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 =====Latin===== =====Latin=====
 +This page has Latin language resources and follows Collins //A Primer of Ecclesiastical Latin//
 +Answers to Exercises found with chapters below.
  
 ===Resources=== ===Resources===
-[[http://​www.nd.edu/​~archives/​latin.htm|Latin Dictionary]] [[http://​lysy2.archives.nd.edu/​cgi-bin/​words.exe\Whitakers words]] [[http://​www.perseus.tufts.edu/​cgi-bin/​resolveform?​lang=Latin|Lewis&​Short]] [[http://​www.archive.org/​details/​introductiontoec00nunnuoft|Nunn - Ecclesiastical Latin]] [[http://​latinum.mypodcast.com/​\Latin Podcast]] [[http://​www.google.co.uk/​books?​id=GJgAAAAAYAAJ|Adler]] [[http://​www.yleradio1.fi/​nuntii/​|Nuntii Latini - Latin news broadcast]] [[http://​latinum.mypodcast.com/​|Latin Podcast]] [[http://​www.slu.edu/​colleges/​AS/​languages/​classical/​latin/​tchmat/​tchmat.html|from St. Louis University]] **Whitaker'​s Words** [[http://​archives.nd.edu/​words.html|online dictionary]] [[http://​users.erols.com/​whitaker/​words.htm|same to download and install]] ​+[[http://​www.nd.edu/​~archives/​latin.htm ​ |Latin Dictionary]] [[http://​lysy2.archives.nd.edu/​cgi-bin/​words.exe\Whitakers words]] [[http://​www.perseus.tufts.edu/​cgi-bin/​resolveform?​lang=Latin ​ |Lewis&​Short]] [[http://​www.archive.org/​details/​introductiontoec00nunnuoft ​ |Nunn - Ecclesiastical Latin]] [[http://​latinum.mypodcast.com/​\Latin Podcast]] [[http://​www.google.co.uk/​books?​id=GJgAAAAAYAAJ ​ |Adler]] [[http://​www.yleradio1.fi/​nuntii/ ​ |Nuntii Latini - Latin news broadcast]] [[http://​latinum.mypodcast.com/ ​ |Latin Podcast]] [[http://​www.slu.edu/​colleges/​AS/​languages/​classical/​latin/​tchmat/​tchmat.html ​ |from St. Louis University]] **Whitaker'​s Words** [[http://​archives.nd.edu/​words.html ​ |online dictionary]] [[http://​users.erols.com/​whitaker/​words.htm ​ |same to download and install]] ​
  
  
-====History of Latin===+===History of Latin===
  
-</p>+  * Pre-Classical - Italian region of latio - from 1000bc. 7C bc oldest fibula (buckle) 6C Lapis Negra - date certain. 
 +  * Classical - Golden 2Cbc. Growing difference between written and spoken ticitus, ​ silvius. 
 +  * Sermo urbanus - literary - disappears after time of Christ 
 +  * Sermo vulgaris - ordinary 
 +  * Sermo cotidianus - combination 
 +  * Silver - S.v. and S.c. become silver. Tertulian augustine,​ 
 +  * Christian - biggest difference is vocabulary for new Xn ideas and bible slowly 
 +  * Medieval - spoken becomes the romance languages, written latin stays language of learning. New vocab and grammar.  
 +  * Cicero wouldn'​t recognize it. 
  
-        <ul>+==History of Xn Latin== 
 +  * Roots not in city of rome - early xns spoke greek.  
 +  * Roots in N. Africa - Xns there mainly spoke and wrote latin  
 +  * Translations - from greek to latin 
 +  * bible 140-150 Itala and Vulgata 340-420 - these translations are not without problems, simple inconsistent,​ incoherent [augustine rejected xnity at first because of poor translations],​ 
 +  * fathers - acta perpetua, didache, letters of clement 
 +  * Original texts 
 +  * Tertulian - created Xn Latin. Transliterated Gk and gave new meaning to Lt words. 
 +  * Cyprian +250 
 +  * Augustine +430 trained in rhetorics. Vulgarization of Latin 
 +  * End of latin - killing of roman empire and spoken latin - written language ​ remains to scholars 
 +  * 1648 peace of Westphalia - first diplomatic document in French. 
 +  * VCII possibility of vernacular. 
 +  * Still official language of church  
 +Vulgate - hard to overestimate the importance of Latin translations of the bible. It exerted a vast influence on the development of romance languages, especially romance, but even germanic languages. 
 +  * Prior to vulgate 4C there were 'old latin versions'​ of the bible with variant readings. There is little information about these translations,​ even legend. Metzger writes on early translations of the bible. Probably grounded in double reading of texts: greek then latin. There would have been texts with greek and latin either interlinear or side by side. Greek was '​lingua franca'​ of Roman Empire and Early Church. Pope Victor 190 - Jerome said he was first to write in Latin. North Africa was start of use of Latin - by 180 they had most of the New Testament. Tertullian first great latin father, used existing latin translation. Cyprian used latin translation. Augustine said few greek and hebrew bibles, but latin translation are without number. Augustine was put off by the latin bible - poor style. While borrowed words were frowned upon, the bible borrowed a lot from greek and hebrew. Even after the Vulgate, people tenaciously hung on to old latin versions even into the 1400s, particularly the psalms. 
 +  * Jerome appointed by Damasus in 383 to revise the current latin translations based on the greek. Immediately revised the Gospels and Psalter. Damasus also finally latinized the liturgy. Born 346, well educated in latin classics, learned greek later and hebrew much later 380s. By modern critical standards it wasn't great understanding,​ but great for his time. Translation from hebrew was not highly regarded. Hexapla - 6 column bible hebrew, transliterated to greek, septuagint, 3 more columns of greek translations. Proud of his learning. Jerome used Origin'​s library at Ceasarea, especially hexapla. The Gallican Psalter from septuagint - then later translated from the Hebrew. He cast reason from going to hebrew was polemical - the Jews say our bible is correct. Some of the translations are not by Jerome, e.g. Pauline Epistles, Ben Sirach. Translation wasn't received well - now there was just one more bible. After Jerome, there were other translations. Nova Vulgata - 1965 Pontifical commission for revision of Vulgate from the original - Promulgated in 1979. First the consideration was to get a more accurate translation of the psalms. ​
  
-<p id="​l7">​ +====Grammar: Summary: Flexi endings===
-  Pre-Classical - Italian region of latio - from 1000bc. 7C bc oldest fibula (buckle) 6C Lapis Negra - date certain. <​br/><​p id="​l8">​ +==Nouns== 
-  ​Classical - Golden 2Cbc. Growing difference between written and spoken ticitus, ​ silvius. <​br/><​p id="​l9">​ +  ​* Gender ​puer m, filia f, donum n <p id="l40">​ 
-  ​Sermo urbanus - literary ​disappears after time of Christ <br/><p id="l10">​ +  ​* numbersingular or plural puer, pueri<p id="l41">​ 
-  ​Sermo vulgaris ​ordinary <br/><p id="l11">​ +  ​* casegrammatical function in the sentence 
-  ​Sermo cotidianus ​combination <​br/><​p id="​l12">​ +  ​* [John buys bread for his mother in the shop.subj, verb, dirObj, IndirObj, adverbial phr.Identy 1) verb 2) subject 3) direct object 4) indir obj 5) adverbials 
-  ​Silver - S.vand S.c. become silverTertulian augustine<​br/><​p id="​l13">​ +  * 1) Verb2) nominative, (predicate same cng as subj) 3) accusative 4) dative 5) ablative 
-  ​Christian - biggest difference ​is vocabulary for new Xn ideas and bible slowly <​br/><​p id="​l14">​ +  ​* The bread is bought by John 
-  ​Medieval - spoken becomes the romance languageswritten latin stays language ​of learningNew vocab and grammar.  +  ​* Subjverb, personal agency][No articles exist in Latin. Translate from context] 
-</p>+==5 Cases:== 
 +|Nominative ​   |subject & predicate //Flavius// est //​pater// ​   | 
 +|Genitive ​   |'of' possession Servus //​patris// ​ | 
 +|Dative ​ |indirObject '​for'​ '​to' ​ | 
 +|Accusative ​ |dir objectAvis //​locustam//​ edit  | 
 +|Ablative ​ |- more complicated ​  | 
 +|:::  |Personal agency in passive sentences '​by'​ Puella ​//domina// amatur. ​ | 
 +|:::  |After certain prepositions '​locativus'​ in //​Roma// ​ | 
 +|:::  |Instrumentality or means, '​by'​ //cultre pugnare// ​ | 
 +|:::  |specifying the verb  |
  
-        </ul>+**Dative of posession** Libro est mihi. 
  
 +Verbs - 4 (5) conjugations1st **-a-**2nd **-e-** long e3rd **-e-** short e goes to e or ie4th **-i-** ​
  
-<p id="​l16">​ +|present ​   |sum    |es    |est    |sumus ​   |estis ​ |sunt  | 
-Cicero wouldn'​t recognize ​it.  +|imperfect ​   |eram    |eras    |erat    |eramus ​   |eratis ​   |erant ​ | 
-</p> +==Vocabulary=
-====History ​of Xn Latin==== +  * //saeculum, saculi// n. age, world 
-    <​ul>​+  * //famulus -i// m. servant 
 +  * //numquam// adv. never 
 +  * //quoque// also, too 
 +  * //deleo, delere, delevi, deletus// wipe out, destroy 
 +  * //venio, venire, veni, ventus// come - note the present and perfect are often the same - see context.  
 +  * //invenio// find 
 +  * //mundus -a -um// clean, pure  
 +  * //imundus -a -um// impure  
 +  * //mundus, -i// m. world 
 +  * //perhibeo, perhibere, perhibui, perhibitus//​ hold out, produce, afford. 
 +  * //video, videre, vidi, visus// see, realize 
 +  * //scio, scire, scivi, scitus// know 
 +  * //socium, socii// n. companion, ally 
 +  * //​vestigium,​ vestigii// n. footstep 
 +  * //resulto, resultare, resultavi, resultatus//​ resound, rebound 
 +  * //hostia, hostiae// sacrificial offering 
 +  * //valeo, valere, valui, valitus// be well, be strong, be able (+ inf) 
 +  * //videor, videri, -- visus sum// be seen, seem (+ inf) 
 +  * //desino, desinere, desii, desitus // cease (+ inf) 
 +  * //excipio, excipere, excepi, exceptus // welcome 
 +  * //insto, instare, institi, &​mdash;//​ urge, threaten (+ dat) 
 +  * //inhaereo, inhaerere, inhaesi, inhaesus // cling to, adhere (+ dat) 
 +  * //​deprecatio,​ deprecationis//​ f earnest prayer 
 +  * //​particeps,​ participis // m. f. participant 
 +  * //caligo, caliginis // f. mist, gloom 
 +  * //fundo, fundere, fudi, fusus // pour 
 +  * //​confundo//​ confound, put to shame, in passive, ​it is be ashamed of (+ acc) 
 +  * //scando, scandere, scandi, scansus // climb, mount 
 +  * //memor // mindful of (+ gen) 
 +  * //intereo, interire, interivi, interitus// perish, die 
 +  * //obeo, obire, obivi, obitus// go to meet, die 
 +  * //pereo, perire, perivi, peritus// perish, die, be lost 
 +  * //adsum, adesse, affui, &​mdash;//​ be present 
 +  * //prosum, prodesse, profui, &​mdash;//​ avail, profit, be advantageous to (+ dat) 
 +  * //incido, incidere, incidi // fall into, happen 
 +  * //prex, precis // fentreaty, prayer 
 +  ​* ​//precor, precari, precatus sum // ask, pray beseech (also deprecor...) 
 +  * //scelus, sceleris// n. crime, sin 
 +  * //dignor, dignare, -- dignatus sum// consider worthwhile //​dedignor//​ distain 
 +  * //judico, judicare, judicavi, judicatus// judge //dejudico //discern 
 +  * //jubeo, jubere, jussi, jussus// command, request with accusative and infinitive. 
 +  * //utor, uti, -- usus sum// +abl. use, enjoy, be friends with 
 +  * //antistes, antistitis//​ m. bishop 
 +  * //planctus, -us// m. mourning 
 +  * //tueor, tueri, -- tuitus sum// watch, protect, uphold 
 +  * //labor, labi, -- lapsus sum// slide, fall (backslide) 
 +  * //talis, tale// such, of such a sort 
 +  * //tantus, -a, -um// so much, so great 
 +  * //cano, canere, cecini, cantus// Sing prophesy 
 +  * //accendo, accendere, accendi, accensus// kindle, set on fire. 
 +  * //consors, consortis, consortium//​ sharer 
 +  * //​praestolor,​ praestolari,​ -- praestolatus sum// +dat. wait for, perform 
 +  * //fateor, fateri, -- fassus sum// admit, confess + acc. praise +dat. 
 +  * //pasco, pascere, pavi, pastus// feed 
 +  * //statuo, statuere, statui, statutus// establish, appoint, determine 
 +  * //ardeo, ardere, arsi, arsus// burn 
 +  * //inficio, inficere, infeci, infectus// infect, polute 
 +  * //proficio, proficere, profeci, profectus// avail, prevail 
 +  * //reficio, reficere, refeci, refectus// refresh, repair 
 +  * //existimo, existimare, existimavi, existimatus//​ think, judge 
 +  * //liquo, liquare, liquavi, liquatus// melt 
 +  * //​illucesco,​ illucescere,​ illuxi// shine (upon), become light. 
 +  * //​adpropinquo,​ -are, -avi, -atus// draw near (+dat) ​
  
-<p id="​l19">​ +==Conjunctions,​ Prepositions ​and Adverbs==
- Roots not in city of rome - early xns spoke greek. <​br/><​p id="​l20">​ +
- Roots in N. Africa - Xns there mainly spoke and wrote latin <​br/>​ +
-</p>+
  
-        <ul>+Conjunctions are indeclinable particles that join clauses together to form sentences. Examples of forms of conjunctions in English are: and, but and so. Conjunctions are either coordinating (joining two main clauses) or subordinating (joing a subclause to a main clause).
  
-<p id="​l21">​ +**Coordinating Conjunctions **
-  Translations - from greek to latin <​br/>​ +
-</​p>​ +
-        <​li>​ +
-<p id="​l22">​ +
-bible 140-150 Itala and Vulgata 340-420 - these translations are not without problems, simple inconsistent,​ incoherent [augustine rejected xnity at first because of poor translations],​ <​br/>​ +
-</​p>​ +
-</​li>​ +
-        <​li>​ +
-<p id="​l23">​ +
-fathers - acta perpetua, didache, letters of clement <​br/>​ +
-</​p>​ +
-</li>+
  
-        </ul>+  * //atque// and 
 +  * //aut// or 
 +  * //​aut...aut//​ either...or 
 +  * //autem// but, and - depends on context, may not need to be translated 
 +  * //enim// (usually placed second in sentence) for 
 +  * //ergo// and so, therefore 
 +  * //et// and 
 +  * //et...et// both...and 
 +  * //igitur// therefore 
 +  * //itaque// and so 
 +  * //nam// for 
 +  * //​nec/​necque//​ and not, nor 
 +  * //​nec/​necque...nec/​necque//​ neither...nor 
 +  * //prout// according as 
 +  * //quam// than (adv: how, how much) 
 +  * //​quapropter//​ wherefore, therefore 
 +  * //-que//* and 
 +  * //sed// but 
 +  * //tamen// (usually placed second in a sentence) however 
 +  * //vel// or (if you prefer) 
 +**Subordinating Conjunctions** 
 +  * //​antequam//​ before, 
 +  * //cum// when, after + ind.; under the circumstances,​ although, since + subj. 
 +  * //donec// while, as long as, till 
 +  * //dum// while, for the time 
 +  * //etsi// although, even, if 
 +  * //​licet//​although (with indicative or subjunctive) - properly a verb 
 +  * //ne// in order that ... not, that ... not, introducing negative purpose, or direct command, with subj. 
 +  * //nisi// unless, except 
 +  * //​quamquam//​ however 
 +  * //quia, quod, quoniam// because - sometimes  
 +  * //eo quod////​priusquam//​ before (with indicative or subjunctive) 
 +  * //si// if 
 +  * //sive, seu// or if,  
 +  * //​sive...sive//​ if ... or if, whether ... or. 
 +  * //simul ac// as soon as 
 +  * //ubi// when, as soon as, (where - adverb) 
 +  * //ut// when, as/with result clauses: in order to, so, to, that, introducing negative purpose, or direct command, with subj. (with postulo, rogo, peto, oro, precor, moneo + subjunctive or acc. + inf; or dico ut + subjunctive) 
 +  * //utinam// as/with result clauses: in order to, so, to 
 +  * //​postquam//​ after,  
 +  * //postquam puerum vidit/
  
 +**Prepositions** ​
  
-<p id="​l24">​ +| With the __accusative__ case:  ||With the __ablative__ case  ||With __genitive__ ​ || 
- Original texts <br/> +|//ad //  |to   ​|//​a/​ab// ​ |from  |//​causa// ​ |  improper preposition for the sake of, by reason of  | 
-</p>+|//adversu -s/-m //  |opposite ​  ​| ​  ​| ​  ​|//​gratia// ​  | 
 +|//​ante// ​ |before ​  ​|//​cum// ​ | with  |//​vice// ​  | 
 +|//apud //  |among, at the house of//  |//​de// ​ |of, concerning ​ |   | 
 +|//​circa// ​ |around ​ |   ​| ​  ​| ​  | 
 +|//​cis// ​ |before ​ |   ​| ​  ​| ​  | 
 +|//​circum// ​ |around ​  ​|//​e/​ex// ​ |from, out of  |   | 
 +|//​contra// ​ |against ​  ​|//​coram// ​ |in the presence of   ​| ​  | 
 +|//​extra// ​ |beyond, outside ​  ​| ​  ​| ​  ​| ​  | 
 +|//​in// ​ |into   ​|//​in// ​ |in   ​| ​  | 
 +|//​inter// ​ |between, among   ​| ​  ​| ​  ​| ​  | 
 +|//​intra// ​ |within, among   ​| ​  ​| ​  ​| ​  | 
 +|//​iuxta// ​ |beside ​ |   ​| ​  ​| ​  | 
 +|//ob //  |because of  |   ​| ​  ​| ​  | 
 +|/?​per// ​ |through ​  ​|//​prae// ​ | before, in preference to, comparison with, consequence of,   ​| ​  | 
 +|//post, pone// ​ |behind, after   ​|//​pro// ​  | on behalf of, in front of, according to  |   | 
 +|//​prope// ​ |near   ​|//​palam// ​ |in the presense of  |   | 
 +|//​propter// ​ |near   ​|//​sine// ​ |without ​ |   | 
 +|//​praeter// ​ |beyond ​ |   ​| ​  ​| ​  | 
 +|//​secundum// ​ |according to   ​|//​sub// ​ |under ​ |   | 
 +|//​secus// ​ |beside ​ |   ​| ​  ​| ​  | 
 +|//​super// ​ | upon, over, above   ​|//​super// ​ |concerning,​ about, above  |   | 
 +|//​trans// ​ |across ​  ​| ​  ​| ​  ​| ​  | 
 +|//usque/ |up to  |   ​| ​  ​| ​  |
  
-        <ul>+**Adverbs**
  
-<p id="​l25">​ +  * //adhunc// so far 
-  ​Tertulian - created Xn LatinTransliterated Gk and gave new meaning to Lt words<br/><p id="​l26">​ +  ​* //​confestim//​ immediately 
-  ​Cyprian +250 <br/><p id="​l27">​ +  * //deinde// then, next 
-  ​Augustine +430 trained in rhetorics. Vulgarization of Latin <br/> +  * //donec, dum// while, as long as 
-</p>+  * //etiam// even also (intensifying) 
 +  * //​forsitan//​ perhaps 
 +  * //hinc// from here 
 +  * //iam// already 
 +  * //ideo// therefore, on that account 
 +  * //inde// from there, from then 
 +  * //invicem// in turn; as reflecive pronoun: one another. 
 +  * //ita// so, thus, with adverbs, adjectives ​and verbs. 
 +  * //itaque/therefore 
 +  ​//jam// already (with past), now (with present), soon (with future) 
 +  ​//mox// presently 
 +  * //nimis// too, too much 
 +  * //nondum// not yet 
 +  * //nonne// introduces question expecting yes 
 +  * //numquid// introduces question expecting no 
 +  * //palam// openly 
 +  * //postea// afterward 
 +  * //quam// how, how much (conj: than) 
 +  * //quando // when? 
 +  * //quare// why 
 +  * //​quemadmodo//​ how? just as 
 +  * //quid// why? how? //ut quid// 
 +  * //quidem// indeed, at any rate 
 +  * //quo// to where (?) 
 +  * //quomodo// how? 
 +  * //sic// so, thus, with verbs only 
 +  * //sicut// like, as 
 +  * //simul// together, atthe same time 
 +  * //sursum// upward 
 +  * //talis// such 
 +  * //tam// so, to such a degree, with adverbs and adjectives only 
 +  * //tamen// nevertheless 
 +  * //tantum// only 
 +  * //tum// then 
 +  * //tunc// then 
 +  * //ultro// on the other side, besides 
 +  * //unde// from where 
 +  * //usque // as far as, all the way 
 +  * //utinam// if only 
 +  * //utique// certainly, at any rate 
 +  * //valdo// very 
 +  * //velut// just as, as if 
 +  * //vero/truly
  
-        </ul> 
  
 +Some Adverbs of Time:
 +  * iam pridem long ago
 +  * primum first
 +  * postremo finally
 +  * postquam as soon as
 +  * numquam never
 +  * saepe often
 +  * cotidie every day
 +  * nondum not yet
 +  * crebro frequently
 +  * pridie the day before
 +  * umqam ever
 +  * denique at last 
  
-<p id="​l28">​ +Adverbs ​of Place: 
- ​End ​of latin - killing of roman empire and spoken latin - written language ​ remains ​to scholars <​br/><​p id="​l29">​ +  * hic here 
- 1648 peace of Westphalia - first diplomatic document ​in French. <​br/><​p id="​l30">​ +  * huc hither 
- VCII possibility of vernacular. <​br/><​p id="​l31">​ +  * hinc from here 
- Still official language of church ​ +  * ibi thereeo thither, ​to there 
-</p>+  * illic therequo whitherunde whence 
 +  * ubi whereundique from everywhere 
 +  * ibidem ​in the same placee 
 +  * odem to the same place 
 +  * quovis anywhere 
 +  * usque all the way to 
 +  * intro inwardly 
 +  * nusquam nowhere 
 +  * porro further on 
 +  * citro to this side 
  
-    </ul>+Adverbs of Manner, Degree, or Cause: 
 +  * quam how,  
 +  * astam so 
 +  * quamvis however much 
 +  * magis more 
 +  * paene almost 
 +  * valde greatly 
 +  * cur why 
 +  * quare why 
 +  * ergo therefore 
 +  * propterea because, on this account 
 +  * ita so 
 +  * sic so 
 +  * ut as, how 
 +  * vix hardly ​
  
 +Interrogative Particles:
 +  * whether: an, -ne, utrum, utrumne, num
 +  * whether not nonne, annon
 +  * whether at all numquid, ecquid
 +  * Negative Particles:​not non, haud, minime, ne, neclest nenor neque, nec
 +  * not only ... but also non modo ... verum/sed etiam
 +  * not only not ... but not even non modo ... sed ne ... quidem
 +  * not even ne ... quidem
 +  * if not si minus
 +  * so as not quo minus, quominus
 +  * why not? quin
  
-<p id="​l33">​ +====Latin in the Code==== 
-Vulgate - hard to overestimate ​the importance of Latin translations ​of the bibleIt exerted a vast influence on the development ​of romance languagesespecially romance, but even germanic languages<br/> +This chart gives all the words that occur in the Code of Canon Law more than 100 times, ​the English translation,​ then parses the termKnowing these words cold will help your reading of the code.  
-</p>+|Times in Code  |Latin ​ |English ​ |  Grammar ​ | 
 +|2139  |in  |in  |prep with acc or abl  | 
 +|1797  |et  |and  |conj  | 
 +|1449  |ad  |to  |prep + acc  | 
 +|1132  |de  |of  |prep + abl  | 
 +|1019  |vel  |or  |ADV: evenactually; or even, in deed; CONJ or;  | 
 +|718  |aut  |or  |conj  | 
 +|682  |si  |if  |subordinating conj  | 
 +|663  |qui  |which, that  |n.s or n.p pronoun anyone, anything: qui, quae, quod  | 
 +|589  |est  |is  |3s pai  | 
 +|586  |non  |not|  | 
 +|555  |a  |from, by  |prep, ablative ​ | 
 +|549  |ut  |to that  |conj + subj  | 
 +|536  |quae  |which, that  |n.s or n.p or acc.p pronoun anyone, anything: qui, quae, quod  | 
 +|518  |ab  |from, by  |prep + abl  | 
 +|467  |nisi  |unless ​ |conj  | 
 +|453  |potest ​ |it can  |3s pai  | 
 +|316  |cum  |with; when  |prep + abl; or adverb: when  | 
 +|314  |per  |through, by  |prep + acc  | 
 +|313  |sit  |it would be  |3s pas  | 
 +|309  |ex  |from  |prep + abl  | 
 +|286  |etiam ​ |also  |conj  | 
 +|274  |sive  |or if, or  |conj  | 
 +|273  |quibus ​ |which, that  |dat/abl.pronoun anyone, anything: qui, quae, quod| 
 +|272  |iure  |by right  |adv  | 
 +|268  |normam ​ |standard ​ |acc.s| 
 +|254  |ecclesiae ​ |church ​ |gen.s. dat.s, nom.p  | 
 +|253  |sunt  |they are  |3p pai  | 
 +|250  |pro  |for  |prep + abl  | 
 +|239  |quo  |which, that  |abl.s pronoun anyone, anything: qui, quae, quod  | 
 +|233  |atque ​ |and  |conj  | 
 +|218  |iuris ​ |law, right  |gen.s ​ | 
 +|215  |episcopus ​ |bishop ​ |n.s  | 
 +|211  |quod  |which, that  |nom/acc.s pronoun anyone, anything: qui, quae, quod  | 
 +|179  |loci  |place ​ |gen.s nom.p  | 
 +|177  |causa ​ |cause, case / because ​ |n.s abl.s / prep + abl (false prep)  | 
 +|175  |ecclesia ​ |church ​ |n.s abl.s   | 
 +|170  |episcoporum ​ |bishop ​ |gen.p ​ | 
 +|169  |debet ​ |owe, ought  |3s pai  | 
 +|167  |episcopo ​ |bishop ​ |dat.s abl.s  | 
 +|166  |possunt ​ |they can  |3p pai  | 
 +|161  |tamen ​ |yet, still  |adv  | 
 +|151  |ius  |law  |n.s, acc.s  | 
 +|150  |episcopi ​ |bishops ​ |n.p, gen.s  | 
 +|147  |iudex ​ |judge ​ |n.s  | 
 +|147  |se  |itself ​ |abl acc pronoun ​ | 
 +|146  |ne  |lest / not  |conj + imp / adv  | 
 +|143  |qua  |which, that  |nom/acc.s nom/acc.p pronoun anyone, anything: qui, quae, quod  | 
 +|140  |autem ​ |but  |conj  | 
 +|140  |sint  |they would be  |3p pas  | 
 +|135  |caput ​ |chapter ​ |n  | 
 +|135  |vitae ​ |life  |n  | 
 +|134  |instituti ​ |institute ​ |n  | 
 +|128  |necnon ​ |nor  |adv  | 
 +|127  |id  |he, she, it, that  |pron n.s, acc.s  | 
 +|125  |aliud ​ |other ​ |adj n.s, acc.s  | 
 +|116  |eius  |he, she, it, that  |pron g.s  | 
 +|115  |diocesano ​ |diocesan ​ |adj  | 
 +|115  |saltem ​ |at least  |adv  | 
 +|114  |ac  |and  |conj  | 
 +|114  |intra ​ |within ​ |prep + acc, adv  | 
 +|114  |tantum ​ |so much, only   |adv, adj  | 
 +|112  |eadem ​ |same, same time / way  |adv, adj  | 
 +|112  |vero  |truly, really, truth  |adv  | 
 +|111  |auctoritate ​ |authority ​ |n  | 
 +|110  |fuerit ​ |will, would have been  |perf as; futp ai  | 
 +|109  |ipso  |himself ​ |abl.s ​ | 
 +|109  |legitime ​ |lawful ​ |adv, adj  | 
 +|108  |dioecesanus ​ |diocesan ​ |adj  | 
 +|107  |apostolicae ​ |apostolic ​ |adj  | 
 +|105  |dioecesani ​ |diocesan ​ |adj  | 
 +|105  |quam  |which, that  |acc.s pronoun anyone, anything: qui, quae, quod  | 
 +|103  |inter ​ |between, during ​ |prep + acc  | 
 +|102  |omnes ​ |all  |adj  | 
 +|101  |sibi  |he, she, it, that  |pron dative ​ |
  
-    <ul> 
  
-<p id="​l34">​ +=====Collins Ecclesiastical Latin=====
- Prior to vulgate 4C there were 'old latin versions'​ of the bible with variant readings. There is little information about these translations,​ even legend. Metzger writes on early translations of the bible. Probably grounded in double reading of texts: greek then latin. There would have been texts with greek and latin either interlinear or side by side. Greek was '​lingua franca'​ of Roman Empire and Early Church. Pope Victor 190 - Jerome said he was first to write in Latin. North Africa was start of use of Latin - by 180 they had most of the New Testament. Tertullian first great latin father, used existing latin translation. Cyprian used latin translation. Augustine said few greek and hebrew bibles, but latin translation are without number. Augustine was put off by the latin bible - poor style. While borrowed words were frowned upon, the bible borrowed a lot from greek and hebrew. Even after the Vulgate, people tenaciously hung on to old latin versions even into the 1400s, particularly the psalms. <​br/><​p id="​l35">​ +
- ​Jerome appointed by Damasus in 383 to revise the current latin translations based on the greek. Immediately revised the Gospels and Psalter. Damasus also finally latinized the liturgy. Born 346, well educated in latin classics, learned greek later and hebrew much later 380s. By modern critical standards it wasn't great understanding,​ but great for his time. Translation from hebrew was not highly regarded. Hexapla - 6 column bible hebrew, transliterated to greek, septuagint, 3 more columns of greek translations. Proud of his learning. Jerome used Origin'​s library at Ceasarea, especially hexapla. The Gallican Psalter from septuagint - then later translated from the Hebrew. He cast reason from going to hebrew was polemical - the Jews say our bible is correct. Some of the translations are not by Jerome, e.g. Pauline Epistles, Ben Sirach. Translation wasn't received well - now there was just one more bible. After Jerome, there were other translations. Nova Vulgata - 1965 Pontifical commission for revision of Vulgate from the original - Promulgated in 1979. First the consideration was to get a more accurate translation of the psalms.  +
-</​p>​ +
- +
-    </​ul>​ +
- +
- +
-===Grammar: Flexi - endings=== +
-==Nouns - 5 declensions== +
- +
-        <​ul>​ +
- +
-<p id="​l39">​ +
-  Gender - puer m, filia f, donum n <p id="​l40">​ +
-  number- singular or plural puer, pueri <​br/><​p id="​l41">​ +
-  case- grammatical function in the sentence <​br/>​ +
-</​p>​ +
- +
-        </​ul>​ +
- +
- +
-<p id="​l42">​ +
-[John buys bread for his mother in the shop. <​br/>​subj,​ verb, dir. Obj, Indir. Obj, adverbial phr. <​br/>​Identy 1) verb 2) subject 3) direct object 4) indir obj 5) adverbials <​br/>​ +
-</​p>​ +
- +
-    <​ul>​ +
- +
-<p id="​l45">​ +
- 1) Verb, 2) nominative, (predicate same cng as subj) 3) accusative 4) dative 5) ablative <​br/>​ +
-</​p>​ +
- +
-    </​ul>​ +
- +
- +
-<p id="​l46">​ +
-The bread is bought by John <​br/>​Subj,​ verb, personal agency] <​br/>​[No articles exist in Latin. Translate from context] <​br/>​ +
-</​p>​ +
-<span id="​head-68b120deb5379c069f79a2f4487570a7e81bd845"><​h4 id="​l49">​5 Cases:</​h4></​span>​ +
- +
-<div class="​wikitable">​ +
-<table border="​1">​ +
-<tr id="​l50">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-Nominative</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-subject &amp; predicate <​em>​Flavius</​em>​ est <​em>​pater</​em></​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-<tr id="​l51">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-Genitive</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-'​of'​ possession Servus <​em>​patris</​em></​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-<tr id="​l52">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-Dative</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-indir. Object '​for'​ '​to'</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-<tr id="​l53">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-Accusative</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-dir object. Avis <​em>​locustam</​em>​ edit</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-<tr id="​l54">​ +
-<td valign="​top">​ +
-Ablative</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-- more complicated <​br>​ +
-Personal agency in passive sentences '​by'​ Puella <​em>​domina</​em>​ amatur.<​br>​ +
-After certain prepositions '​locativus'​ in <​em>​Roma</​em><​br>​ +
-Instrumentality or means, '​by'​ <​em>​cultre pugnare</​em><​br>​ +
-specifying the verb</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-</​table>​ +
-</​div>​ +
-<p id="​l55">​ +
-<a href="/​Latin?​action=Files&​amp;​do=view&​amp;​target=declensions.png"><​img class="​border"​ src="/​Latin?​sendfile=true&​amp;​file=declensions.png"​ alt="​declensions.png"/></​a>​ <​u>​Dative of posession</​u>​ Libro est mihi.  +
-</​p>​ +
-<p id="​l58">​ +
-Verbs - 4 (5) conjugations <​br/>​1st <​strong>​-a-</​strong>​ <​br/>​2nd <​strong>​-e-</​strong>​ long e <​br/>​3rd <​strong>​-e-</​strong>​ short e goes to e or ie <​br/>​4th <​strong>​-i-</​strong>​  +
-<div class="​wikitable">​ +
-<table border="​1">​ +
-<tr id="​l63">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-present</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-sum</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-es</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-est</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-sumus</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-estis</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-sunt</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-<tr id="​l64">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-imperfect</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-eram</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-eras</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-erat</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-eramus</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-eratis</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-erant</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
- +
-</​p>​ +
-</​table>​ +
-</​div>​ +
-<span id="​head-bdc752c9be3af97e684d1ccc96f6f02a311f7cc3"><​h4 id="​l66">​Vocabulary</​h4></​span>​ +
- +
-    <​ul>​ +
- +
-    <​li>​ +
-<p id="​l67">​ +
-<​em>​saeculum,​ saculi</​em>​ n. age, world <​br/>​ +
-</​p>​ +
-</​li>​ +
-    <​li>​ +
-<p id="​l68">​ +
-<​em>​famulus -i</​em>​ m. servant <​br/>​ +
-</​p>​ +
-</​li>​ +
-    <​li>​ +
-<p id="​l69">​ +
-<​em>​numquam</​em>​ adv. never <​br/>​ +
-</​p>​ +
-</​li>​ +
-    <​li>​ +
-<p id="​l70">​ +
-<​em>​quoque</​em>​ also, too <​br/>​ +
-</​p>​ +
-</​li>​ +
-    <​li>​ +
-<p id="​l71">​ +
-<​em>​deleo,​ delere, delevi, deletus</​em>​ wipe out, destroy <​br/>​ +
-</​p>​ +
-</​li>​ +
-    <​li>​ +
-<p id="​l72">​ +
-<​em>​venio,​ venire, veni, ventus</​em>​ come - note the present and perfect are often the same - see context. <​em>​invenio</​em>​ find <​br/>​ +
-</​p>​ +
-</​li>​ +
-    <​li>​ +
-<p id="​l73">​ +
-<​em>​mundus -a -um</​em>​ clean, pure <​em>​imundus -a -um</​em>​ impure // <​em>​mundus,​ -i</​em>​ m. world <​br/>​ +
-</​p>​ +
-</​li>​ +
-    <​li>​ +
-<p id="​l74">​ +
-<​em>​perhibeo,​ perhibere, perhibui, perhibitus</​em>​ hold out, produce, afford. <​br/>​ +
-</​p>​ +
-</​li>​ +
-    <​li>​ +
-<p id="​l75">​ +
-<​em>​video,​ videre, vidi, visus</​em>​ see, realize <​br/>​ +
-</​p>​ +
-</​li>​ +
-    <​li>​ +
-<p id="​l76">​ +
-<​em>​scio,​ scire, scivi, scitus</​em>​ know <​br/>​ +
-</​p>​ +
-</​li>​ +
-    <​li>​ +
-<p id="​l77">​ +
-<​em>​socium,​ socii</​em>​ n. companion, ally <​br/>​ +
-</​p>​ +
-</​li>​ +
-    <​li>​ +
-<p id="​l78">​ +
-<​em>​vestigium,​ vestigii</​em>​ n. footstep <​br/>​ +
-</​p>​ +
-</​li>​ +
-    <​li>​ +
-<p id="​l79">​ +
-<​em>​resulto,​ resultare, resultavi, resultatus</​em>​ resound, rebound <​br/>​ +
-</​p>​ +
-</​li>​ +
-    <​li>​ +
-<p id="​l80">​ +
-<​em>​hostia,​ hostiae</​em>​ sacrificial offering <​br/>​ +
-</​p>​ +
-</​li>​ +
-    <​li>​ +
-<p id="​l81">​ +
-<​em>​valeo,​ valere, valui, valitus</​em>​ be well, be strong, be able (+ inf) <​br/>​ +
-</​p>​ +
-</​li>​ +
-    <​li>​ +
-<p id="​l82">​ +
-<​em>​videor,​ videri, &​mdash;,​ visus sum</​em>​ be seen, seem (+ inf) <​br/>​ +
-</​p>​ +
-</​li>​ +
-    <​li>​ +
-<p id="​l83">​ +
-<​em>​desino,​ desinere, desii, desitus </em> cease (+ inf) <​br/>​ +
-</​p>​ +
-</​li>​ +
-    <​li>​ +
-<p id="​l84">​ +
-<​em>​excipio,​ excipere, excepi, exceptus </em> welcome <​br/>​ +
-</​p>​ +
-</​li>​ +
-    <​li>​ +
-<p id="​l85">​ +
-<​em>​insto,​ instare, institi, &​mdash;</​em>​ urge, threaten (+ dat) <​br/>​ +
-</​p>​ +
-</​li>​ +
-    <​li>​ +
-<p id="​l86">​ +
-<​em>​inhaereo,​ inhaerere, inhaesi, inhaesus </em> cling to, adhere (+ dat) <​br/>​ +
-</​p>​ +
-</​li>​ +
-    <​li>​ +
-<p id="​l87">​ +
-<​em>​deprecatio,​ deprecationis</​em>​ f earnest prayer <​br/>​ +
-</​p>​ +
-</​li>​ +
-    <​li>​ +
-<p id="​l88">​ +
-<​em>​particeps,​ participis </em> m. f. participant <​br/>​ +
-</​p>​ +
-</​li>​ +
-    <​li>​ +
-<p id="​l89">​ +
-<​em>​caligo,​ caliginis </em> f. mist, gloom <​br/>​ +
-</​p>​ +
-</​li>​ +
-    <​li>​ +
-<p id="​l90">​ +
-<​em>​fundo,​ fundere, fudi, fusus </em> pour <​br/>​ +
-</​p>​ +
-</​li>​ +
-    <​li>​ +
-<p id="​l91">​ +
-<​em>​confundo</​em>​ confound, put to shame, in passive, it is be ashamed of (+ acc) <​br/>​ +
-</​p>​ +
-</​li>​ +
-    <​li>​ +
-<p id="​l92">​ +
-<​em>​scando,​ scandere, scandi, scansus </em> climb, mount <​br/>​ +
-</​p>​ +
-</​li>​ +
-    <​li>​ +
-<p id="​l93">​ +
-<​em>​memor </em> mindful of (+ gen) <​br/>​ +
-</​p>​ +
-</​li>​ +
-    <​li>​ +
-<p id="​l94">​ +
-<​em>​intereo,​ interire, interivi, interitus</​em>​ perish, die <​br/>​ +
-</​p>​ +
-</​li>​ +
-    <​li>​ +
-<p id="​l95">​ +
-<​em>​obeo,​ obire, obivi, obitus</​em>​ go to meet, die <​br/>​ +
-</​p>​ +
-</​li>​ +
-    <​li>​ +
-<p id="​l96">​ +
-<​em>​pereo,​ perire, perivi, peritus</​em>​ perish, die, be lost <​br/>​ +
-</​p>​ +
-</​li>​ +
-    <​li>​ +
-<p id="​l97">​ +
-<​em>​adsum,​ adesse, affui, &​mdash;</​em>​ be present <​br/>​ +
-</​p>​ +
-</​li>​ +
-    <​li>​ +
-<p id="​l98">​ +
-<​em>​prosum,​ prodesse, profui, &​mdash;</​em>​ avail, profit, be advantageous to (+ dat) <​br/>​ +
-</​p>​ +
-</​li>​ +
-    <​li>​ +
-<p id="​l99">​ +
-<​em>​incido,​ incidere, incidi </em> fall into, happen <​br/>​ +
-</​p>​ +
-</​li>​ +
-    <​li>​ +
-<p id="​l100">​ +
-<​em>​prex,​ precis </em> f. entreaty, prayer <​br/>​ +
-</​p>​ +
-</​li>​ +
-    <​li>​ +
-<p id="​l101">​ +
-<​em>​precor,​ precari, precatus sum </em> ask, pray beseech (also deprecor...) <​br/>​ +
-</​p>​ +
-</​li>​ +
-    <​li>​ +
-<p id="​l102">​ +
-<​em>​scelus,​ sceleris</​em>​ n. crime, sin <​br/>​ +
-</​p>​ +
-</​li>​ +
-    <​li>​ +
-<p id="​l103">​ +
-<​em>​dignor,​ dignare, &​mdash;,​ dignatus sum</​em>​ consider worthwhile <​em>​dedignor</​em>​ distain <​br/>​ +
-</​p>​ +
-</​li>​ +
-    <​li>​ +
-<p id="​l104">​ +
-<​em>​judico,​ judicare, judicavi, judicatus</​em>​ judge <​em>​dejudico </​em>​discern <​br/>​ +
-</​p>​ +
-</​li>​ +
-    <​li>​ +
-<p id="​l105">​ +
-<​em>​jubeo,​ jubere, jussi, jussus</​em>​ command, request with accusative and infinitive. <​br/>​ +
-</​p>​ +
-</​li>​ +
-    <​li>​ +
-<p id="​l106">​ +
-<​em>​utor,​ uti, &​mdash;,​ usus sum</​em>​ +abl. use, enjoy, be friends with <​br/>​ +
-</​p>​ +
-</​li>​ +
-    <​li>​ +
-<p id="​l107">​ +
-<​em>​antistes,​ antistitis</​em>​ m. bishop <​br/>​ +
-</​p>​ +
-</​li>​ +
-    <​li>​ +
-<p id="​l108">​ +
-<​em>​planctus,​ -us</​em>​ m. mourning <​br/>​ +
-</​p>​ +
-</​li>​ +
-    <​li>​ +
-<p id="​l109">​ +
-<​em>​tueor,​ tueri, &​mdash;,​ tuitus sum</​em>​ watch, protect, uphold <​br/>​ +
-</​p>​ +
-</​li>​ +
-    <​li>​ +
-<p id="​l110">​ +
-<​em>​labor,​ labi, &​mdash;,​ lapsus sum</​em>​ slide, fall (backslide) <​br/>​ +
-</​p>​ +
-</​li>​ +
-    <​li>​ +
-<p id="​l111">​ +
-<​em>​talis,​ tale</​em>​ such, of such a sort <​br/>​ +
-</​p>​ +
-</​li>​ +
-    <​li>​ +
-<p id="​l112">​ +
-<​em>​tantus,​ -a, -um</​em>​ so much, so great <​br/>​ +
-</​p>​ +
-</​li>​ +
-    <​li>​ +
-<p id="​l113">​ +
-<​em>​cano,​ canere, cecini, cantus</​em>​ Sing prophesy <​br/>​ +
-</​p>​ +
-</​li>​ +
-    <​li>​ +
-<p id="​l114">​ +
-<​em>​accendo,​ accendere, accendi, accensus</​em>​ kindle, set on fire. <​br/>​ +
-</​p>​ +
-</​li>​ +
-    <​li>​ +
-<p id="​l115">​ +
-<​em>​consors,​ consortis, consortium</​em>​ sharer <​br/>​ +
-</​p>​ +
-</​li>​ +
-    <​li>​ +
-<p id="​l116">​ +
-<​em>​praestolor,​ praestolari,​ &​mdash;,​ praestolatus sum</​em>​ +dat. wait for, perform <​br/>​ +
-</​p>​ +
-</​li>​ +
-    <​li>​ +
-<p id="​l117">​ +
-<​em>​fateor,​ fateri, &​mdash;,​ fassus sum</​em>​ admit, confess + acc. praise +dat. <​br/>​ +
-</​p>​ +
-</​li>​ +
-    <​li>​ +
-<p id="​l118">​ +
-<​em>​pasco,​ pascere, pavi, pastus</​em>​ feed <​br/>​ +
-</​p>​ +
-</​li>​ +
-    <​li>​ +
-<p id="​l119">​ +
-<​em>​statuo,​ statuere, statui, statutus</​em>​ establish, appoint, determine <​br/>​ +
-</​p>​ +
-</​li>​ +
-    <​li>​ +
-<p id="​l120">​ +
-<​em>​ardeo,​ ardere, arsi, arsus</​em>​ burn <​br/>​ +
-</​p>​ +
-</​li>​ +
-    <​li>​ +
-<p id="​l121">​ +
-<​em>​inficio,​ inficere, infeci, infectus</​em>​ infect, polute <​br/>​ +
-</​p>​ +
-</​li>​ +
-    <​li>​ +
-<p id="​l122">​ +
-<​em>​proficio,​ proficere, profeci, profectus</​em>​ avail, prevail <​br/>​ +
-</​p>​ +
-</​li>​ +
-    <​li>​ +
-<p id="​l123">​ +
-<​em>​reficio,​ reficere, refeci, refectus</​em>​ refresh, repair <​br/>​ +
-</​p>​ +
-</​li>​ +
-    <​li>​ +
-<p id="​l124">​ +
-<​em>​existimo,​ existimare, existimavi, existimatus</​em>​ think, judge <​br/>​ +
-</​p>​ +
-</​li>​ +
-    <​li>​ +
-<p id="​l125">​ +
-<​em>​liquo,​ liquare, liquavi, liquatus</​em>​ melt <​br/>​ +
-</​p>​ +
-</​li>​ +
-    <​li>​ +
-<p id="​l126">​ +
-<​em>​illucesco,​ illucescere,​ illuxi</​em>​ shine (upon), become light. <​br/>​ +
-</​p>​ +
-</​li>​ +
-    <​li>​ +
-<p id="​l127">​ +
-<​em>​adpropinquo,​ -are, -avi, -atus</​em>​ draw near (+dat)  +
-</​p>​ +
-</​li>​ +
- +
-    </​ul>​ +
- +
- +
-<span id="​head-bb2dc66edb98e9345dd5bf6326f434d3031e1bb3"><​h4 id="​l129">​Conjunctions,​ Prepositions and Adverbs</​h4></​span>​ +
-<p id="​l130">​ +
-<a class="​external"​ href="​http://​en.wikibooks.org/​wiki/​Latin/​Lesson_4-Adverbs_and_Prepositions"><​img class="​borderless"​ src="​http://​wikispot.org/​wiki/​eggheadbeta/​img/​sycamore-www.png"​ alt="​[WWW]"​ height="​7"​ width="​13">​Adverbs,​ Conjunctions and Prepositions (resource)</​a>​ <​br/>​Conjunctions are indeclinable particles that join clauses together to form sentences. Examples of forms of conjunctions in English are: and, but and so. Conjunctions are either coordinating (joining two main clauses) or subordinating (joing a subclause to a main clause). <​br/><​strong>​Coordinating Conjunctions </​strong>​ <​br/><​em>​atque</​em>​ and <​br/><​em>​aut</​em>​ or <​br/><​em>​aut...aut</​em>​ either...or <​br/><​em>​autem</​em>​ but, and - depends on context, may not need to be translated <​br/><​em>​enim</​em>​ (usually placed second in sentence) for <​br/><​em>​ergo</​em>​ and so, therefore <​br/><​em>​et</​em>​ and <​br/><​em>​et...et</​em>​ both...and <​br/><​em>​igitur</​em>​ therefore <​br/><​em>​itaque</​em>​ and so <​br/><​em>​nam</​em>​ for <​br/><​em>​nec/​necque</​em>​ and not, nor <​br/><​em>​nec/​necque...nec/​necque</​em>​ neither...nor <​br/><​em>​prout</​em>​ according as <​br/><​em>​quam</​em>​ than (adv: how, how much) <​br/><​em>​quapropter</​em>​ wherefore, therefore <​br/><​em>​-que</​em>​* and <​br/><​em>​sed</​em>​ but <​br/><​em>​tamen</​em>​ (usually placed second in a sentence) however <​br/><​em>​vel</​em>​ or (if you prefer) <​br/><​strong>​Subordinating Conjunctions</​strong>​ <​br/><​em>​antequam</​em>​ before, <​br/><​em>​cum</​em>​ when, after + ind.; under the circumstances,​ although, since + subj. <​br/><​em>​donec</​em>​ while, as long as, till <​br/><​em>​dum</​em>​ while, for the time <​br/><​em>​etsi</​em>​ although, even, if <​br/><​em>​licet</​em>​although (with indicative or subjunctive) - properly a verb <​br/><​em>​ne</​em>​ in order that ... not, that ... not, introducing negative purpose, or direct command, with subj. <​br/><​em>​nisi</​em>​ unless, except <​br/><​em>​quamquam</​em>​ however <​br/><​em>​quia,​ quod, quoniam</​em>​ because - sometimes <​em>​eo quod</​em>​ <​br/><​em>​priusquam</​em>​ before (with indicative or subjunctive) <​br/><​em>​si</​em>​ if <​br/><​em>​sive,​ seu</​em>​ or if, <​em>​sive...sive</​em>​ if ... or if, whether ... or. <​br/><​em>​simul ac</​em>​ as soon as <​br/><​em>​ubi</​em>​ when, as soon as, (where - adverb) <​br/><​em>​ut</​em>​ when, as/with result clauses: in order to, so, to, that, introducing negative purpose, or direct command, with subj. (with postulo, rogo, peto, oro, precor, moneo + subjunctive or acc. + inf; or dico ut + subjunctive) <​br/><​em>​utinam</​em>​ as/with result clauses: in order to, so, to <​br/><​em>​postquam</​em>​ after, <​em>​postquam puerum vidit</​em>​  +
-</​p>​ +
-<p id="​l173">​ +
-<​strong>​Prepositions</​strong>​  +
-<div class="​wikitable">​ +
-<table border="​1">​ +
-<tr id="​l174">​ +
-<td colspan="​2"​ align="​center">​ +
- With the <​u>​accusative</​u>​ case: </​td>​ +
-<td colspan="​2"​ align="​center">​ +
-With the <​u>​ablative</​u>​ case</​td>​ +
-<td colspan="​2"​ align="​center">​ +
-With <​u>​genitive</​u>​ </​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-<tr id="​l175">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-<​em>​ad </​em></​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-to </​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-<​em>​a/​ab</​em></​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-from</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-<​em>​causa</​em></​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-  improper preposition for the sake of, by reason of</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-<tr id="​l176">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-<​em>​adversu -s/-m </​em></​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-opposite </​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
- </​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
- </​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-<​em>​gratia</​em>​ </​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
- </​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-<tr id="​l177">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-<​em>​ante</​em></​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-before </​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-<​em>​cum</​em></​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
- ​with</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-<​em>​vice</​em>​ </​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
- </​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-<tr id="​l178">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-<​em>​apud </​em></​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-among, at the house of<​em></​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-</​em>​de<​em></​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-of, concerning</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
- </​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
- </​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-<tr id="​l179">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-</​em>​circa<​em></​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-around</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
- </​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
- </​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
- </​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
- </​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-<tr id="​l180">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-</​em>​cis<​em></​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-before</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
- </​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
- </​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
- </​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
- </​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-<tr id="​l181">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-</​em>​circum<​em></​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-around </​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-</​em>​e/​ex<​em></​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-from, out of</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
- </​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
- </​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-<tr id="​l182">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-</​em>​contra<​em></​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-against </​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-</​em>​coram<​em></​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-in the presence of </​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
- </​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
- </​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-<tr id="​l183">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-</​em>​extra<​em></​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-beyond, outside </​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
- </​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
- </​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
- </​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
- </​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-<tr id="​l184">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-</​em>​in<​em></​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-into </​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-</​em>​in<​em></​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-in </​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
- </​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
- </​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-<tr id="​l185">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-</​em>​inter<​em></​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-between, among </​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
- </​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
- </​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
- </​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
- </​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-<tr id="​l186">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-</​em>​intra<​em></​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-within, among </​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
- </​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
- </​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
- </​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
- </​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-<tr id="​l187">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-</​em>​iuxta<​em></​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-beside</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
- </​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
- </​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
- </​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
- </​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-<tr id="​l188">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-</​em>​ob <​em></​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-because of</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
- </​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
- </​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
- </​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
- </​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-<tr id="​l189">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-</​em>​per<​em></​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-through </​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-</​em>​prae<​em></​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
- ​before,​ in preference to, comparison with, consequence of, </​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
- </​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
- </​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-<tr id="​l190">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-</​em>​post,​ pone<​em></​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-behind, after </​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-</​em>​pro<​em>​ </​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
- on behalf of, in front of, according to</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
- </​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
- </​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-<tr id="​l191">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-</​em>​prope<​em></​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-near </​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-</​em>​palam<​em></​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-in the presense of</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
- </​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
- </​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-<tr id="​l192">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-</​em>​propter<​em></​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-near </​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-</​em>​sine<​em></​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-without</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
- </​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
- </​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-<tr id="​l193">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-</​em>​praeter<​em></​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-beyond</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
- </​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
- </​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
- </​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
- </​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-<tr id="​l194">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-</​em>​secundum<​em></​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-according to </​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-</​em>​sub<​em></​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-under</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
- </​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
- </​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-<tr id="​l195">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-</​em>​secus<​em></​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-beside</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
- </​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
- </​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
- </​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
- </​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-<tr id="​l196">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-</​em>​super<​em></​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
- upon, over, above </​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-</​em>​super<​em></​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-concerning, about, above</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
- </​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
- </​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-<tr id="​l197">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-</​em>​trans<​em></​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-across </​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
- </​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
- </​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
- </​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
- </​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-<tr id="​l198">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-</​em>​usque<​em></​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-up to</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
- </​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
- </​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
- </​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
- </​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
- +
-</​p>​ +
-</​table>​ +
-</​div>​ +
-<p id="​l200">​ +
-<​strong>​Adverbs</​strong>​ <​br/>​ +
-</​p>​ +
- +
-    <​ul>​ +
- +
-    <​li>​ +
-<p id="​l201">​ +
-</​em>​adhunc<​em>​ so far <​br/>​ +
-</​p>​ +
-</​li>​ +
-    <​li>​ +
-<p id="​l202">​ +
-</​em>​confestim<​em>​ immediately <​br/>​ +
-</​p>​ +
-</​li>​ +
-    <​li>​ +
-<p id="​l203">​ +
-</​em>​deinde<​em>​ then, next <​br/>​ +
-</​p>​ +
-</​li>​ +
-    <​li>​ +
-<p id="​l204">​ +
-</​em>​donec,​ dum<​em>​ while, as long as <​br/>​ +
-</​p>​ +
-</​li>​ +
-    <​li>​ +
-<p id="​l205">​ +
-</​em>​etiam<​em>​ even also (intensifying) <​br/>​ +
-</​p>​ +
-</​li>​ +
-    <​li>​ +
-<p id="​l206">​ +
-</​em>​forsitan<​em>​ perhaps <​br/>​ +
-</​p>​ +
-</​li>​ +
-    <​li>​ +
-<p id="​l207">​ +
-</​em>​hinc<​em>​ from here <​br/>​ +
-</​p>​ +
-</​li>​ +
-    <​li>​ +
-<p id="​l208">​ +
-</​em>​iam<​em>​ already <​br/>​ +
-</​p>​ +
-</​li>​ +
-    <​li>​ +
-<p id="​l209">​ +
-</​em>​ideo<​em>​ therefore, on that account <​br/>​ +
-</​p>​ +
-</​li>​ +
-    <​li>​ +
-<p id="​l210">​ +
-</​em>​inde<​em>​ from there, from then <​br/>​ +
-</​p>​ +
-</​li>​ +
-    <​li>​ +
-<p id="​l211">​ +
-</​em>​invicem<​em>​ in turn; as reflecive pronoun: one another. <​br/>​ +
-</​p>​ +
-</​li>​ +
-    <​li>​ +
-<p id="​l212">​ +
-</​em>​ita<​em>​ so, thus, with adverbs, adjectives and verbs. <​br/>​ +
-</​p>​ +
-</​li>​ +
-    <​li>​ +
-<p id="​l213">​ +
-</​em>​itaque<​em>​ therefore <​br/>​ +
-</​p>​ +
-</​li>​ +
-    <​li>​ +
-<p id="​l214">​ +
-</​em>​jam<​em>​ already (with past), now (with present), soon (with future) <​br/>​ +
-</​p>​ +
-</​li>​ +
-    <​li>​ +
-<p id="​l215">​ +
-</​em>​mox<​em>​ presently <​br/>​ +
-</​p>​ +
-</​li>​ +
-    <​li>​ +
-<p id="​l216">​ +
-</​em>​nimis<​em>​ too, too much <​br/>​ +
-</​p>​ +
-</​li>​ +
-    <​li>​ +
-<p id="​l217">​ +
-</​em>​nondum<​em>​ not yet <​br/>​ +
-</​p>​ +
-</​li>​ +
-    <​li>​ +
-<p id="​l218">​ +
-</​em>​nonne<​em>​ introduces question expecting yes <​br/>​ +
-</​p>​ +
-</​li>​ +
-    <​li>​ +
-<p id="​l219">​ +
-</​em>​numquid<​em>​ introduces question expecting no <​br/>​ +
-</​p>​ +
-</​li>​ +
-    <​li>​ +
-<p id="​l220">​ +
-</​em>​palam<​em>​ openly <​br/>​ +
-</​p>​ +
-</​li>​ +
-    <​li>​ +
-<p id="​l221">​ +
-</​em>​postea<​em>​ afterward <​br/>​ +
-</​p>​ +
-</​li>​ +
-    <​li>​ +
-<p id="​l222">​ +
-</​em>​quam<​em>​ how, how much (conj: than) <​br/>​ +
-</​p>​ +
-</​li>​ +
-    <​li>​ +
-<p id="​l223">​ +
-</​em>​quando <em> when? <​br/>​ +
-</​p>​ +
-</​li>​ +
-    <​li>​ +
-<p id="​l224">​ +
-</​em>​quare<​em>​ why <​br/>​ +
-</​p>​ +
-</​li>​ +
-    <​li>​ +
-<p id="​l225">​ +
-</​em>​quemadmodo<​em>​ how? just as <​br/>​ +
-</​p>​ +
-</​li>​ +
-    <​li>​ +
-<p id="​l226">​ +
-</​em>​quid<​em>​ why? how? </​em>​ut quid<​em>​ <​br/>​ +
-</​p>​ +
-</​li>​ +
-    <​li>​ +
-<p id="​l227">​ +
-</​em>​quidem<​em>​ indeed, at any rate <​br/>​ +
-</​p>​ +
-</​li>​ +
-    <​li>​ +
-<p id="​l228">​ +
-</​em>​quo<​em>​ to where (?) <​br/>​ +
-</​p>​ +
-</​li>​ +
-    <​li>​ +
-<p id="​l229">​ +
-</​em>​quomodo<​em>​ how? <​br/>​ +
-</​p>​ +
-</​li>​ +
-    <​li>​ +
-<p id="​l230">​ +
-</​em>​sic<​em>​ so, thus, with verbs only <​br/>​ +
-</​p>​ +
-</​li>​ +
-    <​li>​ +
-<p id="​l231">​ +
-</​em>​sicut<​em>​ like, as <​br/>​ +
-</​p>​ +
-</​li>​ +
-    <​li>​ +
-<p id="​l232">​ +
-</​em>​simul<​em>​ together, atthe same time <​br/>​ +
-</​p>​ +
-</​li>​ +
-    <​li>​ +
-<p id="​l233">​ +
-</​em>​sursum<​em>​ upward <​br/>​ +
-</​p>​ +
-</​li>​ +
-    <​li>​ +
-<p id="​l234">​ +
-</​em>​talis<​em>​ such <​br/>​ +
-</​p>​ +
-</​li>​ +
-    <​li>​ +
-<p id="​l235">​ +
-</​em>​tam<​em>​ so, to such a degree, with adverbs and adjectives only <​br/>​ +
-</​p>​ +
-</​li>​ +
-    <​li>​ +
-<p id="​l236">​ +
-</​em>​tamen<​em>​ nevertheless <​br/>​ +
-</​p>​ +
-</​li>​ +
-    <​li>​ +
-<p id="​l237">​ +
-</​em>​tantum<​em>​ only <​br/>​ +
-</​p>​ +
-</​li>​ +
-    <​li>​ +
-<p id="​l238">​ +
-</​em>​tum<​em>​ then <​br/>​ +
-</​p>​ +
-</​li>​ +
-    <​li>​ +
-<p id="​l239">​ +
-</​em>​tunc<​em>​ then <​br/>​ +
-</​p>​ +
-</​li>​ +
-    <​li>​ +
-<p id="​l240">​ +
-</​em>​ultro<​em>​ on the other side, besides <​br/>​ +
-</​p>​ +
-</​li>​ +
-    <​li>​ +
-<p id="​l241">​ +
-</​em>​unde<​em>​ from where <​br/>​ +
-</​p>​ +
-</​li>​ +
-    <​li>​ +
-<p id="​l242">​ +
-</​em>​usque <em> as far as, all the way <​br/>​ +
-</​p>​ +
-</​li>​ +
-    <​li>​ +
-<p id="​l243">​ +
-</​em>​utinam<​em>​ if only <​br/>​ +
-</​p>​ +
-</​li>​ +
-    <​li>​ +
-<p id="​l244">​ +
-</​em>​utique<​em>​ certainly, at any rate <​br/>​ +
-</​p>​ +
-</​li>​ +
-    <​li>​ +
-<p id="​l245">​ +
-</​em>​valdo<​em>​ very <​br/>​ +
-</​p>​ +
-</​li>​ +
-    <​li>​ +
-<p id="​l246">​ +
-</​em>​velut<​em>​ just as, as if <​br/>​ +
-</​p>​ +
-</​li>​ +
-    <​li>​ +
-<p id="​l247">​ +
-</​em>​vero<​em>​ truly <​br/>​ +
-</​p>​ +
-</​li>​ +
- +
-    </​ul>​ +
- +
- +
-<p id="​l248">​ +
-Some Adverbs of Time: <​br/>​iam pridem long ago <​br/>​primum first <​br/>​postremo finally <​br/>​postquam as soon as <​br/>​numquam never <​br/>​saepe often <​br/>​cotidie every day <​br/>​nondum not yet <​br/>​crebro frequently <​br/>​pridie the day before <​br/>​umqam ever <​br/>​denique at last  +
-</​p>​ +
-<p id="​l262">​ +
-Adverbs of Place: <​br/>​hic here <​br/>​huc hither <​br/>​hinc from here <​br/>​ibi there <​br/>​eo thither, to there <​br/>​illic there <​br/>​quo whither <​br/>​unde whence <​br/>​ubi where <​br/>​undique from everywhere <​br/>​ibidem in the same place <​br/>​eodem to the same place <​br/>​quovis anywhere <​br/>​usque all the way to <​br/>​intro inwardly <​br/>​nusquam nowhere <​br/>​porro further on <​br/>​citro to this side  +
-</​p>​ +
-<p id="​l282">​ +
-Adverbs of Manner, Degree, or Cause: <​br/>​quam how, as <​br/>​tam so <​br/>​quamvis however much <​br/>​magis more <​br/>​paene almost <​br/>​valde greatly <​br/>​cur why <​br/>​quare why <​br/>​ergo therefore <​br/>​propterea because, on this account <​br/>​ita so <​br/>​sic so <​br/>​ut as, how <​br/>​vix hardly  +
-</​p>​ +
-<p id="​l298">​ +
-Interrogative Particles: <​br/>​whether:​ an, -ne, utrum, utrumne, num <​br/>​whether not nonne, annon <​br/>​whether at all numquid, ecquid <​br/>​Negative Particles: <​br/>​not non, haud, minime, ne, nec <​br/>​lest ne <​br/>​nor neque, nec <​br/>​not only ... but also non modo ... verum/sed etiam <​br/>​not only not ... but not even non modo ... sed ne ... quidem <​br/>​not even ne ... quidem <​br/>​if not si minus <​br/>​so as not quo minus, quominus <​br/>​why not? quin <​br/>​ +
-</​p>​ +
-====Latin in the Code==== +
-<p id="​l313">​ +
-This chart gives all the words that occur in the Code more than 100 times, the English translation,​ then parses the term. Knowing these words cold will help your reading of the code.  +
-<div class="​wikitable">​ +
-<table border="​1">​ +
-<tr id="​l314">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-Times in Code</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-Latin</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-English</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-Grammar</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-<tr id="​l315">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-2139</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-in</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-in</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-prep with acc or abl</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-<tr id="​l316">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-1797</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-et</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-and</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-conj</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-<tr id="​l317">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-1449</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-ad</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-to</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-prep + acc</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-<tr id="​l318">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-1132</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-de</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-of</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-prep + abl</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-<tr id="​l319">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-1019</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-vel</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-or</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-ADV: even, actually; or even, in deed; CONJ or;</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-<tr id="​l320">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-718</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-aut</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-or</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-conj</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-<tr id="​l321">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-682</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-si</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-if</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-subordinating conj</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-<tr id="​l322">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-663</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-qui</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-which, that</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-n.s or n.p pronoun anyone, anything: qui, quae, quod</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-<tr id="​l323">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-589</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-est</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-is</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-3s pai</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-<tr id="​l324">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-586</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-non</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-not</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-<tr id="​l325">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-555</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-a</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-from, by</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-prep, ablative</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-<tr id="​l326">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-549</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-ut</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-to / that</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-conj + subj</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-<tr id="​l327">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-536</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-quae</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-which, that</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-n.s or n.p or acc.p pronoun anyone, anything: qui, quae, quod</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-<tr id="​l328">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-518</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-ab</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-from, by</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-prep + abl</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-<tr id="​l329">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-467</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-nisi</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-unless</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-conj</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-<tr id="​l330">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-453</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-potest</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-it can</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-3s pai</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-<tr id="​l331">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-316</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-cum</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-with; when</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-prep + abl; or adverb: when</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-<tr id="​l332">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-314</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-per</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-through, by</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-prep + acc</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-<tr id="​l333">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-313</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-sit</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-it would be</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-3s pas</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-<tr id="​l334">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-309</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-ex</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-from</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-prep + abl</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-<tr id="​l335">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-286</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-etiam</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-also</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-conj</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-<tr id="​l336">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-274</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-sive</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-or if, or</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-conj</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-<tr id="​l337">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-273</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-quibus</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-which, that</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-dat/abl.p pronoun anyone, anything: qui, quae, quod</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-<tr id="​l338">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-272</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-iure</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-by right</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-adv</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-<tr id="​l339">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-268</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-normam</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-standard</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-acc.s</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-<tr id="​l340">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-254</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-ecclesiae</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-church</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-gen.s. dat.s, nom.p</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-<tr id="​l341">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-253</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-sunt</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-they are</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-3p pai</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-<tr id="​l342">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-250</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-pro</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-for</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-prep + abl</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-<tr id="​l343">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-239</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-quo</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-which, that</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-abl.s pronoun anyone, anything: qui, quae, quod</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-<tr id="​l344">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-233</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-atque</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-and</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-conj</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-<tr id="​l345">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-218</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-iuris</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-law, right</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-gen.s</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-<tr id="​l346">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-215</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-episcopus</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-bishop</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-n.s</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-<tr id="​l347">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-211</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-quod</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-which, that</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-nom/acc.s pronoun anyone, anything: qui, quae, quod</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-<tr id="​l348">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-179</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-loci</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-place</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-gen.s nom.p</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-<tr id="​l349">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-177</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-causa</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-cause, case / because</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-n.s abl.s / prep + abl (false prep)</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-<tr id="​l350">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-175</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-ecclesia</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-church</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-n.s abl.s </​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-<tr id="​l351">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-170</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-episcoporum</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-bishop</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-gen.p</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-<tr id="​l352">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-169</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-debet</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-owe, ought</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-3s pai</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-<tr id="​l353">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-167</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-episcopo</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-bishop</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-dat.s abl.s</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-<tr id="​l354">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-166</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-possunt</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-they can</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-3p pai</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-<tr id="​l355">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-161</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-tamen</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-yet, still</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-adv</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-<tr id="​l356">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-151</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-ius</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-law</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-n.s, acc.s</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-<tr id="​l357">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-150</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-episcopi</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-bishops</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-n.p, gen.s</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-<tr id="​l358">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-147</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-iudex</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-judge</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-n.s</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-<tr id="​l359">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-147</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-se</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-itself</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-abl acc pronoun</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-<tr id="​l360">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-146</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-ne</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-lest / not</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-conj + imp / adv</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-<tr id="​l361">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-143</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-qua</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-which, that</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-nom/acc.s nom/acc.p pronoun anyone, anything: qui, quae, quod</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-<tr id="​l362">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-140</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-autem</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-but</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-conj</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-<tr id="​l363">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-140</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-sint</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-they would be</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-3p pas</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-<tr id="​l364">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-135</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-caput</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-chapter</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-n</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-<tr id="​l365">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-135</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-vitae</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-life</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-n</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-<tr id="​l366">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-134</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-instituti</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-institute</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-n</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-<tr id="​l367">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-128</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-necnon</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-nor</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-adv</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-<tr id="​l368">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-127</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-id</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-he, she, it, that</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-pron n.s, acc.s</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-<tr id="​l369">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-125</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-aliud</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-other</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-adj n.s, acc.s</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-<tr id="​l370">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-116</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-eius</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-he, she, it, that</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-pron g.s</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-<tr id="​l371">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-115</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-diocesano</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-diocesan</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-adj</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-<tr id="​l372">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-115</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-saltem</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-at least</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-adv</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-<tr id="​l373">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-114</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-ac</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-and</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-conj</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-<tr id="​l374">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-114</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-intra</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-within</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-prep + acc, adv</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-<tr id="​l375">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-114</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-tantum</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-so much, only </​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-adv, adj</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-<tr id="​l376">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-112</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-eadem</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-same, same time / way</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-adv, adj</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-<tr id="​l377">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-112</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-vero</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-truly, really, truth</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-adv</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-<tr id="​l378">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-111</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-auctoritate</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-authority</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-n</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-<tr id="​l379">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-110</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-fuerit</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-will, would have been</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-perf as; futp ai</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-<tr id="​l380">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-109</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-ipso</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-himself</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-abl.s</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-<tr id="​l381">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-109</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-legitime</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-lawful</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-adv, adj</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-<tr id="​l382">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-108</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-dioecesanus</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-diocesan</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-adj</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-<tr id="​l383">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-107</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-apostolicae</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-apostolic</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-adj</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-<tr id="​l384">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-105</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-dioecesani</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-diocesan</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-adj</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-<tr id="​l385">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-105</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-quam</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-which, that</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-acc.s pronoun anyone, anything: qui, quae, quod</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-<tr id="​l386">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-103</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-inter</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-between, during</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-prep + acc</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-<tr id="​l387">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-102</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-omnes</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-all</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-adj</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-<tr id="​l388">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-101</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-sibi</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-he, she, it, that</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-pron dative</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-</​table>​ +
-</​div>​ +
- +
-</​p>​ +
-====Collins Ecclesiastical Latin====+
 ===Unit 4 - Adjectival declensions=== ===Unit 4 - Adjectival declensions===
 +|Nom.   ​|bona ​  ​|bonus ​  ​|bonum ​ |
 +|Gen.   ​|bonae ​  ​|boni ​ |boni  |
 +|Dat.   ​|bonae ​  ​|bono ​ |bono  |
 +|Acc.  |bonam ​  ​|bonum ​  ​|bonum ​ |
 +|Abl.  | bona  |bono  |bono  |
 +|Voc.   ​|bona ​  ​|bone ​  ​|bonum ​ |
 +|Nom.  |bonae ​ |boni  |bona  |
 +|Gen.  |bonarum ​ |bonorum ​ |bonorum ​ |
 +|Dat.  |bonis ​ |bonis ​ |bonis ​ |
 +|Acc.  |bonas ​ |bonos ​ |bona  |
 +|Abl.  |bonis ​ |bonis ​ |bonis ​ |
  
-    <ul>+  * Nominative sing and pleural always the same in all declensions in neuter. 
 +  * You can tell from the dictionary the gender - context may be misleading. 
 +  * Petrus erat bonus -Peter was good - copula takes same case, gender, number 
 +  * Petrus erat bonus papa. Peter erat bonus agricola. Check the dictionary. 
 +  * Papa - father, teacher, bishop, pope. Then in 5th C became reserved for bishop of Rome. At that time pope got more political power as other political powers collapsed. 
 +  * Brevitas is a virtue in Latin. Gravitas. Plautus - only latin humorist. Brevitas atque Gravitas. Latin like mathmatics. Can't make mistakes against Latin. Up to the middle ages, the personal pronouns were seldom used. With the coming of the middle ages came national languages. Thus latin wasn't known. Erasmus destroyed latin as official political language by desire to reestablishing the 'good old days'. Older latin was more difficult thus the study was impeded. Same is true for greek. 
 +  * Royal Chair for Exegesis was founded by Charles V - 1560 - this is a proof that Catholics considered the study of the bible impt. 1548 first complete dutch Nikolaus van Winghe - by a leuven professor. But it was so colloquial that in five years it was revived. KUL also promoted lay reading of the bible, though there was debate.
  
 +**Order of translation:​ Subject, Verb, Direct Object always in the accusative, Indirect, etc.** ​
  
-<div class="​wikitable">​ +===Unit 5 Verbs===
-<table border="​1">​ +
- <​tr id="​l391">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-Nom. </​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-bona </​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-bonus </​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-bonum</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
- <​tr id="​l392">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-Gen. </​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-bonae </​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-boni</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-boni</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
- <​tr id="​l393">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-Dat. </​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-bonae </​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-bono</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-bono</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
- <​tr id="​l394">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-Acc.</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-bonam </​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-bonum </​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-bonum</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
- <​tr id="​l395">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-Abl.</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
- ​bona</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-bono</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-bono</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
- <​tr id="​l396">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-Voc. </​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-bona </​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-bone </​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-bonum</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
- <​tr id="​l397">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-Nom.</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-bonae</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-boni</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-bona</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
- <​tr id="​l398">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-Gen.</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-bonarum</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-bonorum</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-bonorum</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
- <​tr id="​l399">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-Dat.</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-bonis</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-bonis</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-bonis</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
- <​tr id="​l400">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-Acc.</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-bonas</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-bonos</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-bona</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
- <​tr id="​l401">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-Abl.</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-bonis</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-bonis</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-bonis</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-</​table>​ +
-</​div>​ +
-    <li class="​gap">​ +
-<p id="​l403">​ +
-Nominative sing and pleural always the same in all declensions in neuter. <​br/>​ +
-</​p>​ +
-</​li>​ +
-    <​li>​ +
-<p id="​l404">​ +
-You can tell from the dictionary the gender ​context may be misleading. <​br/>​ +
-</​p>​ +
-</​li>​ +
-    <​li>​ +
-<p id="​l405">​ +
-Petrus erat bonus -Peter was good - copula takes same case, gender, number <​br/>​ +
-</​p>​ +
-</​li>​ +
-    <​li>​ +
-<p id="​l406">​ +
-Petrus erat bonus papa. Peter erat bonus agricola. Check the dictionary. <​br/>​ +
-</​p>​ +
-</​li>​ +
-    <​li>​ +
-<p id="​l407">​ +
-Papa - father, teacher, bishop, pope. Then in 5<​sup>​th</​sup>​ C became reserved for bishop of Rome. At that time pope got more political power as other political powers collapsed. <​br/>​ +
-</​p>​ +
-</​li>​ +
-    <​li>​ +
-<p id="​l408">​ +
-Brevitas is a virtue in Latin. Gravitas. Plautus - only latin humorist. Brevitas atque Gravitas. Latin like mathmatics. Can't make mistakes against Latin. Up to the middle ages, the personal pronouns were seldom used. With the coming of the middle ages came national languages. Thus latin wasn't known. Erasmus destroyed latin as official political language by desire to reestablishing the 'good old days'. Older latin was more difficult thus the study was impeded. Same is true for greek. <​br/>​ +
-</​p>​ +
-</​li>​ +
-    <​li>​ +
-<p id="​l409">​ +
-Royal Chair for Exegesis was founded by Charles V - 1560 - this is a proof that Catholics considered the study of the bible impt. 1548 first complete dutch Nikolaus van Winghe - by a leuven professor. But it was so colloquial that in five years it was revived. KUL also promoted lay reading of the bible, though there was debate. <​br/>​ +
-</​p>​ +
-</li>+
  
-    </ul> 
- 
- 
-<p id="​l410">​ 
-<​strong>​Order of translation:​ Subject, Verb, Direct Object always in the accusative, Indirect, etc.</​strong> ​ 
-</p> 
-===Unit 5 - Verbs=== 
-<p id="​l413">​ 
 Amo - present indicative active first person singular - amare 1<​sup>​st</​sup>​ conjugation ​ Amo - present indicative active first person singular - amare 1<​sup>​st</​sup>​ conjugation ​
-</p> 
  
-    <ul>+|  |Tense ​  ​||Mood ​ |Voice ​ |Person ​ |Number ​ | 
 +|Amo  |Present ​ |I love  |Indicative ​ |Active ​ |1st  |Singular ​ | 
 +|   ​|Imperfect ​ |I love  |Subjunctive ​ |Passive ​ |2nd  |Plural ​ | 
 +|   ​|Future ​ |I will love  |Imperative Love!  |(Medial - in gk)  |3rd  |.  | 
 +|   ​|Perfect ​ |I loved   ​||||| 
 +|   ​|Pluperfect ​ |I had loved  ||||| 
 +|   ​|Future perfect ​ |I will have loved  |||||
  
 +Participle - present, past, future, active and passive
 +  * Amare &lt; Ama - re
 +  * Ama-o but the o is strong and it contracts with a so that ao = o so amo.
 +  * Amo, amare, amavi, amatus -
 +  * Amavi gives you perfect tenses p, pp, fp. If there is  **u**, ​ **v** or **x** think perfect.
 +  * Amatus gives you passive perfect tenses ​
  
-<div class="​wikitable">​ +|   ​| ​  | Aspect ​ ||| 
-<table border="​1">​ +|   ​| ​  ​|Simple ​ |Progressive ​ |Completed ​ | 
- <​tr id="​l414">​ +|Time  |Present ​ ​|Video ​ |Video ​ |Vidi  | 
-<​td>​ +|  |   |see  |am seeing ​ |have seen  | 
- </​td>​ +|   ​| ​  ​|Present ​ |Present ​ |Perfect ​ | 
-<td colspan="​2"​ align="​center">​ +|   ​|Past ​ |Vidi  |Videbam ​ |Videram ​ | 
-Tense </​td>​ +|   ​| ​  |saw  |I was seeing ​ |I had seen  | 
-<​td>​ +|   ​| ​  |perfect ​ ​|imperfect ​ |pluperfect ​ | 
-Mood</​td>​ +|   ​|future ​ |videbo ​ |videbo ​ |videro ​ | 
-<​td>​ +|   ​| ​  | I will see  |I will be seeing ​ |I will have seen  | 
-Voice</​td>​ +|   ​| ​  ​|future ​ |future ​ |future perfect ​ |
-<​td>​ +
-Person</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-Number</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
- <​tr id="​l415">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-Amo</​td>​ +
-<td> +
-Present</​td>​ +
-<td> +
-love</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-Indicative</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-Active</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-1st</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-Singular</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
- <​tr id="​l416">​ +
-<​td>​ +
- </​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-Imperfect</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-love</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-Subjunctive</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-Passive</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-2nd</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-Plural</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
- <​tr id="​l417">​ +
-<​td>​ +
- </​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-Future</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-will love</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-Imperative Love!</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-(Medial - in gk)</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-3rd</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-.</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
- <​tr id="​l418">​ +
-<​td>​ +
- </​td>​ +
-<td> +
-Perfect</td> +
-<td> +
-loved </​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
- <​tr id="​l419">​ +
-<​td>​ +
- </​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-Pluperfect</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-I had loved</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
- <​tr id="​l420">​ +
-<​td>​ +
- </​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-Future ​perfect</td> +
-<td> +
-I will have loved</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-</​table>​ +
-</​div>​+
  
-    </ul>+**Word order is irrelevant** 
 +  * Das librum discipulo - indirect object is in dative 
 +  * Dominus servos malo liberat - The lord sets the servant free from evil 
 +  * Dominus servos **a malo liberat** ... from **the evil one.** 
 +  * Later periods no longer make that distinctions - leaves us free to translate. 
 +  * Consecrare and sacrare - through the development of the language, there is a birth of new compound verbs, sometimes meaning the same. Esp. in ecclesiastical Latin. Also associated with decline of knowledge of latin. 
 +  * Sanctus - holy, sanctified - he is dead. Sanctus Cicero - means he is dead. That was the first meaning of the word. There is a development of meaning when Xns take over the meaning. Voluptas, Libido, but in Xn will use concupiscentia. From augustine onwards this is used for sexual desire. 
 +  * You have to translate being aware of the period in which the text was written. It makes a huge difference. 
 +  * E.g. res religiosa - religious case, religious thing in Roman. 
 +  * Translated state affair. In roman times, church and state was the same. 
  
 +===Unit 6 - Present indicative active===
  
-<p id="​l422">​ 
-Participle - present, past, future, active and passive <​br/>​Amare &lt; Ama - re <​br/>​Ama-o but the o is strong and it contracts with a so that ao = o so amo. <​br/>​Amo,​ amare, amavi, amatus - <​br/>​Amavi gives you perfect tenses p, pp, fp. If there is  <​strong>​u</​strong>, ​ <​strong>​v</​strong>​ or <​strong>​x</​strong>​ think perfect. <​br/>​Amatus gives you passive perfect tenses ​ 
-</p> 
- 
-    <ul> 
- 
- 
-<div class="​wikitable">​ 
-<table border="​1">​ 
- <​tr id="​l429">​ 
-<td> 
- </​td>​ 
-<td> 
- </​td>​ 
-<td colspan="​3"​ align="​center">​ 
- ​Aspect</​td>​ 
-</tr> 
- <​tr id="​l430">​ 
-<td> 
- </​td>​ 
-<td> 
- </​td>​ 
-<td> 
-Simple</​td>​ 
-<td> 
-Progressive</​td>​ 
-<td> 
-Completed</​td>​ 
-</tr> 
- <​tr id="​l431">​ 
-<td> 
-Time</​td>​ 
-<td> 
-Present</​td>​ 
-<td> 
-Video</​td>​ 
-<td> 
-Video</​td>​ 
-<td> 
-Vidi</​td>​ 
-</tr> 
- <​tr id="​l432">​ 
-<td> 
- </​td>​ 
-<td> 
- </​td>​ 
-<td> 
-I see</​td>​ 
-<td> 
-I am seeing</​td>​ 
-<td> 
-I have seen</​td>​ 
-</tr> 
- <​tr id="​l433">​ 
-<td> 
- </​td>​ 
-<td> 
- </​td>​ 
-<td> 
-Present</​td>​ 
-<td> 
-Present</​td>​ 
-<td> 
-Perfect</​td>​ 
-</tr> 
- <​tr id="​l434">​ 
-<td> 
- </​td>​ 
-<td> 
-Past</​td>​ 
-<td> 
-Vidi</​td>​ 
-<td> 
-Videbam</​td>​ 
-<td> 
-Videram</​td>​ 
-</tr> 
- <​tr id="​l435">​ 
-<td> 
- </​td>​ 
-<td> 
- </​td>​ 
-<td> 
-I saw</​td>​ 
-<td> 
-I was seeing</​td>​ 
-<td> 
-I had seen</​td>​ 
-</tr> 
- <​tr id="​l436">​ 
-<td> 
- </​td>​ 
-<td> 
- </​td>​ 
-<td> 
-perfect</​td>​ 
-<td> 
-imperfect</​td>​ 
-<td> 
-pluperfect</​td>​ 
-</tr> 
- <​tr id="​l437">​ 
-<td> 
- </​td>​ 
-<td> 
-future</​td>​ 
-<td> 
-videbo</​td>​ 
-<td> 
-videbo</​td>​ 
-<td> 
-videro</​td>​ 
-</tr> 
- <​tr id="​l438">​ 
-<td> 
- </​td>​ 
-<td> 
- </​td>​ 
-<td> 
- I will see</​td>​ 
-<td> 
-I will be seeing</​td>​ 
-<td> 
-I will have seen</​td>​ 
-</tr> 
- <​tr id="​l439">​ 
-<td> 
- </​td>​ 
-<td> 
- </​td>​ 
-<td> 
-future</​td>​ 
-<td> 
-future</​td>​ 
-<td> 
-future perfect</​td>​ 
-</tr> 
-</​table>​ 
-</​div>​ 
- 
-    </ul> 
- 
- 
-<p id="​l441">​ 
-<​strong>​Word order is irrelevant</​strong>​ <​br/>​Das librum discipulo - indirect object is in dative <​br/>​Dominus servos malo liberat - The lord sets the servant free from evil <​br/>​Dominus servos <​strong>​a malo liberat</​strong>​ ... from <​strong>​the evil one.</​strong>​ <​br/>​Later periods no longer make that distinctions - leaves us free to translate. <​br/>​Consecrare and sacrare - through the development of the language, there is a birth of new compound verbs, sometimes meaning the same. Esp. in ecclesiastical Latin. Also associated with decline of knowledge of latin. <​br/>​Sanctus - holy, sanctified - he is dead. Sanctus Cicero - means he is dead. That was the first meaning of the word. There is a development of meaning when Xns take over the meaning. Voluptas, Libido, but in Xn will use concupiscentia. From augustine onwards this is used for sexual desire. <​br/>​You have to translate being aware of the period in which the text was written. It makes a huge difference. <​br/>​E.g. res religiosa - religious case, religious thing in Roman. <​br/>​Translated state affair. In roman times, church and state was the same.  
-</p> 
-===Unit 6 - Present indicative active=== 
-<p id="​l453">​ 
 Present, ind, act worth studying these endings by heart. ​ Present, ind, act worth studying these endings by heart. ​
-</p> 
- 
-    <ul> 
- 
- 
-<div class="​wikitable">​ 
-<table border="​1">​ 
- <​tr id="​l454">​ 
-<td> 
-1st</​td>​ 
-<td> 
-Amare</​td>​ 
-<td> 
-a</​td>​ 
-<td> 
-Amo</​td>​ 
-<td> 
-amas</​td>​ 
-<td> 
-amat</​td>​ 
-<td> 
-amamus</​td>​ 
-<td> 
-amatis</​td>​ 
-<td> 
-amant</​td>​ 
-</tr> 
- <​tr id="​l455">​ 
-<td> 
-2nd</​td>​ 
-<td> 
-Monere</​td>​ 
-<td> 
-e</​td>​ 
-<td> 
-moneo</​td>​ 
-<td> 
-mones</​td>​ 
-<td> 
-monet</​td>​ 
-<td> 
-monemus</​td>​ 
-<td> 
-monetis</​td>​ 
-<td> 
-monent</​td>​ 
-</tr> 
- <​tr id="​l456">​ 
-<td> 
-3rd</​td>​ 
-<td> 
-Ducere</​td>​ 
-<td> 
-e</​td>​ 
-<td> 
-duco</​td>​ 
-<td> 
-ducis</​td>​ 
-<td> 
-ducit</​td>​ 
-<td> 
-ducimus</​td>​ 
-<td> 
-ducitis</​td>​ 
-<td> 
-ducunt</​td>​ 
-</tr> 
- <​tr id="​l457">​ 
-<td> 
-5th or 3b</​td>​ 
-<td> 
-Capere</​td>​ 
-<td> 
-io</​td>​ 
-<td> 
-capio</​td>​ 
-<td> 
-capis</​td>​ 
-<td> 
-capit</​td>​ 
-<td> 
-capimus</​td>​ 
-<td> 
-capitis</​td>​ 
-<td> 
-capiunt</​td>​ 
-</tr> 
- <​tr id="​l458">​ 
-<td> 
-4th</​td>​ 
-<td> 
-Audire</​td>​ 
-<td> 
-i</​td>​ 
-<td> 
-audio</​td>​ 
-<td> 
-audis</​td>​ 
-<td> 
-audit</​td>​ 
-<td> 
-audimus</​td>​ 
-<td> 
-auditis</​td>​ 
-<td> 
-audiunt</​td>​ 
-</tr> 
-</​table>​ 
-</​div>​ 
- 
-    </ul> 
- 
- 
-<p id="​l460">​ 
-</​em>​Vocatne Petrus discipulum<​em>​ - anclitical </​em>​ne<​em>​ indicates a question. Later latin didn't use the anclitic, once it was written more than spoken. <​br/><​u>​Ablative of Separation</​u> ​ separation, freedom, deprivation,​ often uses </​em>​a,​ ab, ex<​em>​. <​br/><​u>​Ablative of Means</​u>​ (middel) and <u>of Manner</​u>​ (wijsen) In both cases you can present a correct translation whether it is abl of means of manner. <br/> 
-</p> 
  
-    <ul>+|1st  |Amare ​ |a  |Amo  |amas  |amat  |amamus ​ |amatis ​ |amant ​ | 
 +|2nd  |Monere ​ |e  |moneo ​ |mones ​ |monet ​ |monemus ​ |monetis ​ |monent ​ | 
 +|3rd  |Ducere ​ |e  |duco  |ducis ​ |ducit ​ |ducimus ​ |ducitis ​ |ducunt ​ | 
 +|5th or 3b  |Capere ​ |io  |capio ​ |capis ​ |capit ​ |capimus ​ |capitis ​ |capiunt ​ | 
 +|4th  |Audire ​ |i  |audio ​ |audis ​ |audit ​ |audimus ​ |auditis ​ |audiunt ​ |
  
-    <​li>​ +//Vocatne Petrus discipulum// - anclitical ​//ne/indicates a question. Later latin didn't use the anclitic, once it was written more than spoken
-<p id="​l463">​ +__Ablative of Separation__ ​ separation, freedom, deprivation,​ often uses //a, ab, ex//. 
-Means is concrete. </em>​Dominus psalmis laudamus.<​em>​ </em>Justi in gladio regnant.<​em>​ <br/+__Ablative of Means__ (middel) and __of Manner__ (wijsen) In both cases you can present a correct translation whether it is abl of means of manner.
-</p> +
-</li> +
-    <​li>​ +
-<p id="​l464">​ +
-Manner is abstract; and may use </em>​cum<​em>​. or </em>​Dominum magno cum gaudio laudamus.<​em> ​ +
-</p> +
-</li>+
  
-    </ul>+  * Means is concrete. //Dominus psalmis laudamus.// //Justi in gladio regnant.//​ 
 +  * Manner is abstract; and may use //cum//. or //Dominum magno cum gaudio laudamus./
  
 +**Exercises** 1. Pro Hebraeis Dominus Aegyptios fugat. For hebrew the Lord fight with Egyptian. 2. Deo Gratias semper agimus. Thanks God for his conduct always. 3. Aeternis praeceptis Dominus populum monet.4. Maria natum in templo invenit.Maria finds her son in the temple. 5. Episcopus populum in ecclesiam inducit.Bishops lead the people in the church. 6. Petrus cum discipulis ad domum advenit.Peter with (the other) disciples arrive at the hourse. 7. Cum gaudio vinum vitae bibimus? 8. Quare apostolus Christum malis tradit? 9. Famulus malus puerum auro seducit. 10. In gloria Christus populum conjungit.In the glory Christ unites the people. ​
  
-<p id="​l466">​ 
-<​strong>​Exercises</​strong>​ <​br/>​1. Pro Hebraeis Dominus Aegyptios fugat. <​br/>​For hebrew the Lord fight with Egyptian. <​br/>​2. Deo Gratias semper agimus. <​br/>​Thanks God for his conduct always. <​br/>​3. Aeternis praeceptis Dominus populum monet. <​br/>​4. Maria natum in templo invenit. <​br/>​Maria finds her son in the temple. <​br/>​5. Episcopus populum in ecclesiam inducit. <​br/>​Bishops lead the people in the church. <​br/>​6. Petrus cum discipulis ad domum advenit. <​br/>​Peter with (the other) disciples arrive at the hourse. <​br/>​7. Cum gaudio vinum vitae bibimus? <​br/>​8. Quare apostolus Christum malis tradit? <​br/>​9. Famulus malus puerum auro seducit. <​br/>​10. In gloria Christus populum conjungit. <​br/>​In the glory Christ unites the people. ​ 
-</p> 
 ===Unit 7 - Present Indicative Passive=== ===Unit 7 - Present Indicative Passive===
-<p id="​l485">​ 
-<​strong>​Best to learn by heart</​strong>​ Any transitive verb can be passive. Present stem + passive endings (with adjustments). ​ 
-</p> 
  
-    <ul>+**Best to learn by heart** Any transitive verb can be passive. Present stem + passive endings (with adjustments). ​
  
 +|-r   ​|-ris ​  ​|-tur ​  ​|-mur ​  ​|-mini ​  ​|-ntur ​ |
 +|Amor   ​|amaris -re   ​|amatur ​  ​|amamur ​  ​|amamini ​  ​|amantur ​ |
 +|Moneor ​  ​|moneris -re   ​|monetur ​  ​|monemur ​ |monemini ​ |monentur ​ |
 +|Ducor ​  ​|duceris -re  |ducitur ​  ​|ducimur ​  ​|ducimini ​  ​|ducuntur ​ |
 +|Capior ​  ​|caperis -re  |capitur ​  ​|capimur ​  ​|capimini ​  ​|capiuntur ​ |
 +|Audior ​  ​|audiris -re  |auditur ​  ​|audimur ​  ​|audimini ​  ​|audiuntur ​ |
  
-<div class="​wikitable">​ +note the second person present passive INDICATIVE is also the second person present passive IMPERATIVE (Chapter 19)
-<table border="​1">​ +
- <​tr id="​l486">​ +
-<​td>​ +
--r </​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
--ris </​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
--tur </​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
--mur </​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
--mini </​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
--ntur</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
- <​tr id="​l487">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-Amor </​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-amaris -re </​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-amatur </​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-amamur </​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-amamini </​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-amantur</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
- <​tr id="​l488">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-Moneor </​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-moneris -re </​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-monetur </​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-monemur</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-monemini</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-monentur</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
- <​tr id="​l489">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-Ducor </​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-duceris -re</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-ducitur </​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-ducimur </​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-ducimini </​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-ducuntur</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
- <​tr id="​l490">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-Capior </​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-caperis -re</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-capitur </​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-capimur </​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-capimini </​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-capiuntur</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
- <​tr id="​l491">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-Audior </​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-audiris -re</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-auditur </​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-audimur </​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-audimini </​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-audiuntur</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-</​table>​ +
-</​div>​+
  
-        <ul>+  * Nostra peccata a Christo delentur - a christo - ablative of personal agency - a / ab 
 +  * Terra est gloria Dei plena. Some adjectives take an ablative rather than genitive, e.g. plena, dignus, indignus, etc. 
  
-        <​li>​ +**Exercises**2. Jesus Nazarenus dicitur Christus. ​ Jesu of Nazarenus is called as christ. ​
-<p id="​l492">​ +
-note the second person present passive INDICATIVE is also the second person present passive IMPERATIVE (Chapter 19) <​br/>​ +
-</​p>​ +
-</​li>​ +
- +
-        </​ul>​ +
- +
- +
- +
-    </​ul>​ +
- +
- +
-<p id="​l493">​ +
-Nostra peccata a Christo delentur - a christo - ablative of personal agency - a / ab <​br/>​Terra est gloria Dei plena. Some adjectives take an ablative rather than genitive, e.g. plena, dignus, indignus, etc.  +
-</​p>​ +
-<p id="​l496">​ +
-<​strong>​Exercises</​strong>​ <br/>2. Jesus Nazarenus dicitur Christus. ​<​br/>​ +
-</​p>​ +
- +
-    <​ul>​ +
- +
-<p id="​l498">​ +
- Jesu of Nazarenus is called as christ. ​ +
-</​p>​ +
- +
-    </ul>+
  
 ===Unit 8 - Past Tenses - Imperfect=== ===Unit 8 - Past Tenses - Imperfect===
  
-    <ul>+|  **Imperfect Indicative Active** ​ ||||| 
 +|  Stem + //-ba-// + ending (stems ending //-io-// change to //​-ie-//​) ​  ​||||| 
 +|Ama-   ​|mone- ​  ​|dice- ​  ​|capie- ​  ​|audie- ​ | 
 +|Amabam ​  ​|Monebam ​  ​|Dicebam ​  ​|Capiebam ​  ​|Audiebam ​ | 
 +|Amabas ​  ​|Monebas ​  ​|Dicebas ​  ​|Capiebas ​  ​|Audiebas ​ | 
 +|Amabat ​  ​|Monebat ​  ​|Dicebat ​  ​|Capiebat ​  ​|Audiebat ​ | 
 +|Amabamus ​  ​|Monebamus ​  ​|Dicebamus ​  ​|Capiebamus ​  ​|Audiebamus ​ | 
 +|Amabatis ​  ​|Monebatis ​  ​|Dicebatis ​  ​|Capiebatis ​  ​|Audiebatis ​ | 
 +|Amabant ​  ​|Monebant ​  ​|Dicebant ​  ​|Capiebant ​  ​|Audiebant ​ | 
 +|  **Passive** ​ ||||| 
 +|Amabar ​  ​|Monebar ​  ​|Dicebar ​  ​|Capiebar ​  ​|Audiebar ​ | 
 +|Amabaris ​  ​|Monebaris ​  ​|Dicebaris ​  ​|Capiebaris ​  ​|Audiebatis ​ | 
 +|Amabatur ​  ​|Monebatur ​  ​|Dicebatur ​  ​|Capiebatur ​  ​|Audiebatur ​ | 
 +|Amabamur ​  ​|Monebamur ​  ​|Dicebamur ​  ​|Capiebamur ​  ​|Audiebamur ​ | 
 +|Amabamini ​  ​|Monebamini ​  ​|Dicebamini ​  ​|Capiebamini ​  ​|Audiebamini ​ | 
 +|Amabantur ​  ​|Monebantur ​  ​|Dicebantur ​  ​|Capiebantur ​  ​|Audiebantur ​ |
  
  
-<div class="​wikitable">​ +//Christianus sum. &​gt;&​gt;​ Dicebat quia christianus erat.// (Imp. Ind. Act.**Quia, quod, quoniam** ​that, because ​
-<table border="​1">​ +
- <​tr id="​l501">​ +
-<td colspan="​5"​ align="​center">​ +
-<​strong>​Imperfect Indicative Active</strong><​/td> +
-</tr> +
- <​tr id="​l502">​ +
-<td colspan="​5"​ align="​center">​ +
-Stem + </em>​-ba-<​em>​ + ending ​(stems ending </​em>​-io-<​em>​ change to </​em>​-ie-<​em>​</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
- <​tr id="​l503">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-</​em>​Ama</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-mone- </​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-dice- </​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-capie- </​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-audie-</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
- <​tr id="​l504">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-Amabam </​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-Monebam </​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-Dicebam </​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-Capiebam </​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-Audiebam</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
- <​tr id="​l505">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-Amabas </​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-Monebas </​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-Dicebas </​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-Capiebas </​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-Audiebas</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
- <​tr id="​l506">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-Amabat </​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-Monebat </​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-Dicebat </​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-Capiebat </​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-Audiebat</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
- <​tr id="​l507">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-Amabamus </​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-Monebamus </​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-Dicebamus </​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-Capiebamus </​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-Audiebamus</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
- <​tr id="​l508">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-Amabatis </​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-Monebatis </​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-Dicebatis </​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-Capiebatis </​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-Audiebatis</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
- <​tr id="​l509">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-Amabant </​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-Monebant </​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-Dicebant </​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-Capiebant </​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-Audiebant<​em></​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
- <​tr id="​l510">​ +
-<td colspan="​5"​ align="​center">​ +
-<​strong>​Passive</​strong></​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
- <​tr id="​l511">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-</​em>​Amabar </​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-Monebar </​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-Dicebar </​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-Capiebar </​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-Audiebar</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
- <​tr id="​l512">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-Amabaris </​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-Monebaris </​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-Dicebaris </​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-Capiebaris </​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-Audiebatis</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
- <​tr id="​l513">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-Amabatur </​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-Monebatur </​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-Dicebatur </​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-Capiebatur </​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-Audiebatur</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
- <​tr id="​l514">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-Amabamur </​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-Monebamur </​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-Dicebamur </​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-Capiebamur </​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-Audiebamur</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
- <​tr id="​l515">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-Amabamini </​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-Monebamini </​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-Dicebamini </​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-Capiebamini </​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-Audiebamini</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
- <​tr id="​l516">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-Amabantur </​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-Monebantur </​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-Dicebantur </​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-Capiebantur </​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-Audiebantur<​em></​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-</​table>​ +
-</​div>​+
  
-    </ul>+Ellipsis - //Boni viri Deum laudant, sed mali (viri) non (laudant).//​ - omitting obvious words. ​
  
 +**Exercises** ​
  
-<p id="​l518">​ 
-</​em>​Christianus sum. &​gt;&​gt;​ Dicebat quia christianus erat.<​em>​ (Imp. Ind. Act.) <​strong>​Quia,​ quod, quoniam</​strong>​ - that, because ​ 
-</p> 
-<p id="​l520">​ 
-Ellipsis - </​em>​Boni viri Deum laudant, sed mali (viri) non (laudant).<​em>​ - omitting obvious words. ​ 
-</p> 
-<p id="​l522">​ 
-<​strong>​Exercises</​strong> ​ 
-</p> 
 ===Unit 9 - Future=== ===Unit 9 - Future===
  
-    <ul>+^  Future Indicative Active - 1 & 2  ^^  Future Indicative Active 3,4,5  ^^^ 
 +|Ama-  |Mone- ​ |Duce- ​ |Cape- ​ |Audi- ​ | 
 +|Amabo ​ |Monebo ​ |Ducam ​ |Faciam ​ |Audiam ​ | 
 +|Amabis ​ |Monebis ​ |Duces ​ |Facies ​ |Audies ​ | 
 +|Amabit ​ |Monebit ​ |Ducet ​ |Faciet ​ |Audiet ​ | 
 +|Amabimus ​ |Monebimus ​ |Ducemus ​ |Faciemus ​ |Audiemus ​ | 
 +|Amabitis ​ |Monebitis ​ |Ducetis ​ |Facietis ​ |Audietis ​ | 
 +|Amabint ​ |Monebint ​ |Ducent ​ |Facient ​ |Audient ​ |
  
 +^  Future Indicative Passive - 1 & 2  ^^  Future Indicative Passive 3,4,5  ^^^
 +|Amabor ​ |Monebor ​ |Ducar ​ |Faciam ​ |Audiam ​ |
 +|Amaberis ​ |Moneberis ​ |Duceris ​ |Facieris ​ |Audieris ​ |
 +|Amabitur ​ |Monebitur ​ |Ducetur ​ |Facietur ​ |Audietur ​ |
 +|Amabimur ​ |Monebimur ​ |Ducemur ​ |Faciemur ​ |Audiemur ​ |
 +|Amabimini ​ |Monebimini ​ |Ducemini ​ |Faciemini ​ |Audiemini ​ |
 +|Amabintur ​ |Monebintur ​ |Ducentur ​ |Facientur ​ |Audientur ​ |
  
-<div class="​wikitable">​ +__Infinitive as Subject__ ​then use neuter singular as predicate adjective. ​//Bonum est invocare deum//__Ablative of Specification__ ​//Servus (n.s) domini (gen.s) animo (abl.s) beatus (n.s) est.// The servant of the Lord is happy //in (with respect to) spirit//
-<table border="​1">​ +
- <​tr id="​l526">​ +
-<td colspan="​2"​ align="​center">​ +
-Future Indicative Active ​1 &amp; 2</td> +
-<td colspan="​3"​ align="​center">​ +
-Future Indicative Active 3,4,5</td> +
-</tr> +
- <​tr id="​l527">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-Ama-</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-Mone-</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-Duce-</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-Cape-</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-Audi-</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
- <​tr id="​l528">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-Amabo</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-Monebo</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-Ducam</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-Faciam</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-Audiam</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
- <​tr id="​l529">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-Amabis</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-Monebis</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-Duces</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-Facies</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-Audies</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
- <​tr id="​l530">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-Amabit</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-Monebit</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-Ducet</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-Faciet</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-Audiet</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
- <​tr id="​l531">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-Amabimus</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-Monebimus</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-Ducemus</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-Faciemus</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-Audiemus</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
- <​tr id="​l532">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-Amabitis</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-Monebitis</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-Ducetis</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-Facietis</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-Audietis</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
- <​tr id="​l533">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-Amabint</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-Monebint</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-Ducent</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-Facient</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-Audient</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
- <​tr id="​l534">​ +
-<td colspan="​2"​ align="​center">​ +
-Future Indicative Passive - 1 &amp; 2</​td>​ +
-<td colspan="​3"​ align="​center">​ +
-Future Indicative Passive 3,​4,​5</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
- <​tr id="​l535">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-Amabor</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-Monebor</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-Ducar</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-Faciam</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-Audiam</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
- <​tr id="​l536">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-Amaberis</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-Moneberis</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-Duceris</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-Facieris</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-Audieris</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
- <​tr id="​l537">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-Amabitur</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-Monebitur</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-Ducetur</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-Facietur</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-Audietur</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
- <​tr id="​l538">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-Amabimur</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-Monebimur</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-Ducemur</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-Faciemur</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-Audiemur</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
- <​tr id="​l539">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-Amabimini</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-Monebimini</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-Ducemini</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-Faciemini</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-Audiemini</​td>​ +
-</tr> +
- <​tr id="​l540">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-Amabintur<​/td> +
-<​td>​ +
-Monebintur<​/td> +
-<​td>​ +
-Ducentur<​/td> +
-<​td>​ +
-Facientur<​/td> +
-<​td>​ +
-Audientur<​/td> +
-</tr> +
-</table> +
-</div>+
  
-    </ul>+**Exercises** ​
  
- 
-<p id="​l542">​ 
-<​u>​Infinitive as Subject</​u>​ - then use neuter singular as predicate adjective. </​em>​Bonum est invocare deum<​em>​ <​br/><​u>​Ablative of Specification</​u>​ </​em>​Servus (n.s) domini (gen.s) animo (abl.s) beatus (n.s) est.<​em>​ The servant of the Lord is happy </​em>​in (with respect to) spirit<​em>​. ​ 
-</p> 
-<p id="​l545">​ 
-<​strong>​Exercises</​strong> ​ 
-</p> 
 ===Unit 10 - Perfect Active=== ===Unit 10 - Perfect Active===
-<p id="​l548">​ 
-Used all the time - perfect active stem important - Consistent - If there is  <​strong>​u</​strong>, ​ <​strong>​v</​strong>​ or <​strong>​x</​strong>​ think perfect. The tense is <​strong>​perfect active stem + perfect active endings</​strong>​. The pluperfect and future perfect are  <​strong>​perfect active stem + tense suffix + perfect active endings</​strong>​. Part of stem can can disappear in a contraction:​ </​em>​laudasti,​ laudastis<​em>​ in place of </​em>​laudastivisti,​ laudastivitis<​em>​. The is simple past </​em>​I did<​em>​ and present complete </​em>​I have done<​em>​. ​ 
-</p> 
  
-    <ul>+Used all the time - perfect active stem important - Consistent - If there is  **u**, ​ **v** or **x** think perfect. The tense is **perfect active stem + perfect active endings**. The pluperfect and future perfect are  **perfect active stem + tense suffix + perfect active endings**. Part of stem can can disappear in a contraction:​ //laudasti, laudastis// in place of //​laudastivisti,​ laudastivitis//​. The is simple past //I did// and present complete //I have done//​. ​
  
 +|laudavi ​ |laudavisti ​ |laudavit ​ |laudavimus ​ |laudavistis ​ |laudaverunt ​ |
 +|habui ​ |habuisti ​ |habuit ​ |habuimus ​ |habuistis ​ |habuerunt ​ |
 +|misi  |misisti ​ |misit ​ |misimus ​ |misitis ​ |miserunt ​ |
 +|audivi ​ |audivisti ​ |audivit ​ |audivimus ​ |audivistis ​ |audiverunt ​ |
 +|dixi  |dixisti ​ |dixit ​ |diximus ​ |dixistis ​ |dixerunt ​ |
 +|veni  |venisti ​ |venit* ​ |venimus* ​ |venistis ​ |venerunt ​ |
 +|fui  |fuisti ​ |fuit  |fuimus ​ |fuistis ​ |fuerunt ​ |
  
-<div class="​wikitable">​ +  ​these two forms are the same as present active indicative ​ 
-<table border="​1">​ +  * **qui quae quod*
- <​tr id="​l550">​ +__Relative Pronoun__ Case follows use in the clause. Adjectival clauses ​//Deus, quem laudamus....// God whom we praise. Connective relative ​//Discipuli veniebant. Qui Jesum audiebant.// The disciples were coming, who (and they) gladly were listening to Jesus.__Interrogative Adjective__ Case follows the noun being modified. ​
-<​td>​ +
-laudavi</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-laudavisti</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-laudavit</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-laudavimus</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-laudavistis</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-laudaverunt</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
- <​tr id="​l551">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-habui</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-habuisti</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-habuit</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-habuimus</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-habuistis</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-habuerunt</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
- <​tr id="​l552">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-misi</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-misisti</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-misit</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-misimus</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-misitis</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-miserunt</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
- <​tr id="​l553">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-audivi</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-audivisti</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-audivit</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-audivimus</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-audivistis</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-audiverunt</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
- <​tr id="​l554">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-dixi</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-dixisti</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-dixit</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-diximus</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-dixistis</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-dixerunt</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
- <​tr id="​l555">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-veni</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-venisti</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-venit*</td> +
-<​td>​ +
-venimus*</td> +
-<​td>​ +
-venistis<​/td> +
-<​td>​ +
-venerunt<​/td> +
-</tr> +
- <​tr id="​l556">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-fui</td> +
-<​td>​ +
-fuisti</td> +
-<​td>​ +
-fuit</td> +
-<​td>​ +
-fuimus</td> +
-<​td>​ +
-fuistis</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-fuerunt</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-</​table>​ +
-</div>+
  
-    </ul>+^.  ^Sing M  ^Sing F  ^Sing N  ^Pl M  ^Pl F  ^Pl N  ^ 
 +|Nom Who.  |qui  |quae  |quod  |qui  |quae  |quae  | 
 +|Gen. Whose  |cuius ​ |cuius ​ |cuius ​ |quorum ​ |quarum ​ |quorum ​ | 
 +|Dat. To/for Whom  |cui  |cui  |cui  |quibus ​ |quibus ​ |quibus ​ | 
 +|Acc. Whom  |quem  |quam  |quod  |quos  |quas  |quae  | 
 +|Abl. From, By Whom  |quo  |qua  |quo  |quibus ​ |quibus ​ |quibus ​ |
  
 +__Suffixes__ + //-cumque// whichever //quocum// with whom //quem propter// on account of //qui quoniam// and because they...
  
-<p id="​l557">​ +**Exercises:​**1. Gloria in excelsis deo.Glory to God inthe highest!2. Minister et servi oraverunt: Kyrie, eleison!Minister and sevants pra3. Dominus, ​qui est bonus, desideria populi semper scivit.4. Servus, quem scis, ministro et aquam et vinum dedit.5. Verba Christi, ​quae audimus, apostoli tradiderunt.6. Qui discipuli ​in Galilaea sciverunt quod Jesus Nazarenus erat filius unigenitus Dei?7Secundum tua verba perenniter operavimus et oravimus.8. Cui servo non carus fuit dominus?9. Per unigenitum Filium ​Deus debita nostrorum peccatorum solvit.10. Agnus Deiqui tollit peccata mundi, a populo semper laudatur.11Hodie(adv) Dominus(Ns) Deus(Ns) Filium(Ac.s) unigenitum(Ac.s) semper(adv) cunctos(Ac.pl) in caelo(ab.s.locative) et in terra(ab.s.locativeextulit(3sperf.act.ind). Alleluja.Today the Lord God always lifts up the only Son in heaven and earth 
-*these two forms are the same as present active indicative  +
-</​p>​ +
-<p id="​l559">​ +
-<​strong>​qui quae quod</​strong>​ <​br/><​u>​Relative Pronoun</​u>​ Case follows use in the clauseAdjectival clauses </em>Deus, quem laudamus....<em> God whom we praiseConnective relative </​em>​Discipuli veniebantQui Jesum audiebant.<em> The disciples were coming, who (and theygladly were listening to Jesus<​br/><​u>​Interrogative Adjective</​u>​ Case follows the noun being modified +
-</p>+
  
-    <ul> 
- 
- 
-<div class="​wikitable">​ 
-<table border="​1">​ 
- <​tr id="​l562">​ 
-<td> 
-.</​td>​ 
-<td> 
-Sing M</​td>​ 
-<td> 
-Sing F</​td>​ 
-<td> 
-Sing N</​td>​ 
-<td> 
-Pl M</​td>​ 
-<td> 
-Pl F</​td>​ 
-<td> 
-Pl N</​td>​ 
-</tr> 
- <​tr id="​l563">​ 
-<td> 
-Nom Who.</​td>​ 
-<td> 
-qui</​td>​ 
-<td> 
-quae</​td>​ 
-<td> 
-quod</​td>​ 
-<td> 
-qui</​td>​ 
-<td> 
-quae</​td>​ 
-<td> 
-quae</​td>​ 
-</tr> 
- <​tr id="​l564">​ 
-<td> 
-Gen. Whose</​td>​ 
-<td> 
-cuius</​td>​ 
-<td> 
-cuius</​td>​ 
-<td> 
-cuius</​td>​ 
-<td> 
-quorum</​td>​ 
-<td> 
-quarum</​td>​ 
-<td> 
-quorum</​td>​ 
-</tr> 
- <​tr id="​l565">​ 
-<td> 
-Dat. To/for Whom</​td>​ 
-<td> 
-cui</​td>​ 
-<td> 
-cui</​td>​ 
-<td> 
-cui</​td>​ 
-<td> 
-quibus</​td>​ 
-<td> 
-quibus</​td>​ 
-<td> 
-quibus</​td>​ 
-</tr> 
- <​tr id="​l566">​ 
-<td> 
-Acc. Whom</​td>​ 
-<td> 
-quem</​td>​ 
-<td> 
-quam</​td>​ 
-<td> 
-quod</​td>​ 
-<td> 
-quos</​td>​ 
-<td> 
-quas</​td>​ 
-<td> 
-quae</​td>​ 
-</tr> 
- <​tr id="​l567">​ 
-<td> 
-Abl. From, By Whom</​td>​ 
-<td> 
-quo</​td>​ 
-<td> 
-qua</​td>​ 
-<td> 
-quo</​td>​ 
-<td> 
-quibus</​td>​ 
-<td> 
-quibus</​td>​ 
-<td> 
-quibus</​td>​ 
-</tr> 
-</​table>​ 
-</​div>​ 
- 
-    </ul> 
- 
- 
-<p id="​l568">​ 
-<​u>​Suffixes</​u>​ + </​em>​-cumque<​em>​ whichever // </​em>​quocum<​em>​ with whom // </​em>​quem propter<​em>​ on account of // </​em>​qui quoniam<​em>​ and because they... <​br/><​strong>​Exercises:</​strong>​ <​br/>​1. Gloria in excelsis deo. <​br/>​Glory to God inthe highest! <​br/>​2. Minister et servi oraverunt: Kyrie, eleison! <​br/>​Minister and sevants pra <​br/>​3. Dominus, qui est bonus, desideria populi semper scivit. <​br/>​4. Servus, quem scis, ministro et aquam et vinum dedit. <​br/>​5. Verba Christi, quae audimus, apostoli tradiderunt. <​br/>​6. Qui discipuli in Galilaea sciverunt quod Jesus Nazarenus erat filius unigenitus Dei? <​br/>​7. Secundum tua verba perenniter operavimus et oravimus. <​br/>​8. Cui servo non carus fuit dominus? <​br/>​9. Per unigenitum Filium Deus debita nostrorum peccatorum solvit. <​br/>​10. Agnus Dei, qui tollit peccata mundi, a populo semper laudatur. <​br/>​11. Hodie(adv) Dominus(Ns) Deus(Ns) Filium(Ac.s) unigenitum(Ac.s) semper(adv) cunctos(Ac.pl) in caelo(ab.s.locative) et in terra(ab.s.locative) extulit(3s. perf.act.ind). Alleluja. <​br/>​Today the Lord God always lifts up the only Son in heaven and earth  
-</p> 
 ===Unit 11 - Pluperfect=== ===Unit 11 - Pluperfect===
  
-    <​ul>​ +^**Pluperfect Active Indicative** = Perfect stem + Imperfect of **esse**  ^^^^^^ 
- +^ ^I had loved  ^|I had advised ​ ​^ ​I had ruled   ^I had taken   ^I had heard  ^ 
- +|Singular ​ ​|||||| 
-<div class="​wikitable">​ +|1.   |amaveram ​   |monueram ​    |rexeram ​    |ceperam ​    |audiveram ​ | 
-<table border="​1">​ +|2.   |amaveras ​   |monueras ​    |rexeras ​    |ceperas ​    |audiveras ​ | 
- <​tr id="​l586">​ +|3.   |amaverat ​   |monuerat ​    |rexerat ​    |ceperat ​    |audiverat ​ | 
-<td colspan="​6"​ align="​center">​ +|PLURAL ​ ​|||||| 
-<​strong>​Pluperfect Active Indicative</​strong> ​= Perfect stem + Imperfect of <​strong>​esse</​strong></​td>​ +|1.   |amaveramus ​  |monueramus ​   |rexeramus ​   |ceperamus ​   ​|audiveramus ​ | 
-</​tr>​ +|2.   |amaveratis ​  |monueratis ​   |rexeratis ​   |ceperatis ​   ​|audiveratis ​ | 
- <​tr id="​l587">​ +|3.   |amaverant ​   |monuerant ​    |rexerant ​   |ceperant ​   |audiverant  ​|
-<td> +
-.</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-I had loved </​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-I had advised</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
- I had ruled </​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-I had taken </​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-I had heard</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
- <​tr id="​l588">​ +
-<td colspan="​6"​ align="​center">​ +
-Singular</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
- <​tr id="​l589">​ +
-<td> +
-1. </​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-amaveram ​ </​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-monueram ​  </​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-rexeram ​  </​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-ceperam ​  </​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-audiveram</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
- <​tr id="​l590">​ +
-<td> +
-2. </​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-amaveras ​ </​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-monueras ​  </​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-rexeras ​  </​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-ceperas ​  </​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-audiveras</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
- <​tr id="​l591">​ +
-<td> +
-3. </​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-amaverat ​ </​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-monuerat ​  </​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-rexerat ​  </​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-ceperat ​  </​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-audiverat</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
- <​tr id="​l592">​ +
-<td colspan="​6"​ align="​center">​ +
-PLURAL</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
- <​tr id="​l593">​ +
-<td> +
-1. </​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-amaveramus ​</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-monueramus ​ </​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-rexeramus ​ </​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-ceperamus  ​</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-audiveramus</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
- <​tr id="​l594">​ +
-<td> +
-2. </​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-amaveratis ​</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-monueratis ​ </​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-rexeratis ​ </​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-ceperatis  ​</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-audiveratis</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
- <​tr id="​l595">​ +
-<td> +
-3. </​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-amaverant ​ </​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-monuerant ​  </​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-rexerant ​ </​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-ceperant ​ </​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-audiverant</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
- <​tr id="​l596">​ +
-<td colspan="​6"​ align="​center">​ +
-<​strong>​Future Perfect Active Indicative</​strong>​ = Perfect stem + future.act.ind of <​strong>​esse</​strong></​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
- <​tr id="​l597">​ +
-<td colspan="​6"​ align="​center">​ +
-SINGULAR</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
- <​tr id="​l598">​ +
-<td colspan="​2"​ align="​center">​ +
-I shall have loved </​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-I shall have advised </​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-I shall have ruled</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-I shall have taken</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-I shall have heard</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
- <​tr id="​l599">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-1. </​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-amavero ​  </​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-monuero ​  </​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-rexero ​ </​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-cepero ​ </​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-audivero</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
- <​tr id="​l600">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-2. </​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-amaveris ​ </​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-monueris ​ </​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-rexeris ​  </​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-ceperis ​  </​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-audiveris</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
- <​tr id="​l601">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-3. </​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-amaverit ​ </​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-monuerit ​ </​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-rexerit ​  </​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-ceperit ​  </​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-audiverit</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
- <​tr id="​l602">​ +
-<td colspan="​6"​ align="​center">​ +
-PLURAL</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
- <​tr id="​l603">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-1. </​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-amaverimus </​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-monuerimus </​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-rexerimus ​ </​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-ceperimus ​ </​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-audiverimus</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
- <​tr id="​l604">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-2. </​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-amaveritis </​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-monueritis </​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-rexeritis ​ </​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-ceperitis ​ </​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-audiveritis</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
- <​tr id="​l605">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-3. </​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-amaverint ​ </​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-monuerint ​ </​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-rexerint ​  </​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-ceperint ​  </​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-audiverint</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-</​table>​ +
-</​div>​ +
- +
-    </​ul>​ +
- +
- +
-<p id="​l606">​ +
-<​u>​Ablative of cause</​u>​ - with or without the preposition e. <​br/>​ +
-</​p>​ +
- +
-    <ul>+
  
-<p id="​l607">​ +^**Future Perfect Active Indicative** ​Perfect stem + future.act.ind of **esse** ​ ^^^^^^ 
- Beati sumus (e) victoria Domini<br/> +^SINGULAR ​ ^^^^^^ 
-</p>+|I shall have loved   |I shall have advised ​  |I shall have ruled  |I shall have taken  |I shall have heard  | 
 +|1  |amavero ​    ​|monuero ​    ​|rexero ​   |cepero ​   |audivero ​ | 
 +|2.   ​|amaveris ​   |monueris ​   |rexeris ​    ​|ceperis ​    ​|audiveris ​ | 
 +|3.   ​|amaverit ​   |monuerit ​   |rexerit ​    ​|ceperit ​    ​|audiverit ​ | 
 +|PLURAL ​ |||||| 
 +|1.   ​|amaverimus ​  ​|monuerimus ​  ​|rexerimus ​   |ceperimus ​   |audiverimus ​ | 
 +|2.   ​|amaveritis ​  ​|monueritis ​  ​|rexeritis ​   |ceperitis ​   |audiveritis ​ | 
 +|3.   ​|amaverint ​   |monuerint ​   |rexerint ​    ​|ceperint ​    ​|audiverint ​ |
  
-    </ul>+  * __Ablative of cause__ - with or without the preposition e.  Beati sumus (e) victoria Domini. 
 +  * __Direct quotations__ may have no change, or quia(quoniam) following dixit. It may have a comma. Tense in a quote needn'​t match //dixit/
  
 +**Exercises**1. Quoniam Hebraei (n.pl) columnam (acc.s) flammae (gen.pl) viderunt (3pl perf.ai), etiam hodie (adv) Pascham (acc.s) observant (3pl pres.ai).Because the Hebrews saw a column of flames, even today they observe the Pasch.2. Tunc caeli (n.pl) anti Jesum (acc.s) aperiebantur (3pl Imp.pass.ind).Then the heavens were opened before Jesus.3. Merito (adv) universa creatura (n.s) inocentiam (acc.s) Agni (gen.s) laudaverit (3s fut.perf.act.ind)Rightly every creature will have praised the innocence of the Lamb.4. Aula (n.s) laetitia (Abl.s cause) populi (Gen.s) resultaverat (3s plup.act.ind)The hall had resounded because the joy of the people.5. Jam (adv) Jesus (n.s) populo (dat.s) intrare (inf) in templum (Acc) dixerat (3pl plup.act.ind)Then Jesus had told to the people to enter the temple.6. Cuncti apostoli (n.pl) in cenaculo (abl.s locative) congregaverant (3pl plup.act.ind),​ et ibi (adv) Deum (acc.s) pereniter (adv) conglorificabant (3pl Imp.act.ind)All the apostles had congregated in the cenacle and there they continually glorified God.7. In principio (adv) erat (3s Imp.act.ind) Verbum (n.s), et Verbum (n.s) erat (3s Imp.act.ind) apud Deum (acc.s), et Deus (n.s) erat (3s Imp.act.ind) Verbum (n.s).In the beginning was the word and the word was with God and the word was God.8. Ob Adae (acc.s) culpam (acc.s) primam (acc.s) habemus (1.pl pai) Christum Dominum (acc.s).Because of the first fault of Adam, we have Christ the Lord.9. Nam (conj) Christus (n.s) mortuos (Acc.pl) a vivis (Abl.pl) separaverit (3.s fut.perf.act.ind)For Christ will have separated the dead from the living.10. Pascha (Abl.s) dolorosi (n.pl) efficiuntur (3pl pres.pass.ind) laeti (n.pl).Because of the pasch, sorrows are tuned into joys.11. In Judaea (Abl.s. locative) apostolus (n.s) viam (acc.s) Domini (gen.s) praeparaverat (3s plup.act.ind)In Judea, the apostle had prepared the way of the Lord.12. Qui (n.pl) semper (adv) et diligenter (adv) operaverint (3pl fut.perf.act.ind) pro Domino (abl.s) aeternum praemium (acc.s) habebunt (3.pl fut.act.ind) in regno (abl.s) caelorum (Gen.pl).Whoever will have operated always and everywhere for God, will have the eternal reward in the kingdom of the heavens.13. Parvuli (n.pl), qui ad Jesum (acc.s) in Petri (gen.s) domo (abl.s locative) venerant (3.pl plup.act.ind),​ benedicebantur (3.pl imp.pass.ind)The little children who had come to Jesus in Peter'​s house were being blessed.14. Sed ante annum (Acc) Paulus (n.s) Petrum (acc.s) in Galilaea (Abl.s locative) viderat (3.s plup.act.ind).But before the year Paul had seen Peter in Galilee.15. Parvus servus (n.s), qui cibum (acc.s) paraverat (3.s plup.act.ind),​ scivit (3.s pai) cunctos (acc) qui vocabantur (3.pl Imp.pass.ind).The small servant, who had prepared the food, knew all who were being called.16. Paulus (n.s) , magister (n.s) in Judaea (abl.s) clarus (n.s) , scripturas (acc.pl) bene (adv) sciverat (3.s plup.act.ind).Paul,​ a famous teacher in Judea, had known the scriptures well.17. Populus (n.s), qui in aula (abl.s locative) congregaverit (3.s fut.perf.act.ind),​ victoria (abl.s cause) Christi (gen.s) exsultabit (3.s fut.act.ind)The people, who in the hall will have congregated,​ will exult because of the victory of Christ.18. Discipuli (n.pl) congregaverunt (3.pl Perf.act.ind) in cenaculo (abl.s locative), et Petrus (n.s) dixit (3.s plup.act.ind) quia hodie (adv) est (3.s pai) magnum festum (n.s) Domini (gen.s).The disciples congregated in the cenacle and Peter had said "Today there is the great feast of the Lord"​19. Paulus (n.s) autem (conj) ad populum (acc.s) dixit (3.s plup.act.ind),​ Indignus (n.s) sum (1.s pai) esse (inf) etiam servus (n.s) Domini (gen.s) nostri Jesu Christi.Then Paul had said to the people, I am not worthy to be servant of the Lord Jesus Christ.20. Minister (n.s) enim et servi (n.s) se inclinaverint (3.pl fut.perf.act.ind) et ad Deum (acc.s) Dominum (acc.s) creaturae ​ (n.pl) oraverint (3.pl fut.perf.act.ind).The minister and the servants will have bowed and the creatures will have prayed to the Lord God21. Qui propheta (n.s) sanctis scripturis (abl.pl means) populum (acc.s) monuerat (3s plup.ai)?​What prophet warned the people by means of the holy scriptures?​22. Hinc minister (n.s) hostiam (acc.s) consecaverit (3s Fut.perf.ai) (consecrabit 3s Fut ai).Here the minister will (have) consecrated the host.23. Dixerat (3s plup.ai) diaconus (n.s), quoniam Paulus (n.s), cui erat (Imp.ai) potentia (n.s) Dei (gen.s) non furat  (3s plup.ai) unus (n.s) primorum apostolorum (Gen.pl).The deacon said "Paul who was the power of God, had not been one of the first apostles.24. Secundum Scripturas (acc.pl) beati (n.pl) erunt (3pl fut.ai) in aeternum (acc.s), qui mandata (acc.pl) Domini (gen.s) observaverint (3pl fut perf ai)According to the Scriptures, blessed in eternity will be those who will have observed the commands of the Lord.25. Hostia sanctificabitur (3s fut.pass.ind ) et efficietur (3s fut.pass.ind ) cibus (n.s) aeternae vitae (gen.s), quod nostro ministro (dat.sing) Deus (n.s) potentiam (acc.s) dedit (3s perf.act.ind).The food of eternal life  will be sanctified and be made effective by the hosts which God gave power to our minister.26. Erat (3s Imp.act.ind) autem hora tertia (n.s) Mk 15,25And it was the third hour.27. Dicit (3s pai) ei Jesus "Bene dixisti (2s perf act ind): 'Non habeo (1s pai) virum (acc.s)';​ quinque enim viros (acc.pl) habuisti (2s perf.ai), et nunc, quem habes, non est tuus vir Hoc vere dixisti. (2s perf.ai)"​Jesus says to her: Well you have said I have no man. Indeed you have had 5 men, and now the one you have is not your husband. You have spoken rightly. ​
  
-<p id="​l608">​ 
-<​u>​Direct quotations</​u>​ may have no change, or quia(quoniam) following dixit. It may have a comma. Tense in a quote needn'​t match </​em>​dixit<​em> ​ 
-</p> 
-<p id="​l610">​ 
-<​strong>​Exercises</​strong>​ <​br/>​1. Quoniam Hebraei (n.pl) columnam (acc.s) flammae (gen.pl) viderunt (3pl perf.ai), etiam hodie (adv) Pascham (acc.s) observant (3pl pres.ai). <​br/>​Because the Hebrews saw a column of flames, even today they observe the Pasch. <​br/>​2. Tunc caeli (n.pl) anti Jesum (acc.s) aperiebantur (3pl Imp.pass.ind). <​br/>​Then the heavens were opened before Jesus. <​br/>​3. Merito (adv) universa creatura (n.s) inocentiam (acc.s) Agni (gen.s) laudaverit (3s fut.perf.act.ind) <​br/>​Rightly every creature will have praised the innocence of the Lamb. <​br/>​4. Aula (n.s) laetitia (Abl.s cause) populi (Gen.s) resultaverat (3s plup.act.ind) <​br/>​The hall had resounded because the joy of the people. <​br/>​5. Jam (adv) Jesus (n.s) populo (dat.s) intrare (inf) in templum (Acc) dixerat (3pl plup.act.ind) <​br/>​Then Jesus had told to the people to enter the temple. <​br/>​6. Cuncti apostoli (n.pl) in cenaculo (abl.s locative) congregaverant (3pl plup.act.ind),​ et ibi (adv) Deum (acc.s) pereniter (adv) conglorificabant (3pl Imp.act.ind) <​br/>​All the apostles had congregated in the cenacle and there they continually glorified God. <​br/>​7. In principio (adv) erat (3s Imp.act.ind) Verbum (n.s), et Verbum (n.s) erat (3s Imp.act.ind) apud Deum (acc.s), et Deus (n.s) erat (3s Imp.act.ind) Verbum (n.s). <​br/>​In the beginning was the word and the word was with God and the word was God. <​br/>​8. Ob Adae (acc.s) culpam (acc.s) primam (acc.s) habemus (1.pl pai) Christum Dominum (acc.s). <​br/>​Because of the first fault of Adam, we have Christ the Lord. <​br/>​9. Nam (conj) Christus (n.s) mortuos (Acc.pl) a vivis (Abl.pl) separaverit (3.s fut.perf.act.ind) <​br/>​For Christ will have separated the dead from the living. <​br/>​10. Pascha (Abl.s) dolorosi (n.pl) efficiuntur (3pl pres.pass.ind) laeti (n.pl). <​br/>​Because of the pasch, sorrows are tuned into joys. <​br/>​11. In Judaea (Abl.s. locative) apostolus (n.s) viam (acc.s) Domini (gen.s) praeparaverat (3s plup.act.ind) <​br/>​In Judea, the apostle had prepared the way of the Lord. <​br/>​12. Qui (n.pl) semper (adv) et diligenter (adv) operaverint (3pl fut.perf.act.ind) pro Domino (abl.s) aeternum praemium (acc.s) habebunt (3.pl fut.act.ind) in regno (abl.s) caelorum (Gen.pl). <​br/>​Whoever will have operated always and everywhere for God, will have the eternal reward in the kingdom of the heavens. <​br/>​13. Parvuli (n.pl), qui ad Jesum (acc.s) in Petri (gen.s) domo (abl.s locative) venerant (3.pl plup.act.ind),​ benedicebantur (3.pl imp.pass.ind) <​br/>​The little children who had come to Jesus in Peter'​s house were being blessed. <​br/>​14. Sed ante annum (Acc) Paulus (n.s) Petrum (acc.s) in Galilaea (Abl.s locative) viderat (3.s plup.act.ind). <​br/>​But before the year Paul had seen Peter in Galilee. <​br/>​15. Parvus servus (n.s), qui cibum (acc.s) paraverat (3.s plup.act.ind),​ scivit (3.s pai) cunctos (acc) qui vocabantur (3.pl Imp.pass.ind). <​br/>​The small servant, who had prepared the food, knew all who were being called. <​br/>​16. Paulus (n.s) , magister (n.s) in Judaea (abl.s) clarus (n.s) , scripturas (acc.pl) bene (adv) sciverat (3.s plup.act.ind). <​br/>​Paul,​ a famous teacher in Judea, had known the scriptures well. <​br/>​17. Populus (n.s), qui in aula (abl.s locative) congregaverit (3.s fut.perf.act.ind),​ victoria (abl.s cause) Christi (gen.s) exsultabit (3.s fut.act.ind) <​br/>​The people, who in the hall will have congregated,​ will exult because of the victory of Christ. <​br/>​18. Discipuli (n.pl) congregaverunt (3.pl Perf.act.ind) in cenaculo (abl.s locative), et Petrus (n.s) dixit (3.s plup.act.ind) quia hodie (adv) est (3.s pai) magnum festum (n.s) Domini (gen.s). <​br/>​The disciples congregated in the cenacle and Peter had said "Today there is the great feast of the Lord" <​br/>​19. Paulus (n.s) autem (conj) ad populum (acc.s) dixit (3.s plup.act.ind),​ Indignus (n.s) sum (1.s pai) esse (inf) etiam servus (n.s) Domini (gen.s) nostri Jesu Christi. <​br/>​Then Paul had said to the people, I am not worthy to be servant of the Lord Jesus Christ. <​br/>​20. Minister (n.s) enim et servi (n.s) se inclinaverint (3.pl fut.perf.act.ind) et ad Deum (acc.s) Dominum (acc.s) creaturae ​ (n.pl) oraverint (3.pl fut.perf.act.ind). <​br/>​The minister and the servants will have bowed and the creatures will have prayed to the Lord God <​br/>​21. Qui propheta (n.s) sanctis scripturis (abl.pl means) populum (acc.s) monuerat (3s plup.ai)? <​br/>​What prophet warned the people by means of the holy scriptures? <​br/>​22. Hinc minister (n.s) hostiam (acc.s) consecaverit (3s Fut.perf.ai) (consecrabit 3s Fut ai). <​br/>​Here the minister will (have) consecrated the host. <​br/>​23. Dixerat (3s plup.ai) diaconus (n.s), quoniam Paulus (n.s), cui erat (Imp.ai) potentia (n.s) Dei (gen.s) non furat  (3s plup.ai) unus (n.s) primorum apostolorum (Gen.pl). <​br/>​The deacon said "Paul who was the power of God, had not been one of the first apostles. <​br/>​24. Secundum Scripturas (acc.pl) beati (n.pl) erunt (3pl fut.ai) in aeternum (acc.s), qui mandata (acc.pl) Domini (gen.s) observaverint (3pl fut perf ai) <​br/>​According to the Scriptures, blessed in eternity will be those who will have observed the commands of the Lord. <​br/>​25. Hostia sanctificabitur (3s fut.pass.ind ) et efficietur (3s fut.pass.ind ) cibus (n.s) aeternae vitae (gen.s), quod nostro ministro (dat.sing) Deus (n.s) potentiam (acc.s) dedit (3s perf.act.ind). <​br/>​The food of eternal life  will be sanctified and be made effective by the hosts which God gave power to our minister. <​br/>​26. Erat (3s Imp.act.ind) autem hora tertia (n.s) Mk 15,25 <​br/>​And it was the third hour. <​br/>​27. Dicit (3s pai) ei Jesus "Bene dixisti (2s perf act ind): 'Non habeo (1s pai) virum (acc.s)';​ quinque enim viros (acc.pl) habuisti (2s perf.ai), et nunc, quem habes, non est tuus vir Hoc vere dixisti. (2s perf.ai)"​ <​br/>​Jesus says to her: Well you have said I have no man. Indeed you have had 5 men, and now the one you have is not your husband. You have spoken rightly. ​ 
-</p> 
 ===Unit 12  - Possum=== ===Unit 12  - Possum===
 +|Present act. ind.  |I am able, powerful ​ |possum ​ |potes ​ |potest ​ |possumus ​ |potestis ​ |possunt ​ |
 +|Imperfect act. ind.  |I could   ​|poteram ​ |poteras ​ |poterat ​ |poseramus ​ |poteratis ​ |poterant ​ |
 +|Future act. ind.  |I will be able  |potero ​ |poteris ​ |poterit ​ |poterimus ​ |poteritis ​ |poterunt ​ |
 +|Perf act ind   | I was able   ​|potui ​  ​|potuisti ​  ​|potuit ​  ​|potuimus ​ |potuistis ​  ​|potuerunt ​  |
 +|Pluperf act.ind. ​  |I had been able  |potueram ​ |potueras ​ |potuerat ​   |potueramus ​ |potuatis ​ |potuerant ​ |
 +|Future Perf.act.ind. ​  | I will have been able  |potuero ​ |potueris ​ |potuerit ​   |potuerimus ​ |potueritis ​ |potuer**i**nt ​ |
  
-    <ul>+**Complementary Infinitive** //Dominum **laudare** possumus// - we can (to) praise the lord. 
 +**Object Infinitive** //Pueri sciunt **orare**// - the boys know (how) to pray 
  
 +**Perfect-Passive Stem** ​
  
-<div class="​wikitable">​ +|to form the   ​|pluperfect passive, ​  ​|perfect passive and   ​|future perfect passive | 
-<table border="​1">​ +|use the appropriate form of esse:  | sum,   |eram  |ero  | 
- <​tr id="​l667">​ +|meaning ​ | have been   |had been   |will have been  ​|
-<​td>​ +
-Present actind.</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-I am ablepowerful</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-possum</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-potes</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-potest</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-possumus</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-potestis</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-possunt</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
- <​tr id="​l668">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-Imperfect act. ind.</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-I could </​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-poteram</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-poteras</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-poterat</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-poseramus</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-poteratis</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-poterant</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
- <​tr id="​l669">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-Future act. ind.</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-I will be able</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-potero</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-poteris</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-poterit</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-poterimus</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-poteritis</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-poterunt</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
- <​tr id="​l670">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-Perf act ind </​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
- I was able </​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-potui </​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-potuisti </​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-potuit </​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-potuimus</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-potuistis </​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-potuerunt </​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
- <​tr id="​l671">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-Pluperf act.ind. </​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-had been able</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-potueram</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-potueras</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-potuerat ​ </​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-potueramus</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-potuatis</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-potuerant</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
- <​tr id="​l672">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-Future Perf.act.ind. </​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
- ​I ​will have been able</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-potuero</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-potueris</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-potuerit ​ </​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-potuerimus</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-potueritis</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-potuer<​strong>​i</​strong>​nt</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-</​table>​ +
-</​div>​+
  
-    </ul>+**perfect passive participle** - the 4th principal part of the verb. The participle ending will be in the nominative to match the subject. You can substitute fui, fuisti, etc with no change in meaning. = stem + t + ending: lauda + t + us. The perfect participle can also be 
 +  * an adjective Puer laudatus venit or   
 +  * a substantive. E.g. Laudatus beatus est. 
 +  * an adverbial clause. Puer, laudatus, beatus, est. Because the boy is praised, he is happy. 
 +  * //Postquam// + perfect tense (in english it is pluperfect/​perfect) After he had come, he did ... 
 +  * //​Antequam//​ + perfect tense, then pluperfect. (in english it is perfect/​pluperfect) Before he came, he had done ... 
 +  * //​Potentiam//​ is power, but it is always power over and the object of the power is in the genitive. 
 +  * //Dum// always takes present indicitative Dum operat, orabat. But in english imperfect: while he was working, he was praying. ​
  
 +**Exercises** 1. Per Jesu (acc.s) potentiam (acc.s) Petrus (n.s) valebat (3pl imp.ai) populo (abl.s) debita (acc.pl) dimittere (inf).Through the power of Jesus, Peter was able to release the sins for the people.2. Nunc (adv) dimittis (2s pai) servum (acc.s) tuum.Now you dismiss your servant.3. Certe (adv) Deum (acc.s) laudere (inf) non desinemus (1pl pai). Nam (conj) Dominus (n.s) est in aeternum (acc.s). Amen.Surely we do not cease to praise God for the Lord is forever. Amen.4. Postquam (adv) Paulus (n.s) aulam (acc.s) reliquit (3s perf.ai), sub tectum (acc.s) discipuli (gen.s) venit (3s pai).After Paul quit the hall, he went under the roof of the disciple.5. Eva (n.s) Adae (dat.s) a Deo (abl.s agency) data (n.s).Eve is given to Adam by God.6, Postquam (conj) Christus (n.s) Jesus a mortuis (abl.pl origin) ​ resurexit (3s perf.act.ind),​ vivus (n.s) in Galilaea () a quibusdam discipulis (abl.pl agency) visus est (3s plup.pass.ind)After Christ Jesus rose from the dead, He was seen alive in Galilee by certain diciples.7 ​ Petrus (n.s) puero (n.s) permisit (3s perf.ai) cibum (acc.s) et vinum (acc.s) mittere (inf) ad familiam (acc.s).Peter permitted the boy to send food and wine to the family.8. Antequam (conj) minister (n.s) collectam (acc.s) oravit (3s perf.ai), in silentio (abl.s manner) se inclinavit (3s perf.ai).Before the minister prayed the collect, he bowed in silence.9. Dimissus (n.s) a Petro (abl.s agency), vir (n.s) tamen (adv) ad Jesum (acc.s) acclamabat (3s imp.ai).Dismissed by Peter, the man nevertheless was crying out to Jesus.10. Antequam (conj) apostoli (n.s) a Jesu () relicti sunt (3pl plup.pas.ind),​ acceperunt (3pl perf.act.ind) potentiam (acc.s) peccati (gen.s).Before the apostles had been left by Jesus, they had received power over sin.11. Quoniam Jesus (n.s) discipulis (dat.pl) verba sautifera (acc.pl) dedit (3s pai), ad Deum (acc.s) orare (inf) cum gaudio (abl.s manner) debemus (1pl pai).Since Jesus gave healing words to the apostles, We must pray to God with joy.12. De populi (gen.s) vita (abl.s) scire (inf) poterunt (3pl fut.act.ind),​ sed scientis (part. gen.s) de Dei (gen.s) gloria (abl.s).They aren't able to know of the life of the people, but knowledge of the glory of God13. Quidam discipuli (n.s) , non nimis excepti, Galilaeam (acc.s) reliquerunt (3pl . perf act ind)Certain disciples, not very much exception, left Jerusalem.14. Populus contritus (n.s), a Paulo (abl.s agency) bene (adv) monitus (part), incepit (3s pai) secuudum Jesu praecepta (acc) vivere (inf).The contrite people, well admonished by Paul, began to live by the precepts of Jesus.15. In Iiturgia (abl.s) misericordia (n.s) Domini (gen.s) a populo (abl.s agency) saepe (adv) est (3s pai) Iaudata (part).In liturgy, the mercy of God is often praised by the people.16. De Jesu (gen.s) vita (abl.s spec) carus (n.s) apostolus (n.s) scivit (3s perf act ind) mira scribere (inf).The dear apostle knew how to write the wonders of the life of Jesus.17. Jam (adv) Eva (n.s) primum filium (acc.s) conceperat (3s plup act ind).Now Eve had conceived the first son.18. Hodie (adv) ante (prep) mensam (acc.s) Domini (gen.s) convenimus (1pl pai) Christiani (n.pl).Today,​ before the altar of the Lord, we christians gather.19. Optimum magister vinum (acc.s) adhuc (adv) servavit (3s perf ai).Till now, the teacher served the best wine.20. Universum (n.s) salutifera (abl.s) Dei (gen.s) potentia (abl.s) semper (adv) rectum (n.s) fuit (3s perf ai).All men, by the healing power of God, was always virtuous.21. ​ Discipuli (n.pl) igtur (conj) visi sunt (3pl pass.perf.ind) certum capere (inf) praemium (acc.s).The disciples therefore are seen to take the certain prize.22. Malus servus (n.s), a bono (abl.s agency) monitus (part), nimis (adv) maledicere (inf) domino (dat.s) desiit (3s perf ai).The bad servant, warned by the good, stopped too much cursing of the lord.23. Tunc (adv) optimus et maximus vir (n.s) Judaeam (acc.s) gubernabat (3s Imp.act.ind)?​Then was the best and greatest man governing Judea?24. Puer aurum, quod Petro dederat (3s plup act ind), subito (adv) recepit (3s perf ai) atque (conj) familiae (gen.s) dedit (3s perf ai).The boy hearing that Peter surrendered,​ suddenly received and gave of the family???​25. In Jesu (abl.s) adimpleta sunt (3.pl perf pass.ind) verba (n.pl) antiquorum prophetarum (gen.pl).In Jesus the words of the ancient profets are fulfilled.26. Beati sunt qui parvulos (acc.pl) ante domum (acc) congregatos (acc.pl) adjuvare (inf) possunt (3pl pai).Blessed are they who are able to help the little ones congregating before the house.27. Et universorum (Gen.pl) vincula (n.s) soluta (n.s) sunt (3.pl pai). Acts 16,26And the bonds of everyone are dissolved.28. Ipsi gloria (n.s) et imperium (n.s) in saecula saeculorum. Amen. Rev 1,6To him gloria and power forever and ever. Amen.29. Amen, amen dico (1s pai) vobis (Dat.pl): Venit (3s pai) hora (n.s), et nunc (adv) est (3s pai). Jn 5, 25Amen, Amen, I say to you: The hour comes and now is.30. Vobis (Dat.pl) datum (n.s) est mysterium (acc.s) regni (gen.s) Dei (gen.s). Mk 4,11To you is given the mystery of the reign of God.31. Ecce video (1s pai) caelos (acc.pl) apertos (acc.pl). Acts 7,​56.Behold,​ I see the heavens open.Ablative absolute:​Cantantibus organis, Caecilia in corde suo Deum adoravit,​Although the organ was playing, Cecilia adored God in her heart. ​
  
-<p id="​l674">​ 
-<​strong>​Complementary Infinitive</​strong>​ </​em>​Dominum <​strong>​laudare</​strong>​ possumus<​em>​ - we can (to) praise the lord. <​br/><​strong>​Object Infinitive</​strong>​ </​em>​Pueri sciunt <​strong>​orare<​em></​strong>​ - the boys know (how) to pray <​br/><​strong>​Perfect-Passive Stem</​strong> ​ 
-</p> 
- 
-    <ul> 
- 
- 
-<div class="​wikitable">​ 
-<table border="​1">​ 
- <​tr id="​l677">​ 
-<td> 
-to form the </td> 
-<td> 
-pluperfect passive, </td> 
-<td> 
-perfect passive and </td> 
-<td> 
-future perfect passive.</​td>​ 
-</tr> 
- <​tr id="​l678">​ 
-<td> 
-use the appropriate form of esse:</​td>​ 
-<td> 
- sum, </td> 
-<td> 
-eram, </td> 
-<td> 
-ero</​td>​ 
-</tr> 
- <​tr id="​l679">​ 
-<td> 
-meaning</​td>​ 
-<td> 
- have been </td> 
-<td> 
-had been </td> 
-<td> 
-will have been</​td>​ 
-</tr> 
-</​table>​ 
-</​div>​ 
-<p id="​l680">​ 
- + the perfect passive participle - the 4th principal part of the verb. The participle ending will be in the nominative to match the subject. You can substitute fui, fuisti, etc with no change in meaning. ​ 
-</p> 
- 
-    </ul> 
- 
- 
-<p id="​l682">​ 
-<​strong>​perfect passive participle</​strong>:​ stem + t + ending: lauda + t + us. The perfect participle can also be <br/> 
-</p> 
- 
-    <ul> 
- 
-    <li> 
-<p id="​l683">​ 
- an adjective Puer laudatus venit or <br/> 
-</p> 
-</li> 
-    <li> 
-<p id="​l684">​ 
- a substantive. E.g. Laudatus beatus est. <br/> 
-</p> 
-</li> 
-    <li> 
-<p id="​l685">​ 
- an adverbial clause. Puer, laudatus, beatus, est. Because the boy is praised, he is happy. <​br/><​p id="​l686">​ 
- </​em>​Postquam<​em>​ + perfect tense (in english it is pluperfect/​perfect) After he had come, he did ... <​br/><​p id="​l687">​ 
- </​em>​Antequam<​em>​ + perfect tense, then pluperfect. (in english it is perfect/​pluperfect) Before he came, he had done ... <​br/><​p id="​l688">​ 
- </​em>​Potentiam<​em>​ is power, but it is always power over and the object of the power is in the genitive. <​br/><​p id="​l689">​ 
- </​em>​Dum<​em>​ always takes present indicitative Dum operat, orabat. But in english imperfect: while he was working, he was praying. ​ 
-</p> 
-</li> 
- 
-    </ul> 
- 
- 
-<p id="​l691">​ 
-<​strong>​Exercises</​strong>​ <​br/>​1. Per Jesu (acc.s) potentiam (acc.s) Petrus (n.s) valebat (3pl imp.ai) populo (abl.s) debita (acc.pl) dimittere (inf). <​br/>​Through the power of Jesus, Peter was able to release the sins for the people. <​br/>​2. Nunc (adv) dimittis (2s pai) servum (acc.s) tuum. <​br/>​Now you dismiss your servant. <​br/>​3. Certe (adv) Deum (acc.s) laudere (inf) non desinemus (1pl pai). Nam (conj) Dominus (n.s) est in aeternum (acc.s). Amen. <​br/>​Surely we do not cease to praise God for the Lord is forever. Amen. <​br/>​4. Postquam (adv) Paulus (n.s) aulam (acc.s) reliquit (3s perf.ai), sub tectum (acc.s) discipuli (gen.s) venit (3s pai). <​br/>​After Paul quit the hall, he went under the roof of the disciple. <​br/>​5. Eva (n.s) Adae (dat.s) a Deo (abl.s agency) data (n.s). <​br/>​Eve is given to Adam by God. <​br/>​6,​ Postquam (conj) Christus (n.s) Jesus a mortuis (abl.pl origin) ​ resurexit (3s perf.act.ind),​ vivus (n.s) in Galilaea () a quibusdam discipulis (abl.pl agency) visus est (3s plup.pass.ind) <​br/>​After Christ Jesus rose from the dead, He was seen alive in Galilee by certain diciples. <​br/>​7 ​ Petrus (n.s) puero (n.s) permisit (3s perf.ai) cibum (acc.s) et vinum (acc.s) mittere (inf) ad familiam (acc.s). <​br/>​Peter permitted the boy to send food and wine to the family. <​br/>​8. Antequam (conj) minister (n.s) collectam (acc.s) oravit (3s perf.ai), in silentio (abl.s manner) se inclinavit (3s perf.ai). <​br/>​Before the minister prayed the collect, he bowed in silence. <​br/>​9. Dimissus (n.s) a Petro (abl.s agency), vir (n.s) tamen (adv) ad Jesum (acc.s) acclamabat (3s imp.ai). <​br/>​Dismissed by Peter, the man nevertheless was crying out to Jesus. <​br/>​10. Antequam (conj) apostoli (n.s) a Jesu () relicti sunt (3pl plup.pas.ind),​ acceperunt (3pl perf.act.ind) potentiam (acc.s) peccati (gen.s). <​br/>​Before the apostles had been left by Jesus, they had received power over sin. <​br/>​11. Quoniam Jesus (n.s) discipulis (dat.pl) verba sautifera (acc.pl) dedit (3s pai), ad Deum (acc.s) orare (inf) cum gaudio (abl.s manner) debemus (1pl pai). <​br/>​Since Jesus gave healing words to the apostles, We must pray to God with joy. <​br/>​12. De populi (gen.s) vita (abl.s) scire (inf) poterunt (3pl fut.act.ind),​ sed scientis (part. gen.s) de Dei (gen.s) gloria (abl.s). <​br/>​They aren't able to know of the life of the people, but knowledge of the glory of God <​br/>​13. Quidam discipuli (n.s) , non nimis excepti, Galilaeam (acc.s) reliquerunt (3pl . perf act ind) <​br/>​Certain disciples, not very much exception, left Jerusalem. <​br/>​14. Populus contritus (n.s), a Paulo (abl.s agency) bene (adv) monitus (part), incepit (3s pai) secuudum Jesu praecepta (acc) vivere (inf). <​br/>​The contrite people, well admonished by Paul, began to live by the precepts of Jesus. <​br/>​15. In Iiturgia (abl.s) misericordia (n.s) Domini (gen.s) a populo (abl.s agency) saepe (adv) est (3s pai) Iaudata (part). <​br/>​In liturgy, the mercy of God is often praised by the people. <​br/>​16. De Jesu (gen.s) vita (abl.s spec) carus (n.s) apostolus (n.s) scivit (3s perf act ind) mira scribere (inf). <​br/>​The dear apostle knew how to write the wonders of the life of Jesus. <​br/>​17. Jam (adv) Eva (n.s) primum filium (acc.s) conceperat (3s plup act ind). <​br/>​Now Eve had conceived the first son. <​br/>​18. Hodie (adv) ante (prep) mensam (acc.s) Domini (gen.s) convenimus (1pl pai) Christiani (n.pl). <​br/>​Today,​ before the altar of the Lord, we christians gather. <​br/>​19. Optimum magister vinum (acc.s) adhuc (adv) servavit (3s perf ai). <​br/>​Till now, the teacher served the best wine. <​br/>​20. Universum (n.s) salutifera (abl.s) Dei (gen.s) potentia (abl.s) semper (adv) rectum (n.s) fuit (3s perf ai). <​br/>​All men, by the healing power of God, was always virtuous. <​br/>​21. ​ Discipuli (n.pl) igtur (conj) visi sunt (3pl pass.perf.ind) certum capere (inf) praemium (acc.s). <​br/>​The disciples therefore are seen to take the certain prize. <​br/>​22. Malus servus (n.s), a bono (abl.s agency) monitus (part), nimis (adv) maledicere (inf) domino (dat.s) desiit (3s perf ai). <​br/>​The bad servant, warned by the good, stopped too much cursing of the lord. <​br/>​23. Tunc (adv) optimus et maximus vir (n.s) Judaeam (acc.s) gubernabat (3s Imp.act.ind)?​ <​br/>​Then was the best and greatest man governing Judea? <​br/>​24. Puer aurum, quod Petro dederat (3s plup act ind), subito (adv) recepit (3s perf ai) atque (conj) familiae (gen.s) dedit (3s perf ai). <​br/>​The boy hearing that Peter surrendered,​ suddenly received and gave of the family??? <​br/>​25. In Jesu (abl.s) adimpleta sunt (3.pl perf pass.ind) verba (n.pl) antiquorum prophetarum (gen.pl). <​br/>​In Jesus the words of the ancient profets are fulfilled. <​br/>​26. Beati sunt qui parvulos (acc.pl) ante domum (acc) congregatos (acc.pl) adjuvare (inf) possunt (3pl pai). <​br/>​Blessed are they who are able to help the little ones congregating before the house. <​br/>​27. Et universorum (Gen.pl) vincula (n.s) soluta (n.s) sunt (3.pl pai). Acts 16,26 <​br/>​And the bonds of everyone are dissolved. <​br/>​28. Ipsi gloria (n.s) et imperium (n.s) in saecula saeculorum. Amen. Rev 1,6 <​br/>​To him gloria and power forever and ever. Amen. <​br/>​29. Amen, amen dico (1s pai) vobis (Dat.pl): Venit (3s pai) hora (n.s), et nunc (adv) est (3s pai). Jn 5, 25 <​br/>​Amen,​ Amen, I say to you: The hour comes and now is. <​br/>​30. Vobis (Dat.pl) datum (n.s) est mysterium (acc.s) regni (gen.s) Dei (gen.s). Mk 4,11 <​br/>​To you is given the mystery of the reign of God. <​br/>​31. Ecce video (1s pai) caelos (acc.pl) apertos (acc.pl). Acts 7,56. <​br/>​Behold,​ I see the heavens open. <​br/>​Ablative absolute: <​br/>​Cantantibus organis, Caecilia in corde suo Deum adoravit, <​br/>​Although the organ was playing, Cecilia adored God in her heart. ​ 
-</p> 
 ===Unit 13 Perfect Passive=== ===Unit 13 Perfect Passive===
-<p id="​l759">​ 
-</​em>​Duco,​ ducere, duxi, ductus<​em>​ lead  
-</p> 
  
-    <ul>+//Duco, ducere, duxi, ductus// lead 
  
 +^Perfect Indicative Passive - have been  ^^
 +|Ductus, a um sum  |ducti ae a sumus  |
 +|Ductus, a um es  |ducti ae a estis  |
 +|Ductus, a um est  |ducti ae a sunt  |
 +|Pluperfect Indicative Passive - had been  ||
 +|Ductus, a um eram  |ducti ae a eramus ​ |
 +|Ductus, a um eras  |ducti ae a eratis ​ |
 +|Ductus, a um erat  |ducti ae a erant  |
 +|Future Perfect Indicative Passive - Will have been  ||
 +|Ductus, a um ero  |ducti ae a erimus ​ |
 +|Ductus, a um eris  |ducti ae a eritis ​ |
 +|Ductus, a um erit  |ducti ae a erunt  |
  
-<div class="​wikitable">​ +  * Can substitute future perfect fuero fueris fuerit, etc with no change in meaning.  
-<table border="​1">​ +  * __Ablative Absolute__ **Noun + Participle** ​ (here perfect passive participle) The ablative absolute influences the meaning of the main clause. 
- <​tr id="​l761">​ +  * Cena (abl.s) praeparata, pueri in domum intraverunt. 
-<td colspan="​2"​ align="​center">​ +  * With the dinner prepared, the boys entered the house. Also: because, when, although. There are a lot of English clauses that can be translated with the ablative absolute.  
-Perfect Indicative Passive - have been</​td>​ +  * __Temporal Clauses__ Cum (ubi, ut) Jesus surrexit, apolsoli erant laeti. ​
-</​tr>​ +
- <​tr id="​l762">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-Ductus, a um sum</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-ducti ae a sumus</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
- <​tr id="​l763">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-Ductus, a um es</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-ducti ae a estis</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
- <​tr id="​l764">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-Ductus, a um est</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-ducti ae a sunt</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
- <​tr id="​l765">​ +
-<td colspan="​2"​ align="​center">​ +
-Pluperfect Indicative Passive - had been</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
- <​tr id="​l766">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-Ductus, a um eram</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-ducti ae a eramus</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
- <​tr id="​l767">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-Ductus, a um eras</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-ducti ae a eratis</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
- <​tr id="​l768">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-Ductus, a um erat</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-ducti ae a erant</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
- <​tr id="​l769">​ +
-<td colspan="​2"​ align="​center">​ +
-Future Perfect Indicative Passive - Will have been</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
- <​tr id="​l770">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-Ductus, a um ero</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-ducti ae a erimus</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
- <​tr id="​l771">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-Ductus, a um eris</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-ducti ae a eritis</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
- <​tr id="​l772">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-Ductus, a um erit</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-ducti ae a erunt</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
-</​table>​ +
-</​div>​ +
-<p id="​l773">​ +
- Can substitute future perfect fuero fueris fuerit, etc with no change in meaning.  +
-</p>+
  
-    </ul>+**Exercises**1. Hymno dicto (abl absolute) apostoli (nom.pl) domum (acc.s) reliquerunt (3pl perf.act.ind)With hymns said, the apostles left the house.2. Antequam (conj) puer (n.s) ad cenam (acc.s) missus est (3s perf.ind.pass),​ primum (adv) in domini (gen.s) agro(abl.s location) cunctis (abl.pl manner) cum servis (abl.pl) operavit (3s perf.act.ind). Before the boy was sent to dinner, first he worked with all the servants in the field of the master.3. Tunc (adv) Galilaei (n.s) a Romanis (abl agency) saepe (adv) despecci sunt (3pl perf.ind.pass),​ quoniam (conj) deos (acc.pl) Romanorum (gen.pl) non adorabant (3pl Imp.act.ind). Then the Galilaeans were often dispised by the romans since they didn't adore the gods of the romans.4. Cum verba Jesu audita erunt, qui vir (n.s) non credet (3s Fut.ai). When Jesus' words will have been heard, what man will not believe.5. Dum operat (3s pai), orabat (3s imp.act.ind). While he works he was praying.6. Si mandata (n.pl) mea a populo (abl agency) observata (n.pl) fuerint (3pl fut.perf.ind.pass),​ habebunt (3pl fai) vitam (acc.s) aeternam. If my commandments will have been observed by the people, they will have eternal life.7. Petrus (n.s) populo (dat) mira (abl spec) Domini (gen.s) dicet (3s pai), donec (conj.) Paulus (n.s) advenerit (3s fut.perf.ind.act). Peter speaks to the people about the marvels of God until Paul will have come.8. Stella (n.s) in caelo (abl. loc) visa (part.), viri (n.pl) ex agris (abl.pl loc) venerunt (3pl perf.act.ind) atque (conj) adoraverunt (3pl perf.act.ind) natum (acc.s) Jesum. When the star was seen in the sky, the men came out of the fields and adored the child Jesus.9. Ut Jesus (ns) circumspexit (3s perf.act.ind) viri (n.pl) erant (3pl imperf.act.ind) maesti (n.pl) et non unum verbum (acc.s) dixerunt (3pl perf.act.ind). Sciverunt (3pl perf.act.ind) enim quod Jesus (ns) //vera// (acc.pl) dixerat (3s plup.act.ind). When Jesus looked around, the men were sad and didn't say a word. They knew that truly Jesus had spoken the truth.10. Cum viderint (3pl fut.perf.act.ind) oculi (n.pl) mei Dominum (acc.s), meam (acc.s) vitam finire (inf) potero (1s fut.act.ind). When my eyes will have seen the Lord, my life will be able to finish.11. Ubi angelus (ns) Domini (gen.s) visus erit (3s fut.perf.pass.ind),​ tuba (n.s) victoriae (gen.s) super universam (acc.s) terram audietur (3s fut.pass.ind). When the angel of the Lord will be seen, the trumpet of victory will be heard over the whole land.12. Etiam (conj) in deserto (abl.s location) Judaeae (gen.s) baptista (n.s) Jesum (acc.s) scivit (3s perf ai). Jesu enim (conj) primum respecto, dixit (3s perf ai): Ecce agnus (ns) Dei (gen.s).And in the desert of Judea the baptist knew Jesus and first looking at Jesus said: Behold the Lamb of God.13. Etsi est (3s pai) parvulus (ns), puer (ns) in domo (abl.s loc) restat (3s pai).Although he is small, the boy remains at home.14. Baptista (n.s) autem traditio, venit Jesus in Galilaeam, ubi populo Evangelium dicere incepit.The Baptist surrendering,​ Jesus came in Galilee where he began to teach the Gospel to the people.15. Maria primum natum peperit (3s perf ai), et vocatus est (3s perf.pass.ind) Jesus.Mary gave birth to the first child, and he is called Jesus.16. Sanctus vir (n.s) dextera (abl.s) puerum (acc.s) cepit (3s perf act ind) et duxit (3s perf act ind) in domum (acc.s).The holy man took hold of the boy on the right and led him into the house.17. Ubi (conj) Judaei (n.pl) digitum (acc.s) Dei (gen.s) in caelis (abl.pl) spexerunt (3pl perf.act.ind),​ laeti potentiam (acc.s) misericordiamque (acc.s) laudaverunt (3pl perf.act.ind).When the Judeans saw the finger of God in the heavens, the joyful praised power and mercy.18. In principio (adv.clause) Deus (n.s) mundum (acc.s) creavit (3s perf ai) ac vitae (gen.s) praestitit (3s perf ai) donum (acc.s).In the beginning, God created the world and gave the gift of life.19. Natura immutata (n.s) est (3s pai) nostra (n.s), ut Filius (n.s) incarnatus est (3s pref.pass.ind)?​Is our nature unchanged when the Son has been incarnated.20. Natus (n.s) in brachiis (abl.pl loc) Mariae (gen.s) habitus fuerat (3s plup.pass.ind).The child in the arms of Mary had been found.21. Postquam (adv) vir (n.s) malus aurum (acc.s) condidit (3s perf.ai), ad dexteram (acc.s) Petri (gen.s) in silentio (abl.s manner) astitit (3s perf.ai).After the bad man put away the gold, he stood at the right of peter on silence.22. Vir (n.s), qui (rel.pron) vitam (acc.s) perdidit (3s perf.act.ind),​ a Judaeis (abl.pl) laudatus fuerat (3s plup.pass.ind).The man, who lost his life, by the Judeans had been praised.23. Romani (n.pl) qui (rel.pron) circumsteterant (3pl plup.act.ind) puero (dat.s) instabant (3pl imp.act.ind).The Romans who had been standing around threatened the boy.24. Nisi mea verba (n.pl) effecta (n.pl) fuerint (3pl fut.perf.ai) , beati (n.pl) non eritis (2pl fut.perf.pass.ind).Unless my words will have been effective, they will not be blessed25. Christianis ubique inventis (abl.pl ), Paulus (n.s), bene satiatus (n.s), in domo (abl.s loc) Petri (gen.s) cum gaudio (abl.s manner) restabat (3s imp.ai).Christians being found everywhere, Paul, well satisfied , in the house of Peter with joy was resting.26. Mea Culpa (abl.s), mea culpa, mea maxima culpa.By my fault, by my fault, by my most grevious fault.27. Et traditus est (3s perf.pass.ind) Jesu (dat.s) liber (n.s) prophetae (gen.pl).And the book of the prophets was handed to Jesus28. Non est hic, sed surrexit. Lk 24,6He is not here, but he has risen. ​
  
- 
-<p id="​l775">​ 
-<​u>​Ablative Absolute</​u>​ <​strong>​Noun + Participle</​strong> ​ (here perfect passive participle) The ablative absolute influences the meaning of the main clause. <br/> 
-</p> 
- 
-    <ul> 
- 
-<p id="​l776">​ 
- Cena (abl.s) praeparata, pueri in domum intraverunt. <​br/><​p id="​l777">​ 
- With the dinner prepared, the boys entered the house. Also: because, when, although. There are a lot of English clauses that can be translated with the ablative absolute. ​ 
-</p> 
- 
-    </ul> 
- 
- 
-<p id="​l779">​ 
-<​u>​Temporal Clauses</​u>​ Cum (ubi, ut) Jesus surrexit, apolsoli erant laeti. ​ 
-</p> 
-<p id="​l781">​ 
-<​strong>​Exercises</​strong>​ <​br/>​1. Hymno dicto (abl absolute) apostoli (nom.pl) domum (acc.s) reliquerunt (3pl perf.act.ind) <​br/>​With hymns said, the apostles left the house. <​br/>​2. Antequam (conj) puer (n.s) ad cenam (acc.s) missus est (3s perf.ind.pass),​ primum (adv) in domini (gen.s) agro(abl.s location) cunctis (abl.pl manner) cum servis (abl.pl) operavit (3s perf.act.ind). Before the boy was sent to dinner, first he worked with all the servants in the field of the master. <​br/>​3. Tunc (adv) Galilaei (n.s) a Romanis (abl agency) saepe (adv) despecci sunt (3pl perf.ind.pass),​ quoniam (conj) deos (acc.pl) Romanorum (gen.pl) non adorabant (3pl Imp.act.ind). Then the Galilaeans were often dispised by the romans since they didn't adore the gods of the romans. <​br/>​4. Cum verba Jesu audita erunt, qui vir (n.s) non credet (3s Fut.ai). When Jesus' words will have been heard, what man will not believe. <​br/>​5. Dum operat (3s pai), orabat (3s imp.act.ind). While he works he was praying. <​br/>​6. Si mandata (n.pl) mea a populo (abl agency) observata (n.pl) fuerint (3pl fut.perf.ind.pass),​ habebunt (3pl fai) vitam (acc.s) aeternam. If my commandments will have been observed by the people, they will have eternal life. <​br/>​7. Petrus (n.s) populo (dat) mira (abl spec) Domini (gen.s) dicet (3s pai), donec (conj.) Paulus (n.s) advenerit (3s fut.perf.ind.act). Peter speaks to the people about the marvels of God until Paul will have come. <​br/>​8. Stella (n.s) in caelo (abl. loc) visa (part.), viri (n.pl) ex agris (abl.pl loc) venerunt (3pl perf.act.ind) atque (conj) adoraverunt (3pl perf.act.ind) natum (acc.s) Jesum. When the star was seen in the sky, the men came out of the fields and adored the child Jesus. <​br/>​9. Ut Jesus (ns) circumspexit (3s perf.act.ind) viri (n.pl) erant (3pl imperf.act.ind) maesti (n.pl) et non unum verbum (acc.s) dixerunt (3pl perf.act.ind). Sciverunt (3pl perf.act.ind) enim quod Jesus (ns) </​em>​vera<​em>​ (acc.pl) dixerat (3s plup.act.ind). When Jesus looked around, the men were sad and didn't say a word. They knew that truly Jesus had spoken the truth. <​br/>​10. Cum viderint (3pl fut.perf.act.ind) oculi (n.pl) mei Dominum (acc.s), meam (acc.s) vitam finire (inf) potero (1s fut.act.ind). When my eyes will have seen the Lord, my life will be able to finish. <​br/>​11. Ubi angelus (ns) Domini (gen.s) visus erit (3s fut.perf.pass.ind),​ tuba (n.s) victoriae (gen.s) super universam (acc.s) terram audietur (3s fut.pass.ind). When the angel of the Lord will be seen, the trumpet of victory will be heard over the whole land. <​br/>​12. Etiam (conj) in deserto (abl.s location) Judaeae (gen.s) baptista (n.s) Jesum (acc.s) scivit (3s perf ai). Jesu enim (conj) primum respecto, dixit (3s perf ai): Ecce agnus (ns) Dei (gen.s). <​br/>​And in the desert of Judea the baptist knew Jesus and first looking at Jesus said: Behold the Lamb of God. <​br/>​13. Etsi est (3s pai) parvulus (ns), puer (ns) in domo (abl.s loc) restat (3s pai). <​br/>​Although he is small, the boy remains at home. <​br/>​14. Baptista (n.s) autem traditio, venit Jesus in Galilaeam, ubi populo Evangelium dicere incepit. <​br/>​The Baptist surrendering,​ Jesus came in Galilee where he began to teach the Gospel to the people. <​br/>​15. Maria primum natum peperit (3s perf ai), et vocatus est (3s perf.pass.ind) Jesus. <​br/>​Mary gave birth to the first child, and he is called Jesus. <​br/>​16. Sanctus vir (n.s) dextera (abl.s) puerum (acc.s) cepit (3s perf act ind) et duxit (3s perf act ind) in domum (acc.s). <​br/>​The holy man took hold of the boy on the right and led him into the house. <​br/>​17. Ubi (conj) Judaei (n.pl) digitum (acc.s) Dei (gen.s) in caelis (abl.pl) spexerunt (3pl perf.act.ind),​ laeti potentiam (acc.s) misericordiamque (acc.s) laudaverunt (3pl perf.act.ind). <​br/>​When the Judeans saw the finger of God in the heavens, the joyful praised power and mercy. <​br/>​18. In principio (adv.clause) Deus (n.s) mundum (acc.s) creavit (3s perf ai) ac vitae (gen.s) praestitit (3s perf ai) donum (acc.s). <​br/>​In the beginning, God created the world and gave the gift of life. <​br/>​19. Natura immutata (n.s) est (3s pai) nostra (n.s), ut Filius (n.s) incarnatus est (3s pref.pass.ind)?​ <​br/>​Is our nature unchanged when the Son has been incarnated. <​br/>​20. Natus (n.s) in brachiis (abl.pl loc) Mariae (gen.s) habitus fuerat (3s plup.pass.ind). <​br/>​The child in the arms of Mary had been found. <​br/>​21. Postquam (adv) vir (n.s) malus aurum (acc.s) condidit (3s perf.ai), ad dexteram (acc.s) Petri (gen.s) in silentio (abl.s manner) astitit (3s perf.ai). <​br/>​After the bad man put away the gold, he stood at the right of peter on silence. <​br/>​22. Vir (n.s), qui (rel.pron) vitam (acc.s) perdidit (3s perf.act.ind),​ a Judaeis (abl.pl) laudatus fuerat (3s plup.pass.ind). <​br/>​The man, who lost his life, by the Judeans had been praised. <​br/>​23. Romani (n.pl) qui (rel.pron) circumsteterant (3pl plup.act.ind) puero (dat.s) instabant (3pl imp.act.ind). <​br/>​The Romans who had been standing around threatened the boy. <​br/>​24. Nisi mea verba (n.pl) effecta (n.pl) fuerint (3pl fut.perf.ai) , beati (n.pl) non eritis (2pl fut.perf.pass.ind). <​br/>​Unless my words will have been effective, they will not be blessed <​br/>​25. Christianis ubique inventis (abl.pl ), Paulus (n.s), bene satiatus (n.s), in domo (abl.s loc) Petri (gen.s) cum gaudio (abl.s manner) restabat (3s imp.ai). <​br/>​Christians being found everywhere, Paul, well satisfied , in the house of Peter with joy was resting. <​br/>​26. Mea Culpa (abl.s), mea culpa, mea maxima culpa. <​br/>​By my fault, by my fault, by my most grevious fault. <​br/>​27. Et traditus est (3s perf.pass.ind) Jesu (dat.s) liber (n.s) prophetae (gen.pl). <​br/>​And the book of the prophets was handed to Jesus <​br/>​28. Non est hic, sed surrexit. Lk 24,6 <​br/>​He is not here, but he has risen. ​ 
-</p> 
 ===Unit 14 Third Declension=== ===Unit 14 Third Declension===
  
-    <ul>+  * __Third Declension Nouns__ **-is** in the genitive singular: junk declention - anything that doesn'​t fit elsewhere comes here. Endings are always the same, but the stem changes. Genitive plural ending in -ium. Genitive plural in -um if number of syllables in nominitive is less than genitive, except those ending in -r. 
  
-<p id="​l830">​ +|  |nom, gen, dat, acc, abl   | nom, gen, dat, acc, abl    | 
- <​u>​Third Declension Nouns</​u>​ <​strong>​-is</​strong>​ in the genitive singular: junk declention - anything that doesn'​t fit elsewhere comes here. Endings are always the same, but the stem changes. Genitive plural ending in -ium. Genitive plural in -um if number of syllables in nominitive is less than genitive, except those ending in -r.  +|masc. fem  | -- -is, -i, -em, -e   | -es, -um, -ibus, -es, -ibus  | 
-<div class="​wikitable">​ +|   |rex, regis, regi, regem, rege   | reges, regum, regibus, reges, regibus ​ | 
-<table border="​1">​ +|   |mater, matris, matri, matrem, matre   | matres, matrum, matribus, matres, matribus ​ | 
- <​tr id="​l831">​ +|Neuter ​ | -- -is, -i, -- -e   | -a, -um, -ibus, -a, -ibus  | 
-<​td>​ +|   |corpus, corporis, -pori, -pus, -pore   | -pora, -porum, -poribus, -pora, -poribus ​ | 
-</​td>​ +-ium masc. fem  | -- -is, -i, -em, -e   | -es, -ium, -ibus, -es, -ibus  | 
-<​td>​ +-ium masc. fem  ​| ​pars, partis, parti, partem, parte   | partes, part**i**um, partibus, partes, partibus ​ | 
-nom, gen, dat, acc, abl </​td>​ +|Neuter ​ | -- -is, -i, -- -e   | -ia, -ium, -ibus, -ia, -ibus  | 
-<​td>​ +|Neuter ​ ​| ​mare, maris, mari, mare, mari   | mar**i**a, mar**i**um, maribus, mar**i**a, maribus ​ |
- nom, gen, dat, acc, abl  </​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
- <​tr id="​l832">​ +
-<td> +
-masc. fem</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
- &​mdash;, ​-is, -i, -em, -e </​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
- -es, -um, -ibus, -es, -ibus</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
- <​tr id="​l833">​ +
-<​td>​ +
- </​td>​ +
-<td> +
-rex, regis, regi, regem, rege </​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
- reges, regum, regibus, reges, regibus</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
- <​tr id="​l834">​ +
-<​td>​ +
- </​td>​ +
-<td> +
-mater, matris, matri, matrem, matre </​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
- matres, matrum, matribus, matres, matribus</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
- <​tr id="​l835">​ +
-<td> +
-Neuter</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
- &​mdash;, ​-is, -i, &​mdash;, ​-e </​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
- -a, -um, -ibus, -a, -ibus</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
- <​tr id="​l836">​ +
-<​td>​ +
- </​td>​ +
-<td> +
-corpus, corporis, -pori, -pus, -pore </​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
- -pora, -porum, -poribus, -pora, -poribus</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
- <​tr id="​l837">​ +
-<td> +
- -ium masc. fem</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
- &​mdash;, ​-is, -i, -em, -e </​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
- -es, -ium, -ibus, -es, -ibus</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
- <​tr id="​l838">​ +
-<td> +
- -ium masc. fem</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
- pars, partis, parti, partem, parte </​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
- partes, part<​strong>​i</​strong>​um, partibus, partes, partibus</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
- <​tr id="​l839">​ +
-<td> +
-Neuter</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
- &​mdash;, ​-is, -i, &​mdash;, ​-e </​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
- -ia, -ium, -ibus, -ia, -ibus</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
- <​tr id="​l840">​ +
-<td> +
-Neuter</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
- mare, maris, mari, mare, mari </​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
- mar<​strong>​i</​strong>​a, mar<​strong>​i</​strong>​um, maribus, mar<​strong>​i</​strong>​a, maribus</​td>​ +
-</tr>+
  
-</​p>​ +  * __Genitive ​of Description__ ​describe a noun: people of mercy, people of joyful mind. //homines laeti animi/ 
-</​table>​ +  * __Ablative ​of Description__ ​man of great soul //vir magna anima/ 
-</​div>​ +  ​* ​ __Subjective ​and Objective ​Genitive__ ​Genitive may be used as subject or object. //Propter __Dei__ ​misericordiam ​__hominum__ ​gratias agimus.// We give thanks on account of God's pity toward humans. //Amor Dei// (love of God, or love for God)  
-<p id="​l842">​ +  * __Dative ​of Reference__ ​evil to my people: //mala meo populo// - dative of advantage or disadvantage.  
- <​u>​Genitive ​of Description</​u> ​describe a noun: people of mercy, people of joyful mind. </em>homines laeti animi<em>  +  * __Apposition__ ​Noun in apposition - same number and case.  
-</p> +  * __Concessive Clauses__ Although ​//etsi, quamquam/ 
-<p id="​l844">​ +  ​* ​Antiquus is all ancient things, vetus refers to old, but it means more in relation to persons vetus vir. 
- <​u>​Ablative ​of Description</​u> ​man of great soul </em>vir magna anima<em>  +  ​* ​KULeuven library founded in 1636 with less than 1,000 books, 200 years after the university started. And it was considered at the time to be an important library. ​
-</p> +
-<p id="​l846">​ +
- <​u>​Subjective ​and Objective ​Genitive</​u> ​Genitive may be used as subject or object. ​</em>​Propter <​u>​Dei<​/u> misericordiam ​<​u>​hominum</​u> ​gratias agimus.<​em> ​We give thanks on account of God's pity toward humans. ​</em>Amor Dei<​em> ​(love of God, or love for God)  +
-</​p>​ +
-<p id="​l848">​ +
- <​u>​Dative ​of Reference</​u> ​evil to my people: ​</em>mala meo populo<​em> ​- dative of advantage or disadvantage.  +
-</​p>​ +
-<p id="​l850">​ +
- <​u>​Apposition</​u> ​Noun in apposition - same number and case.  +
-</p> +
-<p id="​l852">​ +
- <​u>​Concessive Clauses</u> Although </em>etsi, quamquam<em>  +
-</p> +
-<p id="​l854">​ +
- ​Antiquus is all ancient things, vetus refers to old, but it means more in relation to persons vetus vir. <​br/><​p id="​l855">​ +
- ​KULeuven library founded in 1636 with less than 1,000 books, 200 years after the university started. And it was considered at the time to be an important library. ​ +
-</p>+
  
-    </ul>+**Exercises** 1. Quamquam (conj) princeps (n.s) sacerdotum (gen.pl) verba (acc.pl) Jesu (gen.s) audivit (3s perf.ai), inhaesit tamen antiquis (dat.pl) modis, et non credidit (3s perf ai).Although the prince of priests (high priest) heard the words of Jesus, nevertheless he clung to the ancient ways and did not believe.2. In templo (acc.s loc) Jesus (n.s) a libro (abl.s) prophetae (gen.s) orationem (acc.s) legit (3s pres/perf ai).In the temple, Jesus read a prayer from the book of the prophets.3. Ergo (conj) apostuli (n.pl) cibum (acc.pl) collegerunt (3pl perf.ai) et dederunt (3pl perf.ai) populo (dat.s).Therefore the apostles collected food and gave it to the people.4. Scripto libro (abl.s absolute), apostolus (n.s) iterum (adv) venit (3s pres/​perf.ai) ad terram (acc.s) ubi a Jesu (abl.s agency) ante multos annos (acc.pl) electus erat (3s plup.pass.ind) .When the book was written, the apostle again came to the land where by Jesus he had been chosen many years before.5. Scis (2s pai) quia Joannes (n.s) dicebatur (3s imp.pass.ind) dilectus discipulus (n.s)?Do you know that John was called the beloved apostle?6. Si nostra deprecatio (n.s) a Patre (abl.s agency) suscepta erit (3s fut.perf.pass.ind),​ laeti erimus (3ps fut.ai).If our prayer is accepted by the Father, we will be happy.7. Mater (n.s) dolorosa corpus (acc.s) Jesu (gen.s) in brachiis (abl.pl) suscepit (3s, perf.ai), postea (adv) corpus (n.s) in terra (abl.s) conditum est (3s perf.pass.i).The sorrowful mother received the body of Jesus in the arms, afterwards the body was buried in the earth.8. Sanctus Petrus (n.s), homo (n.s) pacis (gen.s) et bonae voluntatis (gen.s), electus est (3s perf.pass.ind) princeps (n.s) cunctorum (gen.pl) apostolorum (gen.pl).Holy peter, a man of peace and good will, was elected prince of all the apostles.9. Nostra (n.pl) peccata a Redemptore (abl.s), Jesu Christo (abl.s), detersa sunt (3pl perf.pass.ind.)Our sins have been wiped clean by the redeemer, Jesus Christ.10. Novus discipulus (n.s) , quamquam unus (n.s) apostolorum (gen.pl) non erat (3s imp.act.ind),​ hominibus cunctis (dat.pl) Evangelium (acc.s) scripsit (3s perf.act.ind).The new disciple, although he was not one of the apostles, wrote a Gospel for all people.11. Discipuli (gen.s objective) Evangelium (n.s) Jesu (gen.s) Christi per universas terras (acc.pl) semper (adv) lectum est (3s perf.pass.ind). Nam (conj) in libro (abl.s) vitam (acc.s) Jesu (gen.s) descripsit (3s perf.act.ind).The Gospel of Jesus Christ of the disciple for all the lands was read, for in the book, he described the life of Jesus.12. Tunc (adv) familia (n.s) Jesu (gen.s) ad Bethlehem (acc.s) venit (3s perf.act.ind) et descripta est (3s perf.pass.ind).Then the family of Jesus came to bethlehem and was enrolled (described).13. Postquam (adv) Ioannes (n.s) traditus est (3s perf.pass.ind),​ Jesus (ns) ministerium (acc.s) incepit (3s perf.ai).After John was betrayed, Jesus began ministry.14. Propter regem (n.s) hominem (acc.s) malo animo (abl.s) familia terram (acc.s) patrum reliquit (3s perf.act.ind).On account of the king, a man of bad spirit, the family abandonded the father land.15. Postquam (adv) sacerdos (n.s) noster orationem (acc.s) legit (3s pres/​perf.ai),​ subdidimus (1pl perf.ai): Amen.After the Priest read the prayer, we supplied: Amen.16. Maria (n.s), et virgo (n.s) et mater (n.s), ab homimbus (abl.pl) cunctis laudata (n.s).Mary, both virgin and mother, is praised by all men.17. Sancta familia (n.s) per multos annos (acc.pl) vixit (3s perf.ai) ​ in terra Aegyptia (abl.loc), dum (adv) rex impius (n.s) in Galilaea (abl.s) regnat (3s pai).The holy family, for many years lived in the land of Egypt, while an evil king reigns in Galilee.18. Nomine (abl.s absolute) Jesu (gen.s) a sacerdote (abl.s agency) dicto (abl.s absolute), populus se inclinavit (3s perf.ai).When the name of Jesus was spoken by the priest, the people bowed.19. Ubi lumen est, vita est.Where there is light, there is life.20. Deum (n.s) de Deo (abl.s), lumen (n.s) de lumine (abl.s), Deum verum (n.s) de Deo vero (abl.s)....God from God, light from light, true God from True God....21. Ideo (adv) Patrem (acc.s) invocavimus (1pl perf.ai) et magnas (acc.pl) Filio (dat.s) egimus gratias (acc.pl).Therefore,​ we invoked the father and gave great thanks to the Son.22 Baptismate (abl s)  Joannis (abl.s) Judaei peccatis (abl.s ) liberati sunt (3s perf.pass.ind).When baptized by John, the judeans were freed from their sins.23 Primo Dei Testamento genus (n.s) Judaeum (gen.s) effectum est (3s perf.pass.ind) universo (dat.s) lumen (n.s) mundo.The first testament of God, the race of Judea has brought about light to the whole world.24. Hebraei (n.pl) a Domino (abl.s agency) per aquam (acc.s) sicco vestigio?? (abl.s) recti sunt (3pl perf.pass.ind).The Hebrews by the Lord were made right through water &mdash; dry steps??25 Aurum gladiique (n.pl), munera (n.pl) populi (gen.s), regi (dat.s) iam data (n.pl) erant (3ps plup.pass.ind).Now,​ gold and swords, gifts of the people, were given to the king26. Postquam (adv) Paulus (n.s) Romanis (dat.pl) scripsit (3s perf.ai), discipulus (n.s) Paulo () cenam (acc.s) parare poterat (3s imp.act.ind).After Paul wrote to the Romans, the disciple was able to prepare dinner for paul.27. Hic (this) est Jesus Rex Judaeorum. Mt. xxvii, 37.This is the king of the Jews.28. Et ecce aperti sunt Jesu caeli. Mt. iii, 16, adapted..And behold the heavens were open to Jesus. ​
  
- 
-<p id="​l857">​ 
-1. Quamquam (conj) princeps (n.s) sacerdotum (gen.pl) verba (acc.pl) Jesu (gen.s) audivit (3s perf.ai), inhaesit tamen antiquis (dat.pl) modis, et non credidit (3s perf ai). <​br/>​Although the prince of priests (high priest) heard the words of Jesus, nevertheless he clung to the ancient ways and did not believe. <​br/>​2. In templo (acc.s loc) Jesus (n.s) a libro (abl.s) prophetae (gen.s) orationem (acc.s) legit (3s pres/perf ai). <​br/>​In the temple, Jesus read a prayer from the book of the prophets. <​br/>​3. Ergo (conj) apostuli (n.pl) cibum (acc.pl) collegerunt (3pl perf.ai) et dederunt (3pl perf.ai) populo (dat.s). <​br/>​Therefore the apostles collected food and gave it to the people. <​br/>​4. Scripto libro (abl.s absolute), apostolus (n.s) iterum (adv) venit (3s pres/​perf.ai) ad terram (acc.s) ubi a Jesu (abl.s agency) ante multos annos (acc.pl) electus erat (3s plup.pass.ind) . <​br/>​When the book was written, the apostle again came to the land where by Jesus he had been chosen many years before. <​br/>​5. Scis (2s pai) quia Joannes (n.s) dicebatur (3s imp.pass.ind) dilectus discipulus (n.s)? <​br/>​Do you know that John was called the beloved apostle? <​br/>​6. Si nostra deprecatio (n.s) a Patre (abl.s agency) suscepta erit (3s fut.perf.pass.ind),​ laeti erimus (3ps fut.ai). <​br/>​If our prayer is accepted by the Father, we will be happy. <​br/>​7. Mater (n.s) dolorosa corpus (acc.s) Jesu (gen.s) in brachiis (abl.pl) suscepit (3s, perf.ai), postea (adv) corpus (n.s) in terra (abl.s) conditum est (3s perf.pass.i). <​br/>​The sorrowful mother received the body of Jesus in the arms, afterwards the body was buried in the earth. <​br/>​8. Sanctus Petrus (n.s), homo (n.s) pacis (gen.s) et bonae voluntatis (gen.s), electus est (3s perf.pass.ind) princeps (n.s) cunctorum (gen.pl) apostolorum (gen.pl). <​br/>​Holy peter, a man of peace and good will, was elected prince of all the apostles. <​br/>​9. Nostra (n.pl) peccata a Redemptore (abl.s), Jesu Christo (abl.s), detersa sunt (3pl perf.pass.ind.) <​br/>​Our sins have been wiped clean by the redeemer, Jesus Christ. <​br/>​10. Novus discipulus (n.s) , quamquam unus (n.s) apostolorum (gen.pl) non erat (3s imp.act.ind),​ hominibus cunctis (dat.pl) Evangelium (acc.s) scripsit (3s perf.act.ind). <​br/>​The new disciple, although he was not one of the apostles, wrote a Gospel for all people. <​br/>​11. Discipuli (gen.s objective) Evangelium (n.s) Jesu (gen.s) Christi per universas terras (acc.pl) semper (adv) lectum est (3s perf.pass.ind). Nam (conj) in libro (abl.s) vitam (acc.s) Jesu (gen.s) descripsit (3s perf.act.ind). <​br/>​The Gospel of Jesus Christ of the disciple for all the lands was read, for in the book, he described the life of Jesus. <​br/>​12. Tunc (adv) familia (n.s) Jesu (gen.s) ad Bethlehem (acc.s) venit (3s perf.act.ind) et descripta est (3s perf.pass.ind). <​br/>​Then the family of Jesus came to bethlehem and was enrolled (described). <​br/>​13. Postquam (adv) Ioannes (n.s) traditus est (3s perf.pass.ind),​ Jesus (ns) ministerium (acc.s) incepit (3s perf.ai). <​br/>​After John was betrayed, Jesus began ministry. <​br/>​14. Propter regem (n.s) hominem (acc.s) malo animo (abl.s) familia terram (acc.s) patrum reliquit (3s perf.act.ind). <​br/>​On account of the king, a man of bad spirit, the family abandonded the father land. <​br/>​15. Postquam (adv) sacerdos (n.s) noster orationem (acc.s) legit (3s pres/​perf.ai),​ subdidimus (1pl perf.ai): Amen. <​br/>​After the Priest read the prayer, we supplied: Amen. <​br/>​16. Maria (n.s), et virgo (n.s) et mater (n.s), ab homimbus (abl.pl) cunctis laudata (n.s). <​br/>​Mary,​ both virgin and mother, is praised by all men. <​br/>​17. Sancta familia (n.s) per multos annos (acc.pl) vixit (3s perf.ai) ​ in terra Aegyptia (abl.loc), dum (adv) rex impius (n.s) in Galilaea (abl.s) regnat (3s pai). <​br/>​The holy family, for many years lived in the land of Egypt, while an evil king reigns in Galilee. <​br/>​18. Nomine (abl.s absolute) Jesu (gen.s) a sacerdote (abl.s agency) dicto (abl.s absolute), populus se inclinavit (3s perf.ai). <​br/>​When the name of Jesus was spoken by the priest, the people bowed. <​br/>​19. Ubi lumen est, vita est. <​br/>​Where there is light, there is life. <​br/>​20. Deum (n.s) de Deo (abl.s), lumen (n.s) de lumine (abl.s), Deum verum (n.s) de Deo vero (abl.s).... <​br/>​God from God, light from light, true God from True God.... <​br/>​21. Ideo (adv) Patrem (acc.s) invocavimus (1pl perf.ai) et magnas (acc.pl) Filio (dat.s) egimus gratias (acc.pl). <​br/>​Therefore,​ we invoked the father and gave great thanks to the Son. <​br/>​22 Baptismate (abl s)  Joannis (abl.s) Judaei peccatis (abl.s ) liberati sunt (3s perf.pass.ind). <​br/>​When baptized by John, the judeans were freed from their sins. <​br/>​23 Primo Dei Testamento genus (n.s) Judaeum (gen.s) effectum est (3s perf.pass.ind) universo (dat.s) lumen (n.s) mundo. <​br/>​The first testament of God, the race of Judea has brought about light to the whole world. <​br/>​24. Hebraei (n.pl) a Domino (abl.s agency) per aquam (acc.s) sicco vestigio?? (abl.s) recti sunt (3pl perf.pass.ind). <​br/>​The Hebrews by the Lord were made right through water &mdash; dry steps?? <​br/>​25 Aurum gladiique (n.pl), munera (n.pl) populi (gen.s), regi (dat.s) iam data (n.pl) erant (3ps plup.pass.ind). <​br/>​Now,​ gold and swords, gifts of the people, were given to the king <​br/>​26. Postquam (adv) Paulus (n.s) Romanis (dat.pl) scripsit (3s perf.ai), discipulus (n.s) Paulo () cenam (acc.s) parare poterat (3s imp.act.ind). <​br/>​After Paul wrote to the Romans, the disciple was able to prepare dinner for paul. <​br/>​27. Hic (this) est Jesus Rex Judaeorum. Mt. xxvii, 37. <​br/>​This is the king of the Jews. <​br/>​28. Et ecce aperti sunt Jesu caeli. Mt. iii, 16, adapted.. <​br/>​And behold the heavens were open to Jesus. ​ 
-</p> 
 ===Unit 15 Third Declension -i stem=== ===Unit 15 Third Declension -i stem===
  
-    <​ul>​ +  * Masculine and Feminine ​__-ium in genitive ​plural__ ​- this is indicated in the vocabulary. They either end in two consonants (2nd isn'​t ​**L** or **R**) or have equal number of syllables in nominative and genitive singular. Neuter -ium in genitive plural, also i in ablative singular and ia in nom and accusative plural. Most nominatives are in -e, -ar or -al. See table in Unit 14 above.<p id="​l916">​ 
- +  * __Partitive Genitive__ ​genitive indicates the whole after a word denoting a part: //multos discipulorum//. The whole is in the genitive.<​p id="​l917">​ 
-<p id="​l915">​ +  * __Dative ​with certain ​adjectives__ ​pleasing to, near to, dear to, similar to, dissimilar to, difficult to, easy to, useful, jucundus: Deo gratum. Similar to the dative of advantage or dative or disadvantage. Compound verbs quite often take the dative.<​p id="​l918">​ 
- Masculine and Feminine ​<u>-ium in genitive ​plural</​u> ​- this is indicated in the vocabulary. They either end in two consonants (2nd isn'​t ​<​strong>​L</​strong> ​or <​strong>​R</​strong>​) or have equal number of syllables in nominative and genitive singular. Neuter -ium in genitive plural, also i in ablative singular and ia in nom and accusative plural. Most nominatives are in -e, -ar or -al. See table in Unit 14 above. ​<br/><p id="​l916">​ +  * __Predicate Accusative__ ​//Christus Jesus Petrum ​**apostolum** fecit.//<p id="​l919">​ 
- <​u>​Partitive Genitive</​u> ​genitive indicates the whole after a word denoting a part: </em>multos discipulorum<em>. The whole is in the genitive. ​<br/><p id="​l917">​ +  * __Cognate Accusative__ ​//Vitam// bonam //vixit//. = Bene vixit. ​
- <​u>​Dative ​with certain ​adjectives</​u> ​pleasing to, near to, dear to, similar to, dissimilar to, difficult to, easy to, useful, jucundus: Deo gratum. Similar to the dative of advantage or dative or disadvantage. Compound verbs quite often take the dative. ​<br/><p id="​l918">​ +
- <​u>​Predicate Accusative<​/u> </em>Christus Jesus Petrum ​<​strong>​apostolum</​strong> ​fecit.<em> <br/><p id="​l919">​ +
- <​u>​Cognate Accusative<​/u> </em>Vitam<​em> ​bonam </em>vixit<em>. = Bene vixit. ​ +
-</​p>​ +
- +
-    </ul>+
  
 +**Exercises** 1. Multi (n.s) hominum (gen.pl) a Jesu (abl.s agency) sanatorum (gen.pl) gratias Deo (dat.s) non egerunt (3pl perf.ai).Many people who were healed by Jesus didn't give thanks to God.2. Joannes (n.s) viam (acc.s) Domini (gen.s) paravit (3s perf.ai); multi (n.pl) Iudaeorum (gen.pl), corde (abl/dat.s) contriti (gen.s / n.pl), a Joanne (abl.s agency) baptisma (acc.pl) aquae (gen.s) acceperunt (3pl perf.act.ind);​ Jesus (n.s) quoque ad Joannem (acc.s) venit (3s p/perf ai) in baptisma (acc.pl); secundum Joannem debemus Jesum vocare Agnum Dei.John prepared the way of the Lord, Many of the Judeans, contrite of heart, accepted baptism of water by john; likewise Jesus came to John in baptism; according to John we should call Jesus: Lamb of God.3. Ad saeculi (gen.s) finem (acc.s) tuba (acc.pl) justitiae (gen.s) insonuerit (3s fut.perf.act.ind).At the end of the ages, the trumpets of justice will have sounded.4. In primis (adv) ad ambonem (acc.s) lector (n.s) primam (acc.s) lectionem leget (3s p/perf.ai); hinc (adv) cantor (n.s) canticum (acc.s) cantabit (3s fut.act.ind).First the lector reads the first reading from the pulpit, then the cantor will sing. (from there??)5. Sanguis (gen.s) agni (gen.s) in postibus (abl.pl location) fecit (3s perf.ai) antiquos (acc.pl) hebraeos salvos.Of the blood of the lamb on the doorposts made safe the ancient jews.6. Ad Pascham (acc.s) laeti sumus (1pl perf.pass.ind),​ quoniam (conj) per resurrectionem (acc.s) Redemptoris (gen.s) effecti sumus (1pl perf.pass.ind) novae vitae (gen.s) participes (n.pl).We are joyful at the pasch, since by the resurrection of the redeemer are made participants of new life.7. Hebraei (n.pl), quorum (gen.pl) corda (n.pl) erant (3pl Imp.act.ind) apta ad Domini ministerium,​ per Mare Rubrum (acc.s) ducti sunt (3pl perf.pass.ind).Hebrews,​ whose hearts were suitable for the ministry of the Lord, were lead through the Red Sea.8. Fugatur (3s pres.pass.ind) caligo ​ iniquitatis (gen.s); lumen (n.s) Christi (gen.s) a cunctis hominibus (abl.pl. agency) videtur. Alleluja.The mist of iniquity was put to flight; the light of christ was seen by all people. Alleluia.9. Praeter cunctos homines (acc.pl) Mariam (acc.s), Stellam Maris, laudamus (1pl pai), quia Mater (n.s) Dei est.Above all people, we praise mary, Star of the Sea, for she is mother of God.10. Nisi (conj) meum (acc.s) corpus manducaveritis (2pl fut.perf.act.ind) et biberitis (2pl fut.perf.act.ind) meum (acc.s) sanguinem, in regnum (acc.s) caelorum (gen.pl) non intrabitis (2pl fut.ai).Unless you all will have eaten my body and drunk my blood, you will not enter into the kingdom of heaven.11. Sanguine (abl.s) agni (gen.s) in postibus (abl.pl) Hebraeorum (gen.pl) viso (abl.s), sub tecta (acc.pl) angelus (n.s) Dei (gen.s) non intravit (3s perf.act.ind).Seeing the blood of the lamb on the posts of the Hebrews, the angel of God did not enter under the roofs.12. Propter Christi (gen.s) victoriam (acc.s) mortis (gen.s) aula (n.s) laetis (abl.pl) hymnis personuit (3s perf.ai).On account of the victory of Christ, the hall resounded with the joyous hymns of the death.13. Turba (n.pl) satis panis (acc.pl) habuerunt (3pl perf.ai)? Nisi (conj) satis (acc.pl) manducaverint (3pl fut.perf.ai),​ pars populi (gen.s partitive) in via (abl.s) deficient (3pl fut.ai).Did the crowds have enough bread? Unless they will have eaten enough, some of the people will fail in the way.14. Petrus (n.s) primus (n.s) Jesum (acc.s) vocavit (3s perf.ai) Christum (acc.s)? Quamquam (conj) Petrus (n.s) multa non scivit (3s perf.ai), vidit (3s perf.ai) quod (rel.pron) Jesus (n.s) erat (3s Imp.ai) Dominus (n.s).Was Peter first to call Jesus the Christ? Although Peter didn't know much, he saw that Jesus was the Lord15. Viri (n.pl),a diacono (abl.s agency) formati (n.pl), nunc (adv) sunt (3pl pai) baptismati (n.pl) apti?The men, educated by the deacon, now are ready for baptism.16. Joannes(n.s),​ Jesu (gen.s) cordi (loc.s) proximus (n.s), ad dextram (acc.s) Mariae (gen.s) astitit (3s perf.ai).John,​ close to the heart of Jesus, stood at the right of Mary.17. Morte (abl.s) Jesu (gen.s) apostoli, quoniam erant humani, effecti sunt maesti, sed resurrectione,​ laeti.When Jesus died, the apostles, because they were human, became but at the resurrection,​ they became joyful.18. Jesus, redemptor ​ humani generis, prae cunctis (abl.ps) ubique laudatur (3s pres.pass.ind).Jesus,​ redeemer of the human race, before everyone, everywhere is praised.19. Etsi (conj) mentem (acc.s) Dei (gen.s) scire (inf) non semper possumus (1pl pai), boni (n.pl) Domino () credunt (3pl pai).Although we cannot always know the mind of God, the good believe in the Lord.20. Per boni (gen.s) Domini largitatem (acc.s) plena (n.s) est mensa (n.s) nostra cibo (abl.s).Throught the abundance of the good Lord, our table is full of food.21. Etiam (conj) pars (n.s) hominum (gen.pl partitive) optimorum a malo (abl.s) seducti sunt (3pl perf.pass.ind).Now part of the best persons are lead away from evil.22. Audivisti (2s perf.ai) quia cunctae creaturae (n.pl) a mari (abl.s) primum (adv) venerunt (3pl perf.ai)?​Have you heard that all creatures first came from the sea?23. Post Evangelii (gen.s) lectionem (acc.s) popolus (n.s) responsum (acc.s) acclamavit (3s perf ai).After the reading of the Gospel, the people proclaimed the response.24. Humani (voc.pl), qui in mondo (abl.s) vivimus (1pl pai), laudamus (1pl pai) Patrem (acc.s), qui mundum (acc.s) condidit (3s perf.ai).People,​ we who live in the world praise the Father who preserved the world.25. Episcopus Romanus, etsi homo bonus et justus, satis beatam vitam non vixit.The bishop of rome, although a good and upright man, did not live a sufficiently holy life.26. Mariam Reginam Caeli vocamus, quoniam est Mater Dei.We call Mary the Queen of heaven because she is the Mother of God.27. Semper et ubique misericordiam Domini in mente habebimus.Always and everywhere, we will have in mind the mercy of God.28. Aeterno cibo maducato, orationem subdimus ante missae finem.When the eternal food is eaten, we say the prayer before the end of Mass.29. Relicta Galilaea, iterum Jesus cum apostolis ad fines Judaeae venit.When he returned to Galilee, again, Jesus with the apostles when to the border of Judea.30. Dominus mentes nostras ad superna desideria erigit.The lord leads our minds to supreme desire.31. Beati mundo corde, quoniam ipsi ('​they'​) Deum videbunt Mt. v 8.Blest the pure of heart, they shall see God.32. Adoramus (1pl pai) quod scimus (1pl pai) quia salus ex Judaeis est. Jn iv 22We adore what we know since salvation is from the Judeans ​
  
-<p id="​l921">​ 
-1. Multi (n.s) hominum (gen.pl) a Jesu (abl.s agency) sanatorum (gen.pl) gratias Deo (dat.s) non egerunt (3pl perf.ai). <​br/>​Many people who were healed by Jesus didn't give thanks to God. <​br/>​2. Joannes (n.s) viam (acc.s) Domini (gen.s) paravit (3s perf.ai); multi (n.pl) Iudaeorum (gen.pl), corde (abl/dat.s) contriti (gen.s / n.pl), a Joanne (abl.s agency) baptisma (acc.pl) aquae (gen.s) acceperunt (3pl perf.act.ind);​ Jesus (n.s) quoque ad Joannem (acc.s) venit (3s p/perf ai) in baptisma (acc.pl); secundum Joannem debemus Jesum vocare Agnum Dei. <​br/>​John prepared the way of the Lord, Many of the Judeans, contrite of heart, accepted baptism of water by john; likewise Jesus came to John in baptism; according to John we should call Jesus: Lamb of God. <​br/>​3. Ad saeculi (gen.s) finem (acc.s) tuba (acc.pl) justitiae (gen.s) insonuerit (3s fut.perf.act.ind). <​br/>​At the end of the ages, the trumpets of justice will have sounded. <​br/>​4. In primis (adv) ad ambonem (acc.s) lector (n.s) primam (acc.s) lectionem leget (3s p/perf.ai); hinc (adv) cantor (n.s) canticum (acc.s) cantabit (3s fut.act.ind). <​br/>​First the lector reads the first reading from the pulpit, then the cantor will sing. (from there??) <​br/>​5. Sanguis (gen.s) agni (gen.s) in postibus (abl.pl location) fecit (3s perf.ai) antiquos (acc.pl) hebraeos salvos. <​br/>​Of the blood of the lamb on the doorposts made safe the ancient jews. <​br/>​6. Ad Pascham (acc.s) laeti sumus (1pl perf.pass.ind),​ quoniam (conj) per resurrectionem (acc.s) Redemptoris (gen.s) effecti sumus (1pl perf.pass.ind) novae vitae (gen.s) participes (n.pl). <​br/>​We are joyful at the pasch, since by the resurrection of the redeemer are made participants of new life. <​br/>​7. Hebraei (n.pl), quorum (gen.pl) corda (n.pl) erant (3pl Imp.act.ind) apta ad Domini ministerium,​ per Mare Rubrum (acc.s) ducti sunt (3pl perf.pass.ind). <​br/>​Hebrews,​ whose hearts were suitable for the ministry of the Lord, were lead through the Red Sea. <​br/>​8. Fugatur (3s pres.pass.ind) caligo ​ iniquitatis (gen.s); lumen (n.s) Christi (gen.s) a cunctis hominibus (abl.pl. agency) videtur. Alleluja. <​br/>​The mist of iniquity was put to flight; the light of christ was seen by all people. Alleluia. <​br/>​9. Praeter cunctos homines (acc.pl) Mariam (acc.s), Stellam Maris, laudamus (1pl pai), quia Mater (n.s) Dei est. <​br/>​Above all people, we praise mary, Star of the Sea, for she is mother of God. <​br/>​10. Nisi (conj) meum (acc.s) corpus manducaveritis (2pl fut.perf.act.ind) et biberitis (2pl fut.perf.act.ind) meum (acc.s) sanguinem, in regnum (acc.s) caelorum (gen.pl) non intrabitis (2pl fut.ai). <​br/>​Unless you all will have eaten my body and drunk my blood, you will not enter into the kingdom of heaven. <​br/>​11. Sanguine (abl.s) agni (gen.s) in postibus (abl.pl) Hebraeorum (gen.pl) viso (abl.s), sub tecta (acc.pl) angelus (n.s) Dei (gen.s) non intravit (3s perf.act.ind). <​br/>​Seeing the blood of the lamb on the posts of the Hebrews, the angel of God did not enter under the roofs. <​br/>​12. Propter Christi (gen.s) victoriam (acc.s) mortis (gen.s) aula (n.s) laetis (abl.pl) hymnis personuit (3s perf.ai). <​br/>​On account of the victory of Christ, the hall resounded with the joyous hymns of the death. <​br/>​13. Turba (n.pl) satis panis (acc.pl) habuerunt (3pl perf.ai)? Nisi (conj) satis (acc.pl) manducaverint (3pl fut.perf.ai),​ pars populi (gen.s partitive) in via (abl.s) deficient (3pl fut.ai). <​br/>​Did the crowds have enough bread? Unless they will have eaten enough, some of the people will fail in the way. <​br/>​14. Petrus (n.s) primus (n.s) Jesum (acc.s) vocavit (3s perf.ai) Christum (acc.s)? Quamquam (conj) Petrus (n.s) multa non scivit (3s perf.ai), vidit (3s perf.ai) quod (rel.pron) Jesus (n.s) erat (3s Imp.ai) Dominus (n.s). <​br/>​Was Peter first to call Jesus the Christ? Although Peter didn't know much, he saw that Jesus was the Lord <​br/>​15. Viri (n.pl),a diacono (abl.s agency) formati (n.pl), nunc (adv) sunt (3pl pai) baptismati (n.pl) apti? <​br/>​The men, educated by the deacon, now are ready for baptism. <​br/>​16. Joannes(n.s),​ Jesu (gen.s) cordi (loc.s) proximus (n.s), ad dextram (acc.s) Mariae (gen.s) astitit (3s perf.ai). <​br/>​John,​ close to the heart of Jesus, stood at the right of Mary. <​br/>​17. Morte (abl.s) Jesu (gen.s) apostoli, quoniam erant humani, effecti sunt maesti, sed resurrectione,​ laeti. <​br/>​When Jesus died, the apostles, because they were human, became but at the resurrection,​ they became joyful. <​br/>​18. Jesus, redemptor ​ humani generis, prae cunctis (abl.ps) ubique laudatur (3s pres.pass.ind). <​br/>​Jesus,​ redeemer of the human race, before everyone, everywhere is praised. <​br/>​19. Etsi (conj) mentem (acc.s) Dei (gen.s) scire (inf) non semper possumus (1pl pai), boni (n.pl) Domino () credunt (3pl pai). <​br/>​Although we cannot always know the mind of God, the good believe in the Lord. <​br/>​20. Per boni (gen.s) Domini largitatem (acc.s) plena (n.s) est mensa (n.s) nostra cibo (abl.s). <​br/>​Throught the abundance of the good Lord, our table is full of food. <​br/>​21. Etiam (conj) pars (n.s) hominum (gen.pl partitive) optimorum a malo (abl.s) seducti sunt (3pl perf.pass.ind). <​br/>​Now part of the best persons are lead away from evil. <​br/>​22. Audivisti (2s perf.ai) quia cunctae creaturae (n.pl) a mari (abl.s) primum (adv) venerunt (3pl perf.ai)? <​br/>​Have you heard that all creatures first came from the sea? <​br/>​23. Post Evangelii (gen.s) lectionem (acc.s) popolus (n.s) responsum (acc.s) acclamavit (3s perf ai). <​br/>​After the reading of the Gospel, the people proclaimed the response. <​br/>​24. Humani (voc.pl), qui in mondo (abl.s) vivimus (1pl pai), laudamus (1pl pai) Patrem (acc.s), qui mundum (acc.s) condidit (3s perf.ai). <​br/>​People,​ we who live in the world praise the Father who preserved the world. <​br/>​25. Episcopus Romanus, etsi homo bonus et justus, satis beatam vitam non vixit. <​br/>​The bishop of rome, although a good and upright man, did not live a sufficiently holy life. <​br/>​26. Mariam Reginam Caeli vocamus, quoniam est Mater Dei. <​br/>​We call Mary the Queen of heaven because she is the Mother of God. <​br/>​27. Semper et ubique misericordiam Domini in mente habebimus. <​br/>​Always and everywhere, we will have in mind the mercy of God. <​br/>​28. Aeterno cibo maducato, orationem subdimus ante missae finem. <​br/>​When the eternal food is eaten, we say the prayer before the end of Mass. <​br/>​29. Relicta Galilaea, iterum Jesus cum apostolis ad fines Judaeae venit. <​br/>​When he returned to Galilee, again, Jesus with the apostles when to the border of Judea. <​br/>​30. Dominus mentes nostras ad superna desideria erigit. <​br/>​The lord leads our minds to supreme desire. <​br/>​31. Beati mundo corde, quoniam ipsi ('​they'​) Deum videbunt Mt. v 8. <​br/>​Blest the pure of heart, they shall see God. <​br/>​32. Adoramus (1pl pai) quod scimus (1pl pai) quia salus ex Judaeis est. Jn iv 22 <​br/>​We adore what we know since salvation is from the Judeans ​ 
-</p> 
 ===Unit 16 Third Declension Adjectives=== ===Unit 16 Third Declension Adjectives===
-<p id="​l987">​ 
-<​u>​Third Declension Adjectives</​u>​ like 3 declension nouns. All three genders have -i in abl.s, -ium in gen.pl and nom and acc pl of neuter have -ia.  
-</p> 
  
-    <ul>+  * __Third Declension Adjectives__ like 3 declension nouns. All three genders have -i in abl.s, -ium in gen.pl and nom and acc pl of neuter have -ia. 
  
 +|3 endings ​ ||||||
 +||SINGULAR ​  ||| PLURAL ​ |||
 +|   ​|MASC. ​  | FEM.   ​| ​ NEUT.    |  MASC.     ​| ​   FEM.    |      NEUT.  |
 +|Nom    |acer    | acris   | acre      | acres        | acres        | acria  |
 +|Gen    |  acris      |||  acrium ​ |||
 +|Dat    |  acri       ​||| ​ acribus ​ |||
 +|Acc    |acrem ​   |acrem ​   |acre     ​|acris,​ -es    |acris, -es    |acria ​ |
 +|Abl    |  acri       ​| ​ acribus ​ |
  
-<div class="​wikitable">​ +|2 endings ​ ​|  ​SINGULAR ​  ||  ​PLURAL  ​|| 
-<table border="​1">​ +|   ​| ​ M AND F    |  NEUT     ​| ​ M AND F      |NEUT.  | 
- <​tr id="​l988">​ +|Nom    ​| ​ omnis    |  omne   ​| ​ omnes   ​| ​ omnia  | 
-<​td>​ +|Gen     omnis   ​|| ​ omnium ​ || 
-endings</​td>​ +|Dat     omni   ​|| ​ omnibus ​ || 
-<td colspan="​3"​ align="​center">​ +|Acc    |  omnem   ​ omne  |  omnis, -es   |  omnia  | 
-SINGULAR ​</​td>​ +|Abl    ​| ​ omni    ||  omnibus ​ ||
-<td colspan="​3"​ align="​center">​ +
- PLURAL</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
- <​tr id="​l989">​ +
-<​td>​ +
- </​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-MASC. </​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
- FEM. </​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-  NEUT.  </​td>​ +
-<td> +
-  ​MASC.   </​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-    FEM.  ​</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-      NEUT.</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
- <​tr id="​l990">​ +
-<td> +
-Nom  ​</​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
-acer  </td> +
-<​td>​ +
- acris </​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
- ​acre ​   </​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
- ​acres ​     </​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
- ​acres ​     </​td>​ +
-<​td>​ +
- ​acria</​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
- <​tr id="​l991">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-Gen  </td> +
-<td colspan="​3"​ align="​center">​ +
-</​em>​acris ​   </​td>​ +
-<td colspan="​3"​ align="​center">​ +
-acrium<​em></​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
- <​tr id="​l992">​ +
-<​td>​ +
-Dat  </​td>​ +
-<td colspan="​3"​ align="​center">​ +
-</​em>​acri ​    </​td>​ +
-<td colspan="​3"​ align="​center">​ +
-<​em>​acribus</​em></​td>​ +
-</​tr>​ +
- <​tr id="​l993">​ +