true head of Christ.13. Relinque ibi munus tuum ante altare. Mt v, 24Leave there your gift before the altar.14. Laudo autem vos[, fratres,] quod omnia [in all respects] mei memores estis. I Cor. xi, 2.And I praise you all brothers, who in all respects are remembering me15. Cotidie alimur tua dilectione, O Domine: vere tu docuisti nos tuam salutem.Daily I am fed by our love, O Lord, truly you lead us to your salvation.16. Dicit ei mulier: Domine, video qui propheta est tu. Jn 4, 19.The woman said to him, Lord, I see that you are a prophet.17. Panem nostrum supersubstantialem da nobis hodie. Mt vi, 11.Give us today our abundant bread.18. Gratias ago deo meo semper pro vobis in gratia Dei, qua data est vobis in Christo Jesu. I Cor. i,4I give thatnks to my god always for you in the grace of god which is given to you in Christ Jesus.19. Domine, doce nos orare, sicut et Joannes docuit discipulos suos. Lk xi,1Lord, teach us to pray, as john taught his disciples20. Dimitte eam, quia clamat post nos. Mt 15, 23.Send her away, who clamors after us.21. Creditis (2pl pai) quia possum (1s pai) hoc facere? Mt ix, 28Do you all believe that I can do this?22. Et elegerunt Stephanum, virum plenum fide et spiritu sancto. Acts vi, 5.And they chose Stephen, a man full of faith and the holy spirit.23. Dominus Jesus interficiet (3s fut.ai) spiritu (abl.s) oris. II Thess, ii, 8The Lord Jesus will kill24. Tu ergo, si adoraveris coram me, erit tua omnis. Lk iv, 7You therefore, if you will worship before me, all this will be yours.25. Caro enim mea verus est cibus, et sanguis meus verus est potus. Jn vi, 55My flesh is real food and my blood is real drink.26. Spes autem, quae videtur, non est spes. Rom viii, 24And hope which is seen is not hope.27. Dixit Jesus: Facite homines discumbere. John vi, 10Jesus said: make the people sit down.28. Hodie impleta est haec Scriptura in auribus vestris. Lk iv, 21Today this scripture is complete in your hearing.29. Oculos habentes non videtis, et aures habentes non auditis? Mk viii, 18Having eyes, do you not see, and having ears, do you not hear?30. Quae est mater mea et fratres mei?Who is my mother and who are my brothers?​31. Amen dico vobis: unus vestrum me traditurus est.Amen I say to you, one of you is about to betray me.32. Omnia mihi tradita sunt a patre meo.Everything to me is given over by my father.33. Dixit ergo Jesus Petro: mitte gladium in vaginam; calicem quem dedit mihi pater, non bibam illum?​Therefore Jesus said to peter: put your sword in the scabbard, the chalice which my father gave me, will I not drink it?34. Ite, Missa est. Go. It is mass, she is sent.35. Magister dicit: apud te facio pascha cum discipulis meisThe master says, at your home I do the pasch with my disciples.36. Panem nostrum cotidianum da nobis cotidie, et dimitte nobis peccata nostra.Give us today our daily bread and forgive us our sins.37. Sancta Maria, ora pro nobis. Holy Mary, pray for us.  **Exercises**1. Agnus Dei, qui tollis (2s pai) peccata mundi, dona nobis pacem.Lamb of God who takes away the sins of the world, give us peace.2. Fili, dimittuntur tibi peccata tua.Child, your sin is forgiven you.3. Deinde dilectus apostolus discipulis dixit res quae in secunda die inciderant (3ps plup.act.ind) Hierosolymis.Then the beloved apostle said to the disciples the things that had happened the second day in Jerusalem.4. Panis autem, quem ego dabo, caro mea est pro mundi vita.And the bread that I will give is my flesh for the life of the world.5. Dominus (n.s) vobiscum (abl.pl). Et cum spiritu (abl.pl) tuo. Sursum corda (acc.pl). Habemus ad Dominum (acc.s).The Lord be with you. And with your spirit. Lift up (your) hearts. We have (lifted them) to the Lord.6.Curans (pres.act.ppl) nos (acc.pl), Jesus (n.s) in latere (abl.s) vulneratus est (3s perf.pass.ind) et effudit (3s perf.ai) sanguinem (acc.s) salutis (gen.s).Caring for us, Jesus was wounded in the side and he shed blood of salvation.7. Benedicta (n.s) tu (n.s) inter mulieres (acc.pl). Lk i, 42Blest are you among women.8. A quibus (abl.pl) custodientes (acc.pl) vos bene agetis (2pl fut.ai). Acts xv, 29You will do well guarding (refraining) from them.9. Tu (n.s) credis (2s pai) in filium (acc.s) hominis (gen.s)? Jn ix, 35Do you believe in the son of man.10. Effundentes (n/acc.pl) preces nostras, desideramus (1pl pai) fideles (n/​acc.pl) ​ tuam salutem nostri, O dulcis (voc.s) Jesu. Veni (s act.imp), Domine (voc.s) Jesu.Pouring out our prayer, we the faithful desire your salvation of us, o sweet jesus, come lord jesus.11. Justus ex fide vivet (3s fut ai). Gal iii, 11Justice will live from faith,12. Volo autem vos scire quod omnis viri caput Christus est, caput autem mulieris vir, caput vero Christi Deus. I Cor xi, 3.I wish you to know that Christ is the head of all men, and man is the head of women and God is the true head of Christ.13. Relinque ibi munus tuum ante altare. Mt v, 24Leave there your gift before the altar.14. Laudo autem vos[, fratres,] quod omnia [in all respects] mei memores estis. I Cor. xi, 2.And I praise you all brothers, who in all respects are remembering me15. Cotidie alimur tua dilectione, O Domine: vere tu docuisti nos tuam salutem.Daily I am fed by our love, O Lord, truly you lead us to your salvation.16. Dicit ei mulier: Domine, video qui propheta est tu. Jn 4, 19.The woman said to him, Lord, I see that you are a prophet.17. Panem nostrum supersubstantialem da nobis hodie. Mt vi, 11.Give us today our abundant bread.18. Gratias ago deo meo semper pro vobis in gratia Dei, qua data est vobis in Christo Jesu. I Cor. i,4I give thatnks to my god always for you in the grace of god which is given to you in Christ Jesus.19. Domine, doce nos orare, sicut et Joannes docuit discipulos suos. Lk xi,1Lord, teach us to pray, as john taught his disciples20. Dimitte eam, quia clamat post nos. Mt 15, 23.Send her away, who clamors after us.21. Creditis (2pl pai) quia possum (1s pai) hoc facere? Mt ix, 28Do you all believe that I can do this?22. Et elegerunt Stephanum, virum plenum fide et spiritu sancto. Acts vi, 5.And they chose Stephen, a man full of faith and the holy spirit.23. Dominus Jesus interficiet (3s fut.ai) spiritu (abl.s) oris. II Thess, ii, 8The Lord Jesus will kill24. Tu ergo, si adoraveris coram me, erit tua omnis. Lk iv, 7You therefore, if you will worship before me, all this will be yours.25. Caro enim mea verus est cibus, et sanguis meus verus est potus. Jn vi, 55My flesh is real food and my blood is real drink.26. Spes autem, quae videtur, non est spes. Rom viii, 24And hope which is seen is not hope.27. Dixit Jesus: Facite homines discumbere. John vi, 10Jesus said: make the people sit down.28. Hodie impleta est haec Scriptura in auribus vestris. Lk iv, 21Today this scripture is complete in your hearing.29. Oculos habentes non videtis, et aures habentes non auditis? Mk viii, 18Having eyes, do you not see, and having ears, do you not hear?30. Quae est mater mea et fratres mei?Who is my mother and who are my brothers?​31. Amen dico vobis: unus vestrum me traditurus est.Amen I say to you, one of you is about to betray me.32. Omnia mihi tradita sunt a patre meo.Everything to me is given over by my father.33. Dixit ergo Jesus Petro: mitte gladium in vaginam; calicem quem dedit mihi pater, non bibam illum?​Therefore Jesus said to peter: put your sword in the scabbard, the chalice which my father gave me, will I not drink it?34. Ite, Missa est. Go. It is mass, she is sent.35. Magister dicit: apud te facio pascha cum discipulis meisThe master says, at your home I do the pasch with my disciples.36. Panem nostrum cotidianum da nobis cotidie, et dimitte nobis peccata nostra.Give us today our daily bread and forgive us our sins.37. Sancta Maria, ora pro nobis. Holy Mary, pray for us. 
  
 ===Unit 20 Deponents & Subjunctive=== ===Unit 20 Deponents & Subjunctive===
-<p id="​l1389">​+
 Defective verbs: A number of verbs are passive in form but active in meaning but they are less deponent that you might think since there is a passive sense to them, being acted on by an outside cause. Example: //hortor, //I encourage//;​ vereor, //I fear//; miror //I wonder//; misereor, "//​have pity//, nascor, //be born// patior, //suffer// orior, //spring up, [sun] rise. Such verbs are called deponent because they have laid aside ("​de-ponere,"​ to lay aside) the active forms. (Besides having all the forms of the passive, deponent verbs have also the future active infinitive and a few other active forms which will be noted later.) ​ Orient (sun springing up) occident (sun dying). It may also be closer to middle tense in greek or reflexive in english. ​ Defective verbs: A number of verbs are passive in form but active in meaning but they are less deponent that you might think since there is a passive sense to them, being acted on by an outside cause. Example: //hortor, //I encourage//;​ vereor, //I fear//; miror //I wonder//; misereor, "//​have pity//, nascor, //be born// patior, //suffer// orior, //spring up, [sun] rise. Such verbs are called deponent because they have laid aside ("​de-ponere,"​ to lay aside) the active forms. (Besides having all the forms of the passive, deponent verbs have also the future active infinitive and a few other active forms which will be noted later.) ​ Orient (sun springing up) occident (sun dying). It may also be closer to middle tense in greek or reflexive in english. ​
  
 +|Conj. I   ​|hortor,​ hortari, hortatus sum, encourage ​ |
 +|    |miror, mirari, -- miratus sum, wonder at, admire ​ |
 +|Conj. II   ​|vereor,​ vereri, veritus sum, fear  |
 +|   ​|misereor,​ misereri, -- misertus sum, have pity on  |
 +|Conj. III (a)   ​|sequor,​ sequi, secutus sum, follow ​ |
 +|   ​|nascor,​ nasci, -- natus sum, be born  |
 +|             ​(b) ​  ​|patior,​ pati, passus sum, suffer, allow  |
 +|Conj. IV    |partior, partiri, partitus sum, share, divide ​ |
 +|   ​|orior,​ oriri, -- ortus sum, spring up, arise  |
 +|* __Semideponent__ Deponent only in their perfect system. ||
 +|   ​|audeo,​ audere, -- ausus sum, dare  |
 +|   ​|gaudeo,​ gaudere, -- gavisus sum, rejoice ​ |
 +|  |confido, confidere, -- confisus sum, trust  |
 +  * Subjunctive Mood = four tenses: present, perfect, imperfect, pluperfect. The negative is **ne**. It can be introduced by a sign-word such as utinam or ut. Exact meaning is determined by use. 
  
-    <ul>+|Conjugation ​ |  |||||| 
 +|  |**Active Voice** ​ |||||| 
 +|**-e-** replaces the stem vowel **-a-**. ​ ||||||| 
 +|I   ​|amem ​  | ames   | amet   ​|amemus ​  ​|ametis ​  ​|ament ​  | 
 +|   ​|laudem ​  ​|laudes ​   |laudet ​  ​|laudemus ​  ​|laudetis ​  ​|laudent ​ | 
 +|**-a-** replaces the stem vowel **-e-**. ​ ||||||| 
 +|II   ​|moneam ​  ​|moneas ​  ​|moneat ​  ​|moneamus ​  ​|moneatis ​  ​|moneant ​ | 
 +|IIIa   ​|regam ​  ​|regas ​  ​|regat ​  ​|regamus ​  ​|regatis ​  ​|regant ​  | 
 +|IIIb   ​|capiam ​  ​|capias ​  ​|capiat ​  ​|capiamus ​  ​|capiatis ​  ​|capiant ​ | 
 +|IV   ​|audiam ​  ​|audias ​  ​|audiat ​  ​|audiamus ​  ​|audiatis ​  ​|audiant ​  | 
 +|   ​|**Passive Voice** ​ |||||| 
 +|I  |amer   ​|ameris ​  ​|ametur ​  ​|amemur ​  ​|amemini ​  ​|amentur ​  | 
 +|   ​|lauder ​  ​|lauderis (-re)   ​|laudetur ​  ​|laudemur ​  ​|laudemini ​  ​|laudentur ​  | 
 +|II  |monear ​  ​|monearis ​  ​|moneatur ​  | moneamur ​  ​|moneamini ​  ​|moneantur ​  | 
 +|IIIa   ​|regar ​ |regaris ​  ​|regatur ​  ​|regamur ​  ​|regamini ​  ​|regantur ​  | 
 +|IIIb   ​|capiar ​  ​|caparis ​  ​|capiatur ​  ​|capiamur ​  ​|capiamini ​  ​|capiantur ​ | 
 +|IV   ​|audiar ​  ​|audiaris ​  ​|audiatur ​  ​|audiamur ​  ​|audiamini ​  ​|audiantur ​ | 
 +  - __Direct commands__ or requests: __**Subjunctive mode expresses Hesitation, exhortation,​ wish, uncertainty**__,​ subjective 
 +  - **Hortatory Subjunctive** present subjunctive first person, when rousing onself to action : //Cantemus domino canticum novum.// Let us sing to the Lord a new song! //​Baptizemur a Joanne.// Let us be baptized by John. 
 +  - **Optative Subjunctive** present subjunctive,​ expresses obtainable wishes: //Dominum semper glorificem.//​ May I always glorify the Lord. (Sometimes uses utinam) 
 +  - **Jussive Future Indicative** future indicative, for commands binding now and in the future: //Diliges proximum tuum.// You shall love your neighbor. 
 +  - **Jussive Subjunctive** Present subjunctive 3rd person. Translate: "​Let..."​ //Populus gaudeat!// Let the people rejoice. //​Crucifigatur!//​ Let him be crucified! 
 +  - **Direct quotes**: Deliberative Subjunctive. Translate "Am I to..." "Are we to..." "​Should..."​ //Quod donum ad Dominum demus?// What give are we to give to the Lord? //Non mittam diaconos Romam?// Am I not to send the deacons to Rome? 
 +  - **Conditional Clauses** if, unless, when, should - all express a hesitation. Main clause is the apodosis, the conditional clause is the protasis. Introduced with //Si// or //nisi// 
 +  - **Simple conditional** - no implication about fulfillment. //Si Dominum invocamus, nos audit.// If we call upon the Lord, He hears us. //Nisi legem faciabant, non justi erant.// If they were not keeping the law, they were not righteous. 
 +  - **Future conditional** - more or less vivid, depends on likelihood or confidence with which the speaker sees the action. 
 +  - **More Vivid** if (future indicative, also subjunctive translated with english present) ... then (subjunctive). //Si voluntatem Dei faciet, salvus efficietur.//​ If he does the will of God, he will be saved. //Nisi voluntatem Dei fecerimus, in regnum caelorum non introibimus.//​ Unless we (first) do the will of God, we will not enter into the kingdom of heaven. //Si Petrus venerit, cum Paulo cenet!// If peter comes, let him dine with paul. 
 +  - **Less Vivid** If (present subjunctive) ... then (present indicative or present subjunctive). //Si agnus unus amittatur, pastor bonus est maestus.// If one lamb should be lost, the good shepherd is sad. //Si Petrus domum intret, fratres orantes videat.// If peter should enter the house, he would see his brothers praying.' ​
  
 +**Exercises** 1. Filius (n.s) hominis (gen.s) traditur (3s pres.pass.ind) in manus (abl.pl) peccatorum (gen.pl).The Son of Man is betrayed into the hands of sinners.2. Praeceptis (abl.pl) salutaribus moniti (abl.pl), audemus (1pl pres.act.subj) dicere (inf):As taught by the saving precepts, let us dare to say:3. Pater noster, qui es in caelis, sanctificetur nomen tuum.Our father who art in heaven, hallowed be your name.4. Miseri (n.pl) deprecemur (1pl pres.pass.subj) Dominum (acc.s) scelera nostra fugare (inf/​imp)!We poor ones, let us entreat the lord to drive away our sins.5. Utinam Corpus et Sanguis (n.s) Domini (gen.s) Jesu Christi nos (acc.pl) ab omnibus (abl.pl) iniquitatibus nostris liberent!Would that the body and blood of the Lord Jesus Christ would free us from all our iniquity.6. Turba mira (abl.s) opera Jesu (gen.s) admirata est (3s perf.pass.ind).The crowd is astonished at the wonderful works of Jesus.7. Domino (dat.s) demus (1pl pres.subj.act) panem (acc.s) nostrum, fructum (acc.s) terrae (gen.pl) et operis (abl.s) manuum (acc.s) hominum.Let us give to the Lord our bread, fruit of the earth and by the works of human hands.8. Petrus (n.s) mirabatur (3s pres.pass.ind) quod populus (n.s) Domino (dat.s) nihil confidebat (3s imp.act.ind).Peter was amazed that the people didn't believe in God.9. Utinam paterna dilectio (n.s) nos (acc.pl) semper (adv) servet (3s pres.subj.ind)!Would that the father'​s love would always save us.10. Paulus, verba atque opera Jesu in memoria habens, evangelizare erat potens.Paul,​ having the words and works of jesus in mind, was able to evangelize.11. Opus est sacerdoti pro populo benedictionem Domini invocare.It is the work of the priest to invoke the blessing of the Lord for the people.12. Lumen mundi ortum est et fugavit peccatorum tenebras.The light of the world rises up and puts to flight the darkness of sin.13. Homo miser, lacrimas effundens, dixit quod filius moriebatur.The miserable man, tears flowing, said that the son died.14. Ipse vos baptizabit in Spiritu Sancto et igni. Mt iii, 11.He will baptize you in the holy spirit and fire.15. Haec nox est, qua hodie per universum mundum in Christo credentes reddit gratiae.This is the night, when today for the whold world in christ believers return to grace.16. Deum de Deo, lumen de lumine, Deum verum de Deo vero, genitum, non factum, consubstantialem Patri: per quem omnia facta sunt.God from God, light from light, true God from true God, begotten, not made consubstantial with the father, through whom all things were made.17. Ideo precor beatum Mariam semper Virgenem, omnes Agnelos et Sanctos, et vos, fratres, orare pro me ad Dominum Deum nostrum.Therefore I ask blessed mary ever virgin, all the angels and saints and you brothers to pray for me to the Lord our God.18. Dominus enim Jesus crucifixus, pasus et mortuus est pro mundi vita.For the Lord Jesus was crucified suffered and died for the life of the world.19. O Domine, et fac (imp) me tuis (dat.pl) semper inhaerere mandatis.O Lord , make me always cling to your commands.20. Natus est (3s pres.dep.ind) ​ vobis (dat.pl) ​ hodie (adv) Salvator (n.s), qui est Christus (n.s) Dominus. Lk ii, 11Today a savior is born for us who is christ the lord.21. Ego baptizavi (1s perf.ai) vos (acc.s) aqua (abl.s means); ille (n.s) vero baptizabit (3s fut.perf.ai) vos Spiritu (abl.s means) Sancto. Mk i, 8I baptized you with water, the other truly will baptize you with the Holy Spirit.22. Quare cum peccatoribus (abl.pl) manducat (3s pai) et bibit Magister vester?Why with sinners eats and drinks your master.23. Peccavi tradens sanguinem innocentem. Mt xxvii, 4.I have sinned betraying innocent blood.24. Eodem tempore natus est Moyses et erat formosus coram deo. Acts vii, 20.In that time Moses was born and was beautiful in the sight of God.25. Tunc Jesus apostolis dedit postestatem spirituum malorum.Then Jesus gave to the apostles power over evil spirits.26. Nam et ego homo sub potestate. Mt. viii, 9.For I too am a man under power.27. Et aspiciens dicebat: Video homines, quia velut arbores video ambulantes. Mk viii, 24.And looking, he was saying: I see people, which just like trees, I seem them walking.28. Et ecce nihil dignum morte actum est a Nazareno.And behold nothing worthy of death is by the Nazarean.29. Exi a me, quia homo peccator sum, Domine. Lk v,8.Go away from me, because I am a sinful man. Lord.30. Videntes autem stellam gavisi sunt gaudio magno valde. Mt ii, 10.And seeing the start they rejoiced with truly great joy.31. Agnus Dei, qui tolis peccata mundi, miserere nobis.Lamb of God who takes away the sins of the world, have mercy on us.
  
-<div class="​wikitable">​ +===Unit 21===
-<table border="​1">​ +
- <​tr id="​l1392">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-Conj. I   | +
-hortor, hortari, hortatus sum, encourage</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
- <​tr id="​l1393">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-    | +
-miror, mirari, &​mdash;,​ miratus sum, wonder at, admire</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
- <​tr id="​l1394">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-Conj. II   | +
-vereor, vereri, veritus sum, fear</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
- <​tr id="​l1395">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-   | +
-misereor, misereri, &​mdash;,​ misertus sum, have pity on</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
- <​tr id="​l1396">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-Conj. III (a)   | +
-sequor, sequi, secutus sum, follow</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
- <​tr id="​l1397">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-   | +
-nascor, nasci, &​mdash;,​ natus sum, be born</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
- <​tr id="​l1398">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-             ​(b) ​  | +
-patior, pati, passus sum, suffer, allow</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
- <​tr id="​l1399">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-Conj. IV    | +
-partior, partiri, partitus sum, share, divide</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
- <​tr id="​l1400">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-   | +
-orior, oriri, &​mdash;,​ ortus sum, spring up, arise</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-</​table>​ +
-</​div>​+
  
-    </ul>+**Exercises** 1. Si ergo filius vos liberaverit,​ vere liberi eritis.If therefore the son will have freed you, you will be free indeed.2. Si ego testimomium perhibeo de meipso (= me), testimonium meumnon est verum.If I give testimony on my behalf, my testimony is not true.3. Benedicat vos omnipotens Deus, Pater et Filius et Spiritus Sanctus.May he bless you God the father and the son and the holy spirit.4. Nam Deus dixit: "​Honora patrem et matrem"​ et "Qui maledixeritpatri vel matri, morte moriatur."​For God said: honor father and monther and who curses father or mother will die the death.5. Sed turba haec, quae non novit legem, maledicti sum.But this crowd, that cannot read, are cursed.6. Neque me scitis neque Patrem meum.Neither I know, nor my father.7. Et extendens manum, tetigit eum.And extending the hand he touched him.8. Jesus autem plenus Spiritu Sancto regressus est a Jordane et agebatur in Spiritu in deserto.And Jesus, full of the holy spirit returned from the jordan and was led in spirit into the desert.9. Venit enim Joannes nequc manducans neque bibens.For john came neither eating or drinking.10. Quod ergo Deus conjunxit, homo non separet.Therefore what God has joined, let man not separate.11. Corpus Domini nostri Jesu Christi custodiat animam tuam in vitam aeternam.Let the body of our lord jesus christ lead your soul into eternal life.12. Nos enim spiritu ex fide spem justitiae expectamus.For we expect the hope of justice by the spirit of faith.13. Si vertatem dico, quare vos non creditis mihi? Jn viii, 46If I say the truth, why do you not believe me?14. Exsultet jam angelica turba caelorum: exsultent divina mysteria: et pro tanti Regis victoria tuba insonet salutaris.Let the angelic crowd of heaven exult: Let the divine mysteries exult and for so great a king, let the victorious trumpet of salvation resound15. Fratres, agnoscamus peccata nostra.Brothers,​ let us acknowledge our sins.16. Misereatur nostri omnipotens Deus, et, dimissis peccatis nostris, perducat nos ad vitam aeternam.Have mercy on us omnipotent God and forgiving our sins, lead us to eternal life.17. Et expecto resurrectionem mortuorum, et vitam venturi saeculi.And I await the resurrection of the dead and life in the coming age.18. Postea, si habenda sit, legitur secunda lectio.Afterwards,​ if it should be, the second reading will be read.19. Suscipiat Dominus sacrificium de manibus tuis ad laudem et gloriam nominis sui.Let the Lord receive the sacrifice from your hands to the praise and glory of his name.20. Gratias agamus Domino Deo nostro. Dignum et justum est.Give thanks to the Lord our God  - it is right and just.21. Tu es qui venturus es? Are you the one who is to come?22. Amen, amen, dico vobis: Nisi manducaveritis carnem filii hominis et biberitis ejus sanguinem, non habetis vitam in vobismetipsis.Amen,​ amen I say to you, unless you have eaten the flesh of the son of man and you have  drunk his blood, you do not have live in you.23. Dixi ergo vobis quia moriemini in peccatis vestris; si enim non credideritis quia ego sum, moriemini in peccatis vestris. Therefore I have said to you that you will die in your sins; if you have not believed that I am, you will die in your sins. 
  
 +===Unit 22 Imperfect Subjunctive===
  
-<p id="​l1402">​ 
-<​u>​Semideponent</​u>​ Deponent only in their perfect system. ​ 
- 
- 
-    <ul> 
- 
- 
-<div class="​wikitable">​ 
-<table border="​1">​ 
- <​tr id="​l1403">​ 
-<td> 
-   | 
-audeo, audere, &​mdash;,​ ausus sum, dare</​td>​ 
-</tr> 
- <​tr id="​l1404">​ 
-<td> 
-   | 
-gaudeo, gaudere, &​mdash;,​ gavisus sum, rejoice</​td>​ 
-</tr> 
- <​tr id="​l1405">​ 
-<td> 
-   | 
-confido, confidere, &​mdash;,​ confisus sum, trust</​td>​ 
-</tr> 
-</​table>​ 
-</​div>​ 
- 
-    </ul> 
- 
- 
-<p id="​l1407">​ 
-Subjunctive Mood = four tenses: present, perfect, imperfect, pluperfect. The negative is **ne**. It can be introduced by a sign-word such as utinam or ut. Exact meaning is determined by use.  
- 
- 
-    <ul> 
- 
- 
-<div class="​wikitable">​ 
-<table border="​1">​ 
- <​tr id="​l1409">​ 
-<td> 
-Conjugation</​td>​ 
-<td colspan="​6"​ align="​left">​ 
-**Active Voice**</​td>​ 
-</tr> 
- <​tr id="​l1410">​ 
-<td colspan="​7"​ align="​left">​ 
-**-e-** replaces the stem vowel **-a-**.</​td>​ 
-</tr> 
- <​tr id="​l1411">​ 
-<td> 
-I   | 
- ​amem ​  | 
- ​ames ​  | 
- ​amet ​  | 
-amemus ​  | 
-ametis ​  | 
-ament </td> 
-</tr> 
- <​tr id="​l1412">​ 
-<td> 
-   | 
-laudem ​  | 
-laudes ​   | 
-laudet ​  | 
-laudemus ​  | 
-laudetis ​  | 
-laudent</​td>​ 
-</tr> 
- <​tr id="​l1413">​ 
-<td colspan="​7"​ align="​left">​ 
-**-a-** replaces the stem vowel **-e-**.</​td>​ 
-</tr> 
- <​tr id="​l1414">​ 
-<td> 
-II   | 
-moneam ​  | 
-moneas ​  | 
-moneat ​  | 
-moneamus ​  | 
-moneatis ​  | 
-moneant</​td>​ 
-</tr> 
- <​tr id="​l1415">​ 
-<td> 
-IIIa   | 
-regam   | 
-regas   | 
-regat   | 
-regamus ​  | 
-regatis ​  | 
-regant </td> 
-</tr> 
- <​tr id="​l1416">​ 
-<td> 
-IIIb   | 
-capiam ​  | 
-capias ​  | 
-capiat ​  | 
-capiamus ​  | 
-capiatis ​  | 
-capiant</​td>​ 
-</tr> 
- <​tr id="​l1417">​ 
-<td> 
-IV   | 
-audiam ​  | 
-audias ​  | 
-audiat ​  | 
-audiamus ​  | 
-audiatis ​  | 
-audiant </td> 
-</tr> 
- <​tr id="​l1418">​ 
-<td> 
- </​td>​ 
-<td colspan="​4"​ align="​left">​ 
-**Passive Voice**</​td>​ 
-</tr> 
- <​tr id="​l1419">​ 
-<td> 
-I  | 
-amer   | 
-ameris ​  | 
-ametur ​  | 
-amemur ​  | 
-amemini ​  | 
-amentur </td> 
-</tr> 
- <​tr id="​l1420">​ 
-<td> 
-   | 
-lauder ​  | 
-lauderis (-re)   | 
-laudetur ​  | 
-laudemur ​  | 
-laudemini ​  | 
-laudentur </td> 
-</tr> 
- <​tr id="​l1421">​ 
-<td> 
-II  | 
-monear ​  | 
-monearis ​  | 
-moneatur ​  | 
- ​moneamur ​  | 
-moneamini ​  | 
-moneantur </td> 
-</tr> 
- <​tr id="​l1422">​ 
-<td> 
-IIIa   | 
-regar  | 
-regaris ​  | 
-regatur ​  | 
-regamur ​  | 
-regamini ​  | 
-regantur </td> 
-</tr> 
-</​table>​ 
-</​div>​ 
- 
-                                    <ul> 
- 
- 
-<div class="​wikitable">​ 
-<​table>​ 
-         <​tr id="​l1423">​ 
-<td> 
-IIIb   | 
-capiar ​  | 
-caparis ​  | 
-capiatur ​  | 
-capiamur ​  | 
-capiamini ​  | 
-capiantur</​td>​ 
-</tr> 
-</​table>​ 
-</​div>​ 
- 
-                                    </ul> 
- 
- 
- 
-<div class="​wikitable">​ 
-<​table>​ 
- <​tr id="​l1424">​ 
-<td> 
-IV   | 
-audiar ​  | 
-audiaris ​  | 
-audiatur ​  | 
-audiamur ​  | 
-audiamini ​  | 
-audiantur</​td>​ 
-</tr> 
-</​table>​ 
-</​div>​ 
- 
-    </ul> 
- 
- 
-<p id="​l1426">​ 
-<​u>​Direct commands</​u>​ or requests: <​u>​**Subjunctive mode expresses Hesitation, exhortation,​ wish, uncertainty**</​u>,​ subjective 
- 
- 
-    <ol type="​a">​ 
- 
-    <li> 
-<p id="​l1427">​ 
-**Hortatory Subjunctive** present subjunctive first person, when rousing onself to action : //Cantemus domino canticum novum.// Let us sing to the Lord a new song! //​Baptizemur a Joanne.// Let us be baptized by John. 
-  |<p id="​l1428">​ 
-**Optative Subjunctive** present subjunctive,​ expresses obtainable wishes: //Dominum semper glorificem.//​ May I always glorify the Lord. (Sometimes uses utinam) 
-  |<p id="​l1429">​ 
-**Jussive Future Indicative** future indicative, for commands binding now and in the future: //Diliges proximum tuum.// You shall love your neighbor. 
-  |<p id="​l1430">​ 
-**Jussive Subjunctive** Present subjunctive 3rd person. Translate: "​Let..."​ //Populus gaudeat!// Let the people rejoice. //​Crucifigatur!//​ Let him be crucified! 
-  |<p id="​l1431">​ 
-**Direct quotes**: Deliberative Subjunctive. Translate "Am I to..." "Are we to..." "​Should..."​ //Quod donum ad Dominum demus?// What give are we to give to the Lord? //Non mittam diaconos Romam?// Am I not to send the deacons to Rome? 
-  |<p id="​l1432">​ 
-**Conditional Clauses** if, unless, when, should - all express a hesitation. Main clause is the apodosis, the conditional clause is the protasis. Introduced with //Si// or //nisi// 
- 
-</li> 
- 
-        <ol type="​a">​ 
- 
-        <li> 
-<p id="​l1433">​ 
-**Simple conditional** - no implication about fulfillment. //Si Dominum invocamus, nos audit.// If we call upon the Lord, He hears us. //Nisi legem faciabant, non justi erant.// If they were not keeping the law, they were not righteous. 
- 
-</li> 
-        <li> 
-<p id="​l1434">​ 
-**Future conditional** - more or less vivid, depends on likelihood or confidence with which the speaker sees the action. 
- 
-</li> 
- 
-            <ol type="​i">​ 
- 
-            <li> 
-<p id="​l1435">​ 
-**More Vivid** if (future indicative, also subjunctive translated with english present) ... then (subjunctive). //Si voluntatem Dei faciet, salvus efficietur.//​ If he does the will of God, he will be saved. //Nisi voluntatem Dei fecerimus, in regnum caelorum non introibimus.//​ Unless we (first) do the will of God, we will not enter into the kingdom of heaven. //Si Petrus venerit, cum Paulo cenet!// If peter comes, let him dine with paul. 
- 
-</li> 
-            <li> 
-<p id="​l1436">​ 
-**Less Vivid** If (present subjunctive) ... then (present indicative or present subjunctive). //Si agnus unus amittatur, pastor bonus est maestus.// If one lamb should be lost, the good shepherd is sad. //Si Petrus domum intret, fratres orantes videat.// If peter should enter the house, he would see his brothers praying.' ​ 
- 
-</li> 
- 
-            </ol> 
- 
- 
- 
-        </ol> 
- 
- 
- 
-    </ol> 
- 
- 
-<p id="​l1438">​ 
-**Exercises**1. Filius (n.s) hominis (gen.s) traditur (3s pres.pass.ind) in manus (abl.pl) peccatorum (gen.pl).The Son of Man is betrayed into the hands of sinners.2. Praeceptis (abl.pl) salutaribus moniti (abl.pl), audemus (1pl pres.act.subj) dicere (inf):As taught by the saving precepts, let us dare to say:3. Pater noster, qui es in caelis, sanctificetur nomen tuum.Our father who art in heaven, hallowed be your name.4. Miseri (n.pl) deprecemur (1pl pres.pass.subj) Dominum (acc.s) scelera nostra fugare (inf/​imp)!We poor ones, let us entreat the lord to drive away our sins.5. Utinam Corpus et Sanguis (n.s) Domini (gen.s) Jesu Christi nos (acc.pl) ab omnibus (abl.pl) iniquitatibus nostris liberent!Would that the body and blood of the Lord Jesus Christ would free us from all our iniquity.6. Turba mira (abl.s) opera Jesu (gen.s) admirata est (3s perf.pass.ind).The crowd is astonished at the wonderful works of Jesus.7. Domino (dat.s) demus (1pl pres.subj.act) panem (acc.s) nostrum, fructum (acc.s) terrae (gen.pl) et operis (abl.s) manuum (acc.s) hominum.Let us give to the Lord our bread, fruit of the earth and by the works of human hands.8. Petrus (n.s) mirabatur (3s pres.pass.ind) quod populus (n.s) Domino (dat.s) nihil confidebat (3s imp.act.ind).Peter was amazed that the people didn't believe in God.9. Utinam paterna dilectio (n.s) nos (acc.pl) semper (adv) servet (3s pres.subj.ind)!Would that the father'​s love would always save us.10. Paulus, verba atque opera Jesu in memoria habens, evangelizare erat potens.Paul,​ having the words and works of jesus in mind, was able to evangelize.11. Opus est sacerdoti pro populo benedictionem Domini invocare.It is the work of the priest to invoke the blessing of the Lord for the people.12. Lumen mundi ortum est et fugavit peccatorum tenebras.The light of the world rises up and puts to flight the darkness of sin.13. Homo miser, lacrimas effundens, dixit quod filius moriebatur.The miserable man, tears flowing, said that the son died.14. Ipse vos baptizabit in Spiritu Sancto et igni. Mt iii, 11.He will baptize you in the holy spirit and fire.15. Haec nox est, qua hodie per universum mundum in Christo credentes reddit gratiae.This is the night, when today for the whold world in christ believers return to grace.16. Deum de Deo, lumen de lumine, Deum verum de Deo vero, genitum, non factum, consubstantialem Patri: per quem omnia facta sunt.God from God, light from light, true God from true God, begotten, not made consubstantial with the father, through whom all things were made.17. Ideo precor beatum Mariam semper Virgenem, omnes Agnelos et Sanctos, et vos, fratres, orare pro me ad Dominum Deum nostrum.Therefore I ask blessed mary ever virgin, all the angels and saints and you brothers to pray for me to the Lord our God.18. Dominus enim Jesus crucifixus, pasus et mortuus est pro mundi vita.For the Lord Jesus was crucified suffered and died for the life of the world.19. O Domine, et fac (imp) me tuis (dat.pl) semper inhaerere mandatis.O Lord , make me always cling to your commands.20. Natus est (3s pres.dep.ind) ​ vobis (dat.pl) ​ hodie (adv) Salvator (n.s), qui est Christus (n.s) Dominus. Lk ii, 11Today a savior is born for us who is christ the lord.21. Ego baptizavi (1s perf.ai) vos (acc.s) aqua (abl.s means); ille (n.s) vero baptizabit (3s fut.perf.ai) vos Spiritu (abl.s means) Sancto. Mk i, 8I baptized you with water, the other truly will baptize you with the Holy Spirit.22. Quare cum peccatoribus (abl.pl) manducat (3s pai) et bibit Magister vester?Why with sinners eats and drinks your master.23. Peccavi tradens sanguinem innocentem. Mt xxvii, 4.I have sinned betraying innocent blood.24. Eodem tempore natus est Moyses et erat formosus coram deo. Acts vii, 20.In that time Moses was born and was beautiful in the sight of God.25. Tunc Jesus apostolis dedit postestatem spirituum malorum.Then Jesus gave to the apostles power over evil spirits.26. Nam et ego homo sub potestate. Mt. viii, 9.For I too am a man under power.27. Et aspiciens dicebat: Video homines, quia velut arbores video ambulantes. Mk viii, 24.And looking, he was saying: I see people, which just like trees, I seem them walking.28. Et ecce nihil dignum morte actum est a Nazareno.And behold nothing worthy of death is by the Nazarean.29. Exi a me, quia homo peccator sum, Domine. Lk v,8.Go away from me, because I am a sinful man. Lord.30. Videntes autem stellam gavisi sunt gaudio magno valde. Mt ii, 10.And seeing the start they rejoiced with truly great joy.31. Agnus Dei, qui tolis peccata mundi, miserere nobis.Lamb of God who takes away the sins of the world, have mercy on us. 
- 
-===Unit 21=== 
-<p id="​l1504">​ 
-**Exercises**1. Si ergo filius vos liberaverit,​ vere liberi eritis.If therefore the son will have freed you, you will be free indeed.2. Si ego testimomium perhibeo de meipso (= me), testimonium meumnon est verum.If I give testimony on my behalf, my testimony is not true.3. Benedicat vos omnipotens Deus, Pater et Filius et Spiritus Sanctus.May he bless you God the father and the son and the holy spirit.4. Nam Deus dixit: "​Honora patrem et matrem"​ et "Qui maledixeritpatri vel matri, morte moriatur."​For God said: honor father and monther and who curses father or mother will die the death.5. Sed turba haec, quae non novit legem, maledicti sum.But this crowd, that cannot read, are cursed.6. Neque me scitis neque Patrem meum.Neither I know, nor my father.7. Et extendens manum, tetigit eum.And extending the hand he touched him.8. Jesus autem plenus Spiritu Sancto regressus est a Jordane et agebatur in Spiritu in deserto.And Jesus, full of the holy spirit returned from the jordan and was led in spirit into the desert.9. Venit enim Joannes nequc manducans neque bibens.For john came neither eating or drinking.10. Quod ergo Deus conjunxit, homo non separet.Therefore what God has joined, let man not separate.11. Corpus Domini nostri Jesu Christi custodiat animam tuam in vitam aeternam.Let the body of our lord jesus christ lead your soul into eternal life.12. Nos enim spiritu ex fide spem justitiae expectamus.For we expect the hope of justice by the spirit of faith.13. Si vertatem dico, quare vos non creditis mihi? Jn viii, 46If I say the truth, why do you not believe me?14. Exsultet jam angelica turba caelorum: exsultent divina mysteria: et pro tanti Regis victoria tuba insonet salutaris.Let the angelic crowd of heaven exult: Let the divine mysteries exult and for so great a king, let the victorious trumpet of salvation resound15. Fratres, agnoscamus peccata nostra.Brothers,​ let us acknowledge our sins.16. Misereatur nostri omnipotens Deus, et, dimissis peccatis nostris, perducat nos ad vitam aeternam.Have mercy on us omnipotent God and forgiving our sins, lead us to eternal life.17. Et expecto resurrectionem mortuorum, et vitam venturi saeculi.And I await the resurrection of the dead and life in the coming age.18. Postea, si habenda sit, legitur secunda lectio.Afterwards,​ if it should be, the second reading will be read.19. Suscipiat Dominus sacrificium de manibus tuis ad laudem et gloriam nominis sui.Let the Lord receive the sacrifice from your hands to the praise and glory of his name.20. Gratias agamus Domino Deo nostro. Dignum et justum est.Give thanks to the Lord our God  - it is right and just.21. Tu es qui venturus es? Are you the one who is to come?22. Amen, amen, dico vobis: Nisi manducaveritis carnem filii hominis et biberitis ejus sanguinem, non habetis vitam in vobismetipsis.Amen,​ amen I say to you, unless you have eaten the flesh of the son of man and you have  drunk his blood, you do not have live in you.23. Dixi ergo vobis quia moriemini in peccatis vestris; si enim non credideritis quia ego sum, moriemini in peccatis vestris. Therefore I have said to you that you will die in your sins; if you have not believed that I am, you will die in your sins.  
- 
-===Unit 22 Imperfect Subjunctive=== 
-<p id="​l1554">​ 
 All imperfect subjunctives are formed with the infinitive + personal endings (active and passive). Deponents form the subjunctive imperfect //as if// they had an active infinitive. ​ All imperfect subjunctives are formed with the infinitive + personal endings (active and passive). Deponents form the subjunctive imperfect //as if// they had an active infinitive. ​
-<div class="​wikitable">​ +|Subjunctive Imperfect Active ​ ​|||||| 
-<table border="​1">​ +|amarem ​  ​|amares ​  ​|amaret ​  ​|amaremus ​  ​|amaretis ​  ​|amarent ​ | 
-<tr id="​l1555">​ +|monerem ​  ​|moneres ​  ​|moneret ​  ​|moneremus ​  ​|moneretis ​ |monerent ​ | 
-<td colspan="​6"​ align="​center">​ +|regerem ​ |regeres ​ |regeret ​ |regeremus ​ |regeretis ​ |regerent ​ | 
-Subjunctive Imperfect Active</​td>​ +|caperem ​ |caperes ​ |caperet ​ |caperemus ​ |caperetis ​ |caperent ​ | 
-</​tr>​ +|audirem ​ |audires ​ |audiret ​ |audiremus ​ |audiretis ​ |audirent ​ | 
-<tr id="​l1556">​ +|Subjunctive Imperfect Passive ​ ​|||||| 
-<td> +|amarer ​  ​|amareris ​  ​|amaretur ​  ​|amaremur ​  ​|amaremini ​  ​|amarentur ​ | 
-amarem ​  | +|monerer ​ |monereris ​ |moneretur ​ |moneremur ​ |moneremini ​ |monerentur ​ | 
-amares ​  | +|regerer ​ |regereris ​ |regeretur ​ |regeremur ​ |regeremini ​ |regerentur ​ | 
-amaret ​  | +|caperer ​ |capereris ​ |caperetur ​ |caperemur ​ |caperemini ​ |caperentur ​ | 
-amaremus ​  | +|audirer ​ |audireris ​ |audiretur ​ |audiremur ​ |audiremini ​ |audirentur ​ |
-amaretis ​  | +
-amarent</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-<tr id="​l1557">​ +
-<td> +
-monerem ​  | +
-moneres ​  | +
-moneret ​  | +
-moneremus ​  | +
-moneretis ​ | +
-monerent</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-<tr id="​l1558">​ +
-<td> +
-regerem ​ | +
-regeres ​ | +
-regeret ​ | +
-regeremus ​ | +
-regeretis ​ | +
-regerent</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-<tr id="​l1559">​ +
-<td> +
-caperem ​ | +
-caperes ​ | +
-caperet ​ | +
-caperemus ​ | +
-caperetis ​ | +
-caperent</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-<tr id="​l1560">​ +
-<td> +
-audirem ​ | +
-audires ​ | +
-audiret ​ | +
-audiremus ​ | +
-audiretis ​ | +
-audirent</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-<tr id="​l1561">​ +
-<td colspan="​6"​ align="​center">​ +
-Subjunctive Imperfect Passive</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-<tr id="​l1562">​ +
-<td> +
-amarer ​  | +
-amareris ​  | +
-amaretur ​  | +
-amaremur ​  | +
-amaremini ​  | +
-amarentur</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-<tr id="​l1563">​ +
-<td> +
-monerer ​ | +
-monereris ​ | +
-moneretur ​ | +
-moneremur ​ | +
-moneremini ​ | +
-monerentur</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-<tr id="​l1564">​ +
-<td> +
-regerer ​ | +
-regereris ​ | +
-regeretur ​ | +
-regeremur ​ | +
-regeremini ​ | +
-regerentur</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-<tr id="​l1565">​ +
-<td> +
-caperer ​ | +
-capereris ​ | +
-caperetur ​ | +
-caperemur ​ | +
-caperemini ​ | +
-caperentur</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-<tr id="​l1566">​ +
-<td> +
-audirer ​ | +
-audireris ​ | +
-audiretur ​ | +
-audiremur ​ | +
-audiremini ​ | +
-audirentur</​td>​ +
-</tr>+
  
 +__Tenses in Subordinate Clauses__
  
-</​table>​ +  - primary tenses: present, future, future perfect, perfect (completed)<p id="l1570">​ 
-</​div>​ +  - secondary tenses: imperfect, pluperfect, perfect (simple)
-<p id="l1568">​ +
-<​u>​Tenses in Subordinate Clauses</​u>​+
  
- 
-        <ul> 
- 
-<p id="​l1569">​ 
-  primary tenses: present, future, future perfect, perfect (completed)<​p id="​l1570">​ 
-  secondary tenses: imperfect, pluperfect, perfect (simple) 
- 
- 
-        </ul> 
- 
- 
-<p id="​l1571">​ 
 Relation between tense of the main clause and the tense of the subjunctive clause: Relation between tense of the main clause and the tense of the subjunctive clause:
 +  - If the **main clause** is in **primary tenses**, the present subjunctive or the perfect subjunctive is used in the subordinate:​ I go (primary) in order that (present subjunctive)<​p id="​l1573">​
 +  - If the **main clause** in **secondary tenses**, subordinent clause is in the imperfect subjunctive or pluperfect subjunctive:​ I was going (secondary) in order that (imperfect subjunctive) ​
  
 +|Independent Clause ​ ||Subordinate Clause ​ |
 +|   ​|Contemporary Subsequent ​ |Prior ​ |
 +|**Primary tense**: present, future, perfect (completed),​ future perfect ​ |Present Subjunctive ​ |Perfect Subjunctive ​ |
 +|**Secondary tense** imperfect, perfect (simple) pluperfect ​ |Imperfect Subjunctive ​ |Pluperfect Subjunctive ​ |
  
-        <​ul>​ +__Abverbial ​purpose ​clause__ ​//ut// subjunctive //quia// more of a logical connection; //ne// for negative purpose. Ne - is ut non.__Relative clauses__ ​- who, whom, why with //qui, quae, quod// or occasionally //ubi//. Paul sent the four deacons in order to see peter //paulus quattuor diaconos misit, qui petrum viderent.//__Infinitive ​of Purpose__ ​the infinitive may be used to express purpose: //Paulus Romam venit Petrum videre.// Paul came to Rome to see Peter.__Indirect ​Commands / Requests__ ​after a verb of command or request, use //ut// + subjunctive or //ut// + accusative + infinitive. //​Deprecemur Deum ut peccata nostra nobis dimittat.// Let us beseech God that he forgive our sins. //Diaconus jussit populum orare.// The deacon bade the people to pray. Verbs of command or request: postulo - ask, rogo - request, peto - petition, oro - pray, precor - ask, moneo - advise, jubeo takes only accusative + infinitive, dico takes only //ut// + subjunctive. ​
- +
-<p id="​l1572">​ +
-  If the **main clause** is in **primary tenses**, the present subjunctive or the perfect subjunctive is used in the subordinate:​ I go (primary) in order that (present subjunctive)<​p id="​l1573">​ +
-  If the **main clause** in **secondary tenses**, subordinent clause is in the imperfect subjunctive or pluperfect subjunctive:​ I was going (secondary) i