Canon Law

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This page has Latin language resources and follows Collins A Primer of Ecclesiastical Latin Answers to Exercises found with chapters below.


History of Latin

  • Pre-Classical - Italian region of latio - from 1000bc. 7C bc oldest fibula (buckle) 6C Lapis Negra - date certain.
  • Classical - Golden 2Cbc. Growing difference between written and spoken ticitus, silvius.
  • Sermo urbanus - literary - disappears after time of Christ
  • Sermo vulgaris - ordinary
  • Sermo cotidianus - combination
  • Silver - S.v. and S.c. become silver. Tertulian augustine,
  • Christian - biggest difference is vocabulary for new Xn ideas and bible slowly
  • Medieval - spoken becomes the romance languages, written latin stays language of learning. New vocab and grammar.
  • Cicero wouldn't recognize it.
History of Xn Latin
  • Roots not in city of rome - early xns spoke greek.
  • Roots in N. Africa - Xns there mainly spoke and wrote latin
  • Translations - from greek to latin
  • bible 140-150 Itala and Vulgata 340-420 - these translations are not without problems, simple inconsistent, incoherent [augustine rejected xnity at first because of poor translations],
  • fathers - acta perpetua, didache, letters of clement
  • Original texts
  • Tertulian - created Xn Latin. Transliterated Gk and gave new meaning to Lt words.
  • Cyprian +250
  • Augustine +430 trained in rhetorics. Vulgarization of Latin
  • End of latin - killing of roman empire and spoken latin - written language remains to scholars
  • 1648 peace of Westphalia - first diplomatic document in French.
  • VCII possibility of vernacular.
  • Still official language of church

Vulgate - hard to overestimate the importance of Latin translations of the bible. It exerted a vast influence on the development of romance languages, especially romance, but even germanic languages.

  • Prior to vulgate 4C there were 'old latin versions' of the bible with variant readings. There is little information about these translations, even legend. Metzger writes on early translations of the bible. Probably grounded in double reading of texts: greek then latin. There would have been texts with greek and latin either interlinear or side by side. Greek was 'lingua franca' of Roman Empire and Early Church. Pope Victor 190 - Jerome said he was first to write in Latin. North Africa was start of use of Latin - by 180 they had most of the New Testament. Tertullian first great latin father, used existing latin translation. Cyprian used latin translation. Augustine said few greek and hebrew bibles, but latin translation are without number. Augustine was put off by the latin bible - poor style. While borrowed words were frowned upon, the bible borrowed a lot from greek and hebrew. Even after the Vulgate, people tenaciously hung on to old latin versions even into the 1400s, particularly the psalms.
  • Jerome appointed by Damasus in 383 to revise the current latin translations based on the greek. Immediately revised the Gospels and Psalter. Damasus also finally latinized the liturgy. Born 346, well educated in latin classics, learned greek later and hebrew much later 380s. By modern critical standards it wasn't great understanding, but great for his time. Translation from hebrew was not highly regarded. Hexapla - 6 column bible hebrew, transliterated to greek, septuagint, 3 more columns of greek translations. Proud of his learning. Jerome used Origin's library at Ceasarea, especially hexapla. The Gallican Psalter from septuagint - then later translated from the Hebrew. He cast reason from going to hebrew was polemical - the Jews say our bible is correct. Some of the translations are not by Jerome, e.g. Pauline Epistles, Ben Sirach. Translation wasn't received well - now there was just one more bible. After Jerome, there were other translations. Nova Vulgata - 1965 Pontifical commission for revision of Vulgate from the original - Promulgated in 1979. First the consideration was to get a more accurate translation of the psalms.

Grammar: Summary: Flexi - endings

  • Gender - puer m, filia f, donum n <p id=“l40”>
  • number- singular or plural puer, pueri<p id=“l41”>
  • case- grammatical function in the sentence
  • [John buys bread for his mother in the shop.subj, verb, dir. Obj, Indir. Obj, adverbial phr.Identy 1) verb 2) subject 3) direct object 4) indir obj 5) adverbials
  • 1) Verb, 2) nominative, (predicate same cng as subj) 3) accusative 4) dative 5) ablative
  • The bread is bought by John
  • Subj, verb, personal agency][No articles exist in Latin. Translate from context]
5 Cases:
Nominative subject & predicate Flavius est pater
Genitive 'of' possession Servus patris
Dative indir. Object 'for' 'to'
Accusative dir object. Avis locustam edit
Ablative - more complicated
Personal agency in passive sentences 'by' Puella domina amatur.
After certain prepositions 'locativus' in Roma
Instrumentality or means, 'by' cultre pugnare
specifying the verb

Dative of posession Libro est mihi.

Verbs - 4 (5) conjugations1st -a-2nd -e- long e3rd -e- short e goes to e or ie4th -i-

present sum es est sumus estis sunt
imperfect eram eras erat eramus eratis erant
  • saeculum, saculi n. age, world
  • famulus -i m. servant
  • numquam adv. never
  • quoque also, too
  • deleo, delere, delevi, deletus wipe out, destroy
  • venio, venire, veni, ventus come - note the present and perfect are often the same - see context.
  • invenio find
  • mundus -a -um clean, pure
  • imundus -a -um impure
  • mundus, -i m. world
  • perhibeo, perhibere, perhibui, perhibitus hold out, produce, afford.
  • video, videre, vidi, visus see, realize
  • scio, scire, scivi, scitus know
  • socium, socii n. companion, ally
  • vestigium, vestigii n. footstep
  • resulto, resultare, resultavi, resultatus resound, rebound
  • hostia, hostiae sacrificial offering
  • valeo, valere, valui, valitus be well, be strong, be able (+ inf)
  • videor, videri, – visus sum be seen, seem (+ inf)
  • desino, desinere, desii, desitus cease (+ inf)
  • excipio, excipere, excepi, exceptus welcome
  • insto, instare, institi, &mdash; urge, threaten (+ dat)
  • inhaereo, inhaerere, inhaesi, inhaesus cling to, adhere (+ dat)
  • deprecatio, deprecationis f earnest prayer
  • particeps, participis m. f. participant
  • caligo, caliginis f. mist, gloom
  • fundo, fundere, fudi, fusus pour
  • confundo confound, put to shame, in passive, it is be ashamed of (+ acc)
  • scando, scandere, scandi, scansus climb, mount
  • memor mindful of (+ gen)
  • intereo, interire, interivi, interitus perish, die
  • obeo, obire, obivi, obitus go to meet, die
  • pereo, perire, perivi, peritus perish, die, be lost
  • adsum, adesse, affui, &mdash; be present
  • prosum, prodesse, profui, &mdash; avail, profit, be advantageous to (+ dat)
  • incido, incidere, incidi fall into, happen
  • prex, precis f. entreaty, prayer
  • precor, precari, precatus sum ask, pray beseech (also deprecor…)
  • scelus, sceleris n. crime, sin
  • dignor, dignare, – dignatus sum consider worthwhile dedignor distain
  • judico, judicare, judicavi, judicatus judge dejudico discern
  • jubeo, jubere, jussi, jussus command, request with accusative and infinitive.
  • utor, uti, – usus sum +abl. use, enjoy, be friends with
  • antistes, antistitis m. bishop
  • planctus, -us m. mourning
  • tueor, tueri, – tuitus sum watch, protect, uphold
  • labor, labi, – lapsus sum slide, fall (backslide)
  • talis, tale such, of such a sort
  • tantus, -a, -um so much, so great
  • cano, canere, cecini, cantus Sing prophesy
  • accendo, accendere, accendi, accensus kindle, set on fire.
  • consors, consortis, consortium sharer
  • praestolor, praestolari, – praestolatus sum +dat. wait for, perform
  • fateor, fateri, – fassus sum admit, confess + acc. praise +dat.
  • pasco, pascere, pavi, pastus feed
  • statuo, statuere, statui, statutus establish, appoint, determine
  • ardeo, ardere, arsi, arsus burn
  • inficio, inficere, infeci, infectus infect, polute
  • proficio, proficere, profeci, profectus avail, prevail
  • reficio, reficere, refeci, refectus refresh, repair
  • existimo, existimare, existimavi, existimatus think, judge
  • liquo, liquare, liquavi, liquatus melt
  • illucesco, illucescere, illuxi shine (upon), become light.
  • adpropinquo, -are, -avi, -atus draw near (+dat)
Conjunctions, Prepositions and Adverbs

Conjunctions are indeclinable particles that join clauses together to form sentences. Examples of forms of conjunctions in English are: and, but and so. Conjunctions are either coordinating (joining two main clauses) or subordinating (joing a subclause to a main clause).

Coordinating Conjunctions

  • atque and
  • aut or
  • aut…aut either…or
  • autem but, and - depends on context, may not need to be translated
  • enim (usually placed second in sentence) for
  • ergo and so, therefore
  • et and
  • et…et both…and
  • igitur therefore
  • itaque and so
  • nam for
  • nec/necque and not, nor
  • nec/necque…nec/necque neither…nor
  • prout according as
  • quam than (adv: how, how much)
  • quapropter wherefore, therefore
  • -que* and
  • sed but
  • tamen (usually placed second in a sentence) however
  • vel or (if you prefer)

Subordinating Conjunctions

  • antequam before,
  • cum when, after + ind.; under the circumstances, although, since + subj.
  • donec while, as long as, till
  • dum while, for the time
  • etsi although, even, if
  • licetalthough (with indicative or subjunctive) - properly a verb
  • ne in order that … not, that … not, introducing negative purpose, or direct command, with subj.
  • nisi unless, except
  • quamquam however
  • quia, quod, quoniam because - sometimes
  • eo quodpriusquam before (with indicative or subjunctive)
  • si if
  • sive, seu or if,
  • sive…sive if … or if, whether … or.
  • simul ac as soon as
  • ubi when, as soon as, (where - adverb)
  • ut when, as/with result clauses: in order to, so, to, that, introducing negative purpose, or direct command, with subj. (with postulo, rogo, peto, oro, precor, moneo + subjunctive or acc. + inf; or dico ut + subjunctive)
  • utinam as/with result clauses: in order to, so, to
  • postquam after,
  • postquam puerum vidit


With the accusative case: With the ablative case With genitive
ad to a/ab from causa improper preposition for the sake of, by reason of
adversu -s/-m opposite gratia
ante before cum with vice
apud among, at the house of |de |of, concerning | | |circa |around | | | | |cis |before | | | | |circum |around |e/ex |from, out of | | |contra |against |coram |in the presence of | | |extra |beyond, outside | | | | |in |into |in |in | | |inter |between, among | | | | |intra |within, among | | | | |iuxta |beside | | | | |ob |because of | | | | |/?per through prae before, in preference to, comparison with, consequence of,
post, pone behind, after pro on behalf of, in front of, according to
prope near palam in the presense of
propter near sine without
praeter beyond
secundum according to sub under
secus beside
super upon, over, above super concerning, about, above
trans across
usque up to


  • adhunc so far
  • confestim immediately
  • deinde then, next
  • donec, dum while, as long as
  • etiam even also (intensifying)
  • forsitan perhaps
  • hinc from here
  • iam already
  • ideo therefore, on that account
  • inde from there, from then
  • invicem in turn; as reflecive pronoun: one another.
  • ita so, thus, with adverbs, adjectives and verbs.
  • itaque therefore
  • jam already (with past), now (with present), soon (with future)
  • mox presently
  • nimis too, too much
  • nondum not yet
  • nonne introduces question expecting yes
  • numquid introduces question expecting no
  • palam openly
  • postea afterward
  • quam how, how much (conj: than)
  • quando when?
  • quare why
  • quemadmodo how? just as
  • quid why? how? ut quid
  • quidem indeed, at any rate
  • quo to where (?)
  • quomodo how?
  • sic so, thus, with verbs only
  • sicut like, as
  • simul together, atthe same time
  • sursum upward
  • talis such
  • tam so, to such a degree, with adverbs and adjectives only
  • tamen nevertheless
  • tantum only
  • tum then
  • tunc then
  • ultro on the other side, besides
  • unde from where
  • usque as far as, all the way
  • utinam if only
  • utique certainly, at any rate
  • valdo very
  • velut just as, as if
  • vero truly

Some Adverbs of Time:

  • iam pridem long ago
  • primum first
  • postremo finally
  • postquam as soon as
  • numquam never
  • saepe often
  • cotidie every day
  • nondum not yet
  • crebro frequently
  • pridie the day before
  • umqam ever
  • denique at last

Adverbs of Place:

  • hic here
  • huc hither
  • hinc from here
  • ibi thereeo thither, to there
  • illic therequo whitherunde whence
  • ubi whereundique from everywhere
  • ibidem in the same placee
  • odem to the same place
  • quovis anywhere
  • usque all the way to
  • intro inwardly
  • nusquam nowhere
  • porro further on
  • citro to this side

Adverbs of Manner, Degree, or Cause:

  • quam how,
  • astam so
  • quamvis however much
  • magis more
  • paene almost
  • valde greatly
  • cur why
  • quare why
  • ergo therefore
  • propterea because, on this account
  • ita so
  • sic so
  • ut as, how
  • vix hardly

Interrogative Particles:

  • whether: an, -ne, utrum, utrumne, num
  • whether not nonne, annon
  • whether at all numquid, ecquid
  • Negative Particles:not non, haud, minime, ne, neclest nenor neque, nec
  • not only … but also non modo … verum/sed etiam
  • not only not … but not even non modo … sed ne … quidem
  • not even ne … quidem
  • if not si minus
  • so as not quo minus, quominus
  • why not? quin

Latin in the Code

This chart gives all the words that occur in the Code of Canon Law more than 100 times, the English translation, then parses the term. Knowing these words cold will help your reading of the code.

Times in Code Latin English Grammar
2139 in in prep with acc or abl
1797 et and conj
1449 ad to prep + acc
1132 de of prep + abl
1019 vel or ADV: even, actually; or even, in deed; CONJ or;
718 aut or conj
682 si if subordinating conj
663 qui which, that n.s or n.p pronoun anyone, anything: qui, quae, quod
589 est is 3s pai
586 non not
555 a from, by prep, ablative
549 ut to / that conj + subj
536 quae which, that n.s or n.p or acc.p pronoun anyone, anything: qui, quae, quod
518 ab from, by prep + abl
467 nisi unless conj
453 potest it can 3s pai
316 cum with; when prep + abl; or adverb: when
314 per through, by prep + acc
313 sit it would be 3s pas
309 ex from prep + abl
286 etiam also conj
274 sive or if, or conj
273 quibus which, that dat/abl.p pronoun anyone, anything: qui, quae, quod
272 iure by right adv
268 normam standard acc.s
254 ecclesiae church gen.s. dat.s, nom.p
253 sunt they are 3p pai
250 pro for prep + abl
239 quo which, that abl.s pronoun anyone, anything: qui, quae, quod
233 atque and conj
218 iuris law, right gen.s
215 episcopus bishop n.s
211 quod which, that nom/acc.s pronoun anyone, anything: qui, quae, quod
179 loci place gen.s nom.p
177 causa cause, case / because n.s abl.s / prep + abl (false prep)
175 ecclesia church n.s abl.s
170 episcoporum bishop gen.p
169 debet owe, ought 3s pai
167 episcopo bishop dat.s abl.s
166 possunt they can 3p pai
161 tamen yet, still adv
151 ius law n.s, acc.s
150 episcopi bishops n.p, gen.s
147 iudex judge n.s
147 se itself abl acc pronoun
146 ne lest / not conj + imp / adv
143 qua which, that nom/acc.s nom/acc.p pronoun anyone, anything: qui, quae, quod
140 autem but conj
140 sint they would be 3p pas
135 caput chapter n
135 vitae life n
134 instituti institute n
128 necnon nor adv
127 id he, she, it, that pron n.s, acc.s
125 aliud other adj n.s, acc.s
116 eius he, she, it, that pron g.s
115 diocesano diocesan adj
115 saltem at least adv
114 ac and conj
114 intra within prep + acc, adv
114 tantum so much, only adv, adj
112 eadem same, same time / way adv, adj
112 vero truly, really, truth adv
111 auctoritate authority n
110 fuerit will, would have been perf as; futp ai
109 ipso himself abl.s
109 legitime lawful adv, adj
108 dioecesanus diocesan adj
107 apostolicae apostolic adj
105 dioecesani diocesan adj
105 quam which, that acc.s pronoun anyone, anything: qui, quae, quod
103 inter between, during prep + acc
102 omnes all adj
101 sibi he, she, it, that pron dative

Collins Ecclesiastical Latin

Unit 4 - Adjectival declensions

Nom. bona bonus bonum
Gen. bonae boni boni
Dat. bonae bono bono
Acc. bonam bonum bonum
Abl. bona bono bono
Voc. bona bone bonum
Nom. bonae boni bona
Gen. bonarum bonorum bonorum
Dat. bonis bonis bonis
Acc. bonas bonos bona
Abl. bonis bonis bonis
  • Nominative sing and pleural always the same in all declensions in neuter.
  • You can tell from the dictionary the gender - context may be misleading.
  • Petrus erat bonus -Peter was good - copula takes same case, gender, number
  • Petrus erat bonus papa. Peter erat bonus agricola. Check the dictionary.
  • Papa - father, teacher, bishop, pope. Then in 5th C became reserved for bishop of Rome. At that time pope got more political power as other political powers collapsed.
  • Brevitas is a virtue in Latin. Gravitas. Plautus - only latin humorist. Brevitas atque Gravitas. Latin like mathmatics. Can't make mistakes against Latin. Up to the middle ages, the personal pronouns were seldom used. With the coming of the middle ages came national languages. Thus latin wasn't known. Erasmus destroyed latin as official political language by desire to reestablishing the 'good old days'. Older latin was more difficult thus the study was impeded. Same is true for greek.
  • Royal Chair for Exegesis was founded by Charles V - 1560 - this is a proof that Catholics considered the study of the bible impt. 1548 first complete dutch Nikolaus van Winghe - by a leuven professor. But it was so colloquial that in five years it was revived. KUL also promoted lay reading of the bible, though there was debate.

Order of translation: Subject, Verb, Direct Object always in the accusative, Indirect, etc.

Unit 5 - Verbs

Amo - present indicative active first person singular - amare 1st conjugation

Tense Mood Voice Person Number
Amo Present I love Indicative Active 1st Singular
Imperfect I love Subjunctive Passive 2nd Plural
Future I will love Imperative Love! (Medial - in gk) 3rd .
Perfect I loved
Pluperfect I had loved
Future perfect I will have loved

Participle - present, past, future, active and passive

  • Amare &lt; Ama - re
  • Ama-o but the o is strong and it contracts with a so that ao = o so amo.
  • Amo, amare, amavi, amatus -
  • Amavi gives you perfect tenses p, pp, fp. If there is u, v or x think perfect.
  • Amatus gives you passive perfect tenses
Simple Progressive Completed
Time Present Video Video Vidi
I see I am seeing I have seen
Present Present Perfect
Past Vidi Videbam Videram
I saw I was seeing I had seen
perfect imperfect pluperfect
future videbo videbo videro
I will see I will be seeing I will have seen
future future future perfect

Word order is irrelevant

  • Das librum discipulo - indirect object is in dative
  • Dominus servos malo liberat - The lord sets the servant free from evil
  • Dominus servos a malo liberat … from the evil one.
  • Later periods no longer make that distinctions - leaves us free to translate.
  • Consecrare and sacrare - through the development of the language, there is a birth of new compound verbs, sometimes meaning the same. Esp. in ecclesiastical Latin. Also associated with decline of knowledge of latin.
  • Sanctus - holy, sanctified - he is dead. Sanctus Cicero - means he is dead. That was the first meaning of the word. There is a development of meaning when Xns take over the meaning. Voluptas, Libido, but in Xn will use concupiscentia. From augustine onwards this is used for sexual desire.
  • You have to translate being aware of the period in which the text was written. It makes a huge difference.
  • E.g. res religiosa - religious case, religious thing in Roman.
  • Translated state affair. In roman times, church and state was the same.

Unit 6 - Present indicative active

Present, ind, act worth studying these endings by heart.

1st Amare a Amo amas amat amamus amatis amant
2nd Monere e moneo mones monet monemus monetis monent
3rd Ducere e duco ducis ducit ducimus ducitis ducunt
5th or 3b Capere io capio capis capit capimus capitis capiunt
4th Audire i audio audis audit audimus auditis audiunt

Vocatne Petrus discipulum - anclitical ne indicates a question. Later latin didn't use the anclitic, once it was written more than spoken. Ablative of Separation separation, freedom, deprivation, often uses a, ab, ex. Ablative of Means (middel) and of Manner (wijsen) In both cases you can present a correct translation whether it is abl of means of manner.

  • Means is concrete. Dominus psalmis laudamus. Justi in gladio regnant.
  • Manner is abstract; and may use cum. or Dominum magno cum gaudio laudamus.

Exercises 1. Pro Hebraeis Dominus Aegyptios fugat. For hebrew the Lord fight with Egyptian. 2. Deo Gratias semper agimus. Thanks God for his conduct always. 3. Aeternis praeceptis Dominus populum monet.4. Maria natum in templo invenit.Maria finds her son in the temple. 5. Episcopus populum in ecclesiam inducit.Bishops lead the people in the church. 6. Petrus cum discipulis ad domum advenit.Peter with (the other) disciples arrive at the hourse. 7. Cum gaudio vinum vitae bibimus? 8. Quare apostolus Christum malis tradit? 9. Famulus malus puerum auro seducit. 10. In gloria Christus populum conjungit.In the glory Christ unites the people.

Unit 7 - Present Indicative Passive

Best to learn by heart Any transitive verb can be passive. Present stem + passive endings (with adjustments).

-r -ris -tur -mur -mini -ntur
Amor amaris -re amatur amamur amamini amantur
Moneor moneris -re monetur monemur monemini monentur
Ducor duceris -re ducitur ducimur ducimini ducuntur
Capior caperis -re capitur capimur capimini capiuntur
Audior audiris -re auditur audimur audimini audiuntur

note the second person present passive INDICATIVE is also the second person present passive IMPERATIVE (Chapter 19)

  • Nostra peccata a Christo delentur - a christo - ablative of personal agency - a / ab
  • Terra est gloria Dei plena. Some adjectives take an ablative rather than genitive, e.g. plena, dignus, indignus, etc.

Exercises2. Jesus Nazarenus dicitur Christus. Jesu of Nazarenus is called as christ.

Unit 8 - Past Tenses - Imperfect

Imperfect Indicative Active
Stem + -ba- + ending (stems ending -io- change to -ie-)
Ama- mone- dice- capie- audie-
Amabam Monebam Dicebam Capiebam Audiebam
Amabas Monebas Dicebas Capiebas Audiebas
Amabat Monebat Dicebat Capiebat Audiebat
Amabamus Monebamus Dicebamus Capiebamus Audiebamus
Amabatis Monebatis Dicebatis Capiebatis Audiebatis
Amabant Monebant Dicebant Capiebant Audiebant
Amabar Monebar Dicebar Capiebar Audiebar
Amabaris Monebaris Dicebaris Capiebaris Audiebatis
Amabatur Monebatur Dicebatur Capiebatur Audiebatur
Amabamur Monebamur Dicebamur Capiebamur Audiebamur
Amabamini Monebamini Dicebamini Capiebamini Audiebamini
Amabantur Monebantur Dicebantur Capiebantur Audiebantur

Christianus sum. &gt;&gt; Dicebat quia christianus erat. (Imp. Ind. Act.) Quia, quod, quoniam - that, because

Ellipsis - Boni viri Deum laudant, sed mali (viri) non (laudant). - omitting obvious words.


Unit 9 - Future

Future Indicative Active - 1 & 2 Future Indicative Active 3,4,5
Ama- Mone- Duce- Cape- Audi-
Amabo Monebo Ducam Faciam Audiam
Amabis Monebis Duces Facies Audies
Amabit Monebit Ducet Faciet Audiet
Amabimus Monebimus Ducemus Faciemus Audiemus
Amabitis Monebitis Ducetis Facietis Audietis
Amabint Monebint Ducent Facient Audient
Future Indicative Passive - 1 & 2 Future Indicative Passive 3,4,5
Amabor Monebor Ducar Faciam Audiam
Amaberis Moneberis Duceris Facieris Audieris
Amabitur Monebitur Ducetur Facietur Audietur
Amabimur Monebimur Ducemur Faciemur Audiemur
Amabimini Monebimini Ducemini Faciemini Audiemini
Amabintur Monebintur Ducentur Facientur Audientur

Infinitive as Subject - then use neuter singular as predicate adjective. Bonum est invocare deumAblative of Specification Servus (n.s) domini (gen.s) animo (abl.s) beatus (n.s) est. The servant of the Lord is happy in (with respect to) spirit.


Unit 10 - Perfect Active

Used all the time - perfect active stem important - Consistent - If there is u, v or x think perfect. The tense is perfect active stem + perfect active endings. The pluperfect and future perfect are perfect active stem + tense suffix + perfect active endings. Part of stem can can disappear in a contraction: laudasti, laudastis in place of laudastivisti, laudastivitis. The is simple past I did and present complete I have done.

laudavi laudavisti laudavit laudavimus laudavistis laudaverunt
habui habuisti habuit habuimus habuistis habuerunt
misi misisti misit misimus misitis miserunt
audivi audivisti audivit audivimus audivistis audiverunt
dixi dixisti dixit diximus dixistis dixerunt
veni venisti venit* venimus* venistis venerunt
fui fuisti fuit fuimus fuistis fuerunt
  • these two forms are the same as present active indicative
  • qui quae quod

Relative Pronoun Case follows use in the clause. Adjectival clauses Deus, quem laudamus…. God whom we praise. Connective relative Discipuli veniebant. Qui Jesum audiebant. The disciples were coming, who (and they) gladly were listening to Jesus.Interrogative Adjective Case follows the noun being modified.

. Sing M Sing F Sing N Pl M Pl F Pl N
Nom Who. qui quae quod qui quae quae
Gen. Whose cuius cuius cuius quorum quarum quorum
Dat. To/for Whom cui cui cui quibus quibus quibus
Acc. Whom quem quam quod quos quas quae
Abl. From, By Whom quo qua quo quibus quibus quibus

Suffixes + -cumque whichever quocum with whom quem propter on account of qui quoniam and because they…

Exercises:1. Gloria in excelsis deo.Glory to God inthe highest!2. Minister et servi oraverunt: Kyrie, eleison!Minister and sevants pra3. Dominus, qui est bonus, desideria populi semper scivit.4. Servus, quem scis, ministro et aquam et vinum dedit.5. Verba Christi, quae audimus, apostoli tradiderunt.6. Qui discipuli in Galilaea sciverunt quod Jesus Nazarenus erat filius unigenitus Dei?7. Secundum tua verba perenniter operavimus et oravimus.8. Cui servo non carus fuit dominus?9. Per unigenitum Filium Deus debita nostrorum peccatorum solvit.10. Agnus Dei, qui tollit peccata mundi, a populo semper laudatur.11. Hodie(adv) Dominus(Ns) Deus(Ns) Filium(Ac.s) unigenitum(Ac.s) semper(adv) cunctos( in caelo(ab.s.locative) et in terra(ab.s.locative) extulit(3s. perf.act.ind). Alleluja.Today the Lord God always lifts up the only Son in heaven and earth

Unit 11 - Pluperfect

Pluperfect Active Indicative = Perfect stem + Imperfect of esse
. I had loved I had advised I had ruled I had taken I had heard
1. amaveram monueram rexeram ceperam audiveram
2. amaveras monueras rexeras ceperas audiveras
3. amaverat monuerat rexerat ceperat audiverat
1. amaveramus monueramus rexeramus ceperamus audiveramus
2. amaveratis monueratis rexeratis ceperatis audiveratis
3. amaverant monuerant rexerant ceperant audiverant
Future Perfect Active Indicative = Perfect stem + future.act.ind of esse
I shall have loved I shall have advised I shall have ruled I shall have taken I shall have heard
1. amavero monuero rexero cepero audivero
2. amaveris monueris rexeris ceperis audiveris
3. amaverit monuerit rexerit ceperit audiverit
1. amaverimus monuerimus rexerimus ceperimus audiverimus
2. amaveritis monueritis rexeritis ceperitis audiveritis
3. amaverint monuerint rexerint ceperint audiverint
  • Ablative of cause - with or without the preposition e. Beati sumus (e) victoria Domini.
  • Direct quotations may have no change, or quia(quoniam) following dixit. It may have a comma. Tense in a quote needn't match dixit

Exercises1. Quoniam Hebraei ( columnam (acc.s) flammae ( viderunt (3pl, etiam hodie (adv) Pascham (acc.s) observant (3pl the Hebrews saw a column of flames, even today they observe the Pasch.2. Tunc caeli ( anti Jesum (acc.s) aperiebantur (3pl Imp.pass.ind).Then the heavens were opened before Jesus.3. Merito (adv) universa creatura (n.s) inocentiam (acc.s) Agni (gen.s) laudaverit (3s fut.perf.act.ind)Rightly every creature will have praised the innocence of the Lamb.4. Aula (n.s) laetitia (Abl.s cause) populi (Gen.s) resultaverat (3s plup.act.ind)The hall had resounded because the joy of the people.5. Jam (adv) Jesus (n.s) populo (dat.s) intrare (inf) in templum (Acc) dixerat (3pl plup.act.ind)Then Jesus had told to the people to enter the temple.6. Cuncti apostoli ( in cenaculo (abl.s locative) congregaverant (3pl plup.act.ind), et ibi (adv) Deum (acc.s) pereniter (adv) conglorificabant (3pl Imp.act.ind)All the apostles had congregated in the cenacle and there they continually glorified God.7. In principio (adv) erat (3s Imp.act.ind) Verbum (n.s), et Verbum (n.s) erat (3s Imp.act.ind) apud Deum (acc.s), et Deus (n.s) erat (3s Imp.act.ind) Verbum (n.s).In the beginning was the word and the word was with God and the word was God.8. Ob Adae (acc.s) culpam (acc.s) primam (acc.s) habemus ( pai) Christum Dominum (acc.s).Because of the first fault of Adam, we have Christ the Lord.9. Nam (conj) Christus (n.s) mortuos ( a vivis ( separaverit (3.s fut.perf.act.ind)For Christ will have separated the dead from the living.10. Pascha (Abl.s) dolorosi ( efficiuntur (3pl pres.pass.ind) laeti ( of the pasch, sorrows are tuned into joys.11. In Judaea (Abl.s. locative) apostolus (n.s) viam (acc.s) Domini (gen.s) praeparaverat (3s plup.act.ind)In Judea, the apostle had prepared the way of the Lord.12. Qui ( semper (adv) et diligenter (adv) operaverint (3pl fut.perf.act.ind) pro Domino (abl.s) aeternum praemium (acc.s) habebunt ( fut.act.ind) in regno (abl.s) caelorum ( will have operated always and everywhere for God, will have the eternal reward in the kingdom of the heavens.13. Parvuli (, qui ad Jesum (acc.s) in Petri (gen.s) domo (abl.s locative) venerant ( plup.act.ind), benedicebantur ( imp.pass.ind)The little children who had come to Jesus in Peter's house were being blessed.14. Sed ante annum (Acc) Paulus (n.s) Petrum (acc.s) in Galilaea (Abl.s locative) viderat (3.s plup.act.ind).But before the year Paul had seen Peter in Galilee.15. Parvus servus (n.s), qui cibum (acc.s) paraverat (3.s plup.act.ind), scivit (3.s pai) cunctos (acc) qui vocabantur ( Imp.pass.ind).The small servant, who had prepared the food, knew all who were being called.16. Paulus (n.s) , magister (n.s) in Judaea (abl.s) clarus (n.s) , scripturas ( bene (adv) sciverat (3.s plup.act.ind).Paul, a famous teacher in Judea, had known the scriptures well.17. Populus (n.s), qui in aula (abl.s locative) congregaverit (3.s fut.perf.act.ind), victoria (abl.s cause) Christi (gen.s) exsultabit (3.s fut.act.ind)The people, who in the hall will have congregated, will exult because of the victory of Christ.18. Discipuli ( congregaverunt ( Perf.act.ind) in cenaculo (abl.s locative), et Petrus (n.s) dixit (3.s plup.act.ind) quia hodie (adv) est (3.s pai) magnum festum (n.s) Domini (gen.s).The disciples congregated in the cenacle and Peter had said “Today there is the great feast of the Lord”19. Paulus (n.s) autem (conj) ad populum (acc.s) dixit (3.s plup.act.ind), Indignus (n.s) sum (1.s pai) esse (inf) etiam servus (n.s) Domini (gen.s) nostri Jesu Christi.Then Paul had said to the people, I am not worthy to be servant of the Lord Jesus Christ.20. Minister (n.s) enim et servi (n.s) se inclinaverint ( fut.perf.act.ind) et ad Deum (acc.s) Dominum (acc.s) creaturae ( oraverint ( fut.perf.act.ind).The minister and the servants will have bowed and the creatures will have prayed to the Lord God21. Qui propheta (n.s) sanctis scripturis ( means) populum (acc.s) monuerat (3s prophet warned the people by means of the holy scriptures?22. Hinc minister (n.s) hostiam (acc.s) consecaverit (3s (consecrabit 3s Fut ai).Here the minister will (have) consecrated the host.23. Dixerat (3s diaconus (n.s), quoniam Paulus (n.s), cui erat ( potentia (n.s) Dei (gen.s) non furat (3s unus (n.s) primorum apostolorum ( deacon said “Paul who was the power of God, had not been one of the first apostles.24. Secundum Scripturas ( beati ( erunt (3pl in aeternum (acc.s), qui mandata ( Domini (gen.s) observaverint (3pl fut perf ai)According to the Scriptures, blessed in eternity will be those who will have observed the commands of the Lord.25. Hostia sanctificabitur (3s fut.pass.ind ) et efficietur (3s fut.pass.ind ) cibus (n.s) aeternae vitae (gen.s), quod nostro ministro (dat.sing) Deus (n.s) potentiam (acc.s) dedit (3s perf.act.ind).The food of eternal life will be sanctified and be made effective by the hosts which God gave power to our minister.26. Erat (3s Imp.act.ind) autem hora tertia (n.s) Mk 15,25And it was the third hour.27. Dicit (3s pai) ei Jesus “Bene dixisti (2s perf act ind): 'Non habeo (1s pai) virum (acc.s)'; quinque enim viros ( habuisti (2s, et nunc, quem habes, non est tuus vir Hoc vere dixisti. (2s“Jesus says to her: Well you have said I have no man. Indeed you have had 5 men, and now the one you have is not your husband. You have spoken rightly.

Unit 12 - Possum

Present act. ind. I am able, powerful possum potes potest possumus potestis possunt
Imperfect act. ind. I could poteram poteras poterat poseramus poteratis poterant
Future act. ind. I will be able potero poteris poterit poterimus poteritis poterunt
Perf act ind I was able potui potuisti potuit potuimus potuistis potuerunt
Pluperf act.ind. I had been able potueram potueras potuerat potueramus potuatis potuerant
Future Perf.act.ind. I will have been able potuero potueris potuerit potuerimus potueritis potuerint

Complementary Infinitive Dominum laudare possumus - we can (to) praise the lord. Object Infinitive Pueri sciunt orare - the boys know (how) to pray

Perfect-Passive Stem

to form the pluperfect passive, perfect passive and future perfect passive.
use the appropriate form of esse: sum, eram, ero
meaning have been had been will have been

perfect passive participle - the 4th principal part of the verb. The participle ending will be in the nominative to match the subject. You can substitute fui, fuisti, etc with no change in meaning. = stem + t + ending: lauda + t + us. The perfect participle can also be

  • an adjective Puer laudatus venit or
  • a substantive. E.g. Laudatus beatus est.
  • an adverbial clause. Puer, laudatus, beatus, est. Because the boy is praised, he is happy.
  • Postquam + perfect tense (in english it is pluperfect/perfect) After he had come, he did …
  • Antequam + perfect tense, then pluperfect. (in english it is perfect/pluperfect) Before he came, he had done …
  • Potentiam is power, but it is always power over and the object of the power is in the genitive.
  • Dum always takes present indicitative Dum operat, orabat. But in english imperfect: while he was working, he was praying.

Exercises 1. Per Jesu (acc.s) potentiam (acc.s) Petrus (n.s) valebat (3pl populo (abl.s) debita ( dimittere (inf).Through the power of Jesus, Peter was able to release the sins for the people.2. Nunc (adv) dimittis (2s pai) servum (acc.s) tuum.Now you dismiss your servant.3. Certe (adv) Deum (acc.s) laudere (inf) non desinemus (1pl pai). Nam (conj) Dominus (n.s) est in aeternum (acc.s). Amen.Surely we do not cease to praise God for the Lord is forever. Amen.4. Postquam (adv) Paulus (n.s) aulam (acc.s) reliquit (3s, sub tectum (acc.s) discipuli (gen.s) venit (3s pai).After Paul quit the hall, he went under the roof of the disciple.5. Eva (n.s) Adae (dat.s) a Deo (abl.s agency) data (n.s).Eve is given to Adam by God.6, Postquam (conj) Christus (n.s) Jesus a mortuis ( origin) resurexit (3s perf.act.ind), vivus (n.s) in Galilaea () a quibusdam discipulis ( agency) visus est (3s plup.pass.ind)After Christ Jesus rose from the dead, He was seen alive in Galilee by certain diciples.7 Petrus (n.s) puero (n.s) permisit (3s cibum (acc.s) et vinum (acc.s) mittere (inf) ad familiam (acc.s).Peter permitted the boy to send food and wine to the family.8. Antequam (conj) minister (n.s) collectam (acc.s) oravit (3s, in silentio (abl.s manner) se inclinavit (3s the minister prayed the collect, he bowed in silence.9. Dimissus (n.s) a Petro (abl.s agency), vir (n.s) tamen (adv) ad Jesum (acc.s) acclamabat (3s by Peter, the man nevertheless was crying out to Jesus.10. Antequam (conj) apostoli (n.s) a Jesu () relicti sunt (3pl plup.pas.ind), acceperunt (3pl perf.act.ind) potentiam (acc.s) peccati (gen.s).Before the apostles had been left by Jesus, they had received power over sin.11. Quoniam Jesus (n.s) discipulis ( verba sautifera ( dedit (3s pai), ad Deum (acc.s) orare (inf) cum gaudio (abl.s manner) debemus (1pl pai).Since Jesus gave healing words to the apostles, We must pray to God with joy.12. De populi (gen.s) vita (abl.s) scire (inf) poterunt (3pl fut.act.ind), sed scientis (part. gen.s) de Dei (gen.s) gloria (abl.s).They aren't able to know of the life of the people, but knowledge of the glory of God13. Quidam discipuli (n.s) , non nimis excepti, Galilaeam (acc.s) reliquerunt (3pl . perf act ind)Certain disciples, not very much exception, left Jerusalem.14. Populus contritus (n.s), a Paulo (abl.s agency) bene (adv) monitus (part), incepit (3s pai) secuudum Jesu praecepta (acc) vivere (inf).The contrite people, well admonished by Paul, began to live by the precepts of Jesus.15. In Iiturgia (abl.s) misericordia (n.s) Domini (gen.s) a populo (abl.s agency) saepe (adv) est (3s pai) Iaudata (part).In liturgy, the mercy of God is often praised by the people.16. De Jesu (gen.s) vita (abl.s spec) carus (n.s) apostolus (n.s) scivit (3s perf act ind) mira scribere (inf).The dear apostle knew how to write the wonders of the life of Jesus.17. Jam (adv) Eva (n.s) primum filium (acc.s) conceperat (3s plup act ind).Now Eve had conceived the first son.18. Hodie (adv) ante (prep) mensam (acc.s) Domini (gen.s) convenimus (1pl pai) Christiani (, before the altar of the Lord, we christians gather.19. Optimum magister vinum (acc.s) adhuc (adv) servavit (3s perf ai).Till now, the teacher served the best wine.20. Universum (n.s) salutifera (abl.s) Dei (gen.s) potentia (abl.s) semper (adv) rectum (n.s) fuit (3s perf ai).All men, by the healing power of God, was always virtuous.21. Discipuli ( igtur (conj) visi sunt (3pl pass.perf.ind) certum capere (inf) praemium (acc.s).The disciples therefore are seen to take the certain prize.22. Malus servus (n.s), a bono (abl.s agency) monitus (part), nimis (adv) maledicere (inf) domino (dat.s) desiit (3s perf ai).The bad servant, warned by the good, stopped too much cursing of the lord.23. Tunc (adv) optimus et maximus vir (n.s) Judaeam (acc.s) gubernabat (3s Imp.act.ind)?Then was the best and greatest man governing Judea?24. Puer aurum, quod Petro dederat (3s plup act ind), subito (adv) recepit (3s perf ai) atque (conj) familiae (gen.s) dedit (3s perf ai).The boy hearing that Peter surrendered, suddenly received and gave of the family???25. In Jesu (abl.s) adimpleta sunt ( perf pass.ind) verba ( antiquorum prophetarum ( Jesus the words of the ancient profets are fulfilled.26. Beati sunt qui parvulos ( ante domum (acc) congregatos ( adjuvare (inf) possunt (3pl pai).Blessed are they who are able to help the little ones congregating before the house.27. Et universorum ( vincula (n.s) soluta (n.s) sunt ( pai). Acts 16,26And the bonds of everyone are dissolved.28. Ipsi gloria (n.s) et imperium (n.s) in saecula saeculorum. Amen. Rev 1,6To him gloria and power forever and ever. Amen.29. Amen, amen dico (1s pai) vobis ( Venit (3s pai) hora (n.s), et nunc (adv) est (3s pai). Jn 5, 25Amen, Amen, I say to you: The hour comes and now is.30. Vobis ( datum (n.s) est mysterium (acc.s) regni (gen.s) Dei (gen.s). Mk 4,11To you is given the mystery of the reign of God.31. Ecce video (1s pai) caelos ( apertos ( Acts 7,56.Behold, I see the heavens open.Ablative absolute:Cantantibus organis, Caecilia in corde suo Deum adoravit,Although the organ was playing, Cecilia adored God in her heart.

Unit 13 Perfect Passive

Duco, ducere, duxi, ductus lead

Perfect Indicative Passive - have been
Ductus, a um sum ducti ae a sumus
Ductus, a um es ducti ae a estis
Ductus, a um est ducti ae a sunt
Pluperfect Indicative Passive - had been
Ductus, a um eram ducti ae a eramus
Ductus, a um eras ducti ae a eratis
Ductus, a um erat ducti ae a erant
Future Perfect Indicative Passive - Will have been
Ductus, a um ero ducti ae a erimus
Ductus, a um eris ducti ae a eritis
Ductus, a um erit ducti ae a erunt
  • Can substitute future perfect fuero fueris fuerit, etc with no change in meaning.
  • Ablative Absolute Noun + Participle (here perfect passive participle) The ablative absolute influences the meaning of the main clause.
  • Cena (abl.s) praeparata, pueri in domum intraverunt.
  • With the dinner prepared, the boys entered the house. Also: because, when, although. There are a lot of English clauses that can be translated with the ablative absolute.
  • Temporal Clauses Cum (ubi, ut) Jesus surrexit, apolsoli erant laeti.

Exercises1. Hymno dicto (abl absolute) apostoli ( domum (acc.s) reliquerunt (3pl perf.act.ind)With hymns said, the apostles left the house.2. Antequam (conj) puer (n.s) ad cenam (acc.s) missus est (3s perf.ind.pass), primum (adv) in domini (gen.s) agro(abl.s location) cunctis ( manner) cum servis ( operavit (3s perf.act.ind). Before the boy was sent to dinner, first he worked with all the servants in the field of the master.3. Tunc (adv) Galilaei (n.s) a Romanis (abl agency) saepe (adv) despecci sunt (3pl perf.ind.pass), quoniam (conj) deos ( Romanorum ( non adorabant (3pl Imp.act.ind). Then the Galilaeans were often dispised by the romans since they didn't adore the gods of the romans.4. Cum verba Jesu audita erunt, qui vir (n.s) non credet (3s When Jesus' words will have been heard, what man will not believe.5. Dum operat (3s pai), orabat (3s imp.act.ind). While he works he was praying.6. Si mandata ( mea a populo (abl agency) observata ( fuerint (3pl fut.perf.ind.pass), habebunt (3pl fai) vitam (acc.s) aeternam. If my commandments will have been observed by the people, they will have eternal life.7. Petrus (n.s) populo (dat) mira (abl spec) Domini (gen.s) dicet (3s pai), donec (conj.) Paulus (n.s) advenerit (3s fut.perf.ind.act). Peter speaks to the people about the marvels of God until Paul will have come.8. Stella (n.s) in caelo (abl. loc) visa (part.), viri ( ex agris ( loc) venerunt (3pl perf.act.ind) atque (conj) adoraverunt (3pl perf.act.ind) natum (acc.s) Jesum. When the star was seen in the sky, the men came out of the fields and adored the child Jesus.9. Ut Jesus (ns) circumspexit (3s perf.act.ind) viri ( erant (3pl imperf.act.ind) maesti ( et non unum verbum (acc.s) dixerunt (3pl perf.act.ind). Sciverunt (3pl perf.act.ind) enim quod Jesus (ns) vera ( dixerat (3s plup.act.ind). When Jesus looked around, the men were sad and didn't say a word. They knew that truly Jesus had spoken the truth.10. Cum viderint (3pl fut.perf.act.ind) oculi ( mei Dominum (acc.s), meam (acc.s) vitam finire (inf) potero (1s fut.act.ind). When my eyes will have seen the Lord, my life will be able to finish.11. Ubi angelus (ns) Domini (gen.s) visus erit (3s fut.perf.pass.ind), tuba (n.s) victoriae (gen.s) super universam (acc.s) terram audietur (3s fut.pass.ind). When the angel of the Lord will be seen, the trumpet of victory will be heard over the whole land.12. Etiam (conj) in deserto (abl.s location) Judaeae (gen.s) baptista (n.s) Jesum (acc.s) scivit (3s perf ai). Jesu enim (conj) primum respecto, dixit (3s perf ai): Ecce agnus (ns) Dei (gen.s).And in the desert of Judea the baptist knew Jesus and first looking at Jesus said: Behold the Lamb of God.13. Etsi est (3s pai) parvulus (ns), puer (ns) in domo (abl.s loc) restat (3s pai).Although he is small, the boy remains at home.14. Baptista (n.s) autem traditio, venit Jesus in Galilaeam, ubi populo Evangelium dicere incepit.The Baptist surrendering, Jesus came in Galilee where he began to teach the Gospel to the people.15. Maria primum natum peperit (3s perf ai), et vocatus est (3s perf.pass.ind) Jesus.Mary gave birth to the first child, and he is called Jesus.16. Sanctus vir (n.s) dextera (abl.s) puerum (acc.s) cepit (3s perf act ind) et duxit (3s perf act ind) in domum (acc.s).The holy man took hold of the boy on the right and led him into the house.17. Ubi (conj) Judaei ( digitum (acc.s) Dei (gen.s) in caelis ( spexerunt (3pl perf.act.ind), laeti potentiam (acc.s) misericordiamque (acc.s) laudaverunt (3pl perf.act.ind).When the Judeans saw the finger of God in the heavens, the joyful praised power and mercy.18. In principio (adv.clause) Deus (n.s) mundum (acc.s) creavit (3s perf ai) ac vitae (gen.s) praestitit (3s perf ai) donum (acc.s).In the beginning, God created the world and gave the gift of life.19. Natura immutata (n.s) est (3s pai) nostra (n.s), ut Filius (n.s) incarnatus est (3s pref.pass.ind)?Is our nature unchanged when the Son has been incarnated.20. Natus (n.s) in brachiis ( loc) Mariae (gen.s) habitus fuerat (3s plup.pass.ind).The child in the arms of Mary had been found.21. Postquam (adv) vir (n.s) malus aurum (acc.s) condidit (3s, ad dexteram (acc.s) Petri (gen.s) in silentio (abl.s manner) astitit (3s the bad man put away the gold, he stood at the right of peter on silence.22. Vir (n.s), qui (rel.pron) vitam (acc.s) perdidit (3s perf.act.ind), a Judaeis ( laudatus fuerat (3s plup.pass.ind).The man, who lost his life, by the Judeans had been praised.23. Romani ( qui (rel.pron) circumsteterant (3pl plup.act.ind) puero (dat.s) instabant (3pl imp.act.ind).The Romans who had been standing around threatened the boy.24. Nisi mea verba ( effecta ( fuerint (3pl , beati ( non eritis (2pl fut.perf.pass.ind).Unless my words will have been effective, they will not be blessed25. Christianis ubique inventis ( ), Paulus (n.s), bene satiatus (n.s), in domo (abl.s loc) Petri (gen.s) cum gaudio (abl.s manner) restabat (3s being found everywhere, Paul, well satisfied , in the house of Peter with joy was resting.26. Mea Culpa (abl.s), mea culpa, mea maxima culpa.By my fault, by my fault, by my most grevious fault.27. Et traditus est (3s perf.pass.ind) Jesu (dat.s) liber (n.s) prophetae ( the book of the prophets was handed to Jesus28. Non est hic, sed surrexit. Lk 24,6He is not here, but he has risen.

Unit 14 Third Declension

  • Third Declension Nouns -is in the genitive singular: junk declention - anything that doesn't fit elsewhere comes here. Endings are always the same, but the stem changes. Genitive plural ending in -ium. Genitive plural in -um if number of syllables in nominitive is less than genitive, except those ending in -r.
nom, gen, dat, acc, abl nom, gen, dat, acc, abl
masc. fem – -is, -i, -em, -e -es, -um, -ibus, -es, -ibus
rex, regis, regi, regem, rege reges, regum, regibus, reges, regibus
mater, matris, matri, matrem, matre matres, matrum, matribus, matres, matribus
Neuter – -is, -i, – -e -a, -um, -ibus, -a, -ibus
corpus, corporis, -pori, -pus, -pore -pora, -porum, -poribus, -pora, -poribus
-ium masc. fem – -is, -i, -em, -e -es, -ium, -ibus, -es, -ibus
-ium masc. fem pars, partis, parti, partem, parte partes, partium, partibus, partes, partibus
Neuter – -is, -i, – -e -ia, -ium, -ibus, -ia, -ibus
Neuter mare, maris, mari, mare, mari maria, marium, maribus, maria, maribus
  • Genitive of Description describe a noun: people of mercy, people of joyful mind. homines laeti animi
  • Ablative of Description man of great soul vir magna anima
  • Subjective and Objective Genitive Genitive may be used as subject or object. Propter Dei misericordiam hominum gratias agimus. We give thanks on account of God's pity toward humans. Amor Dei (love of God, or love for God)
  • Dative of Reference evil to my people: mala meo populo - dative of advantage or disadvantage.
  • Apposition Noun in apposition - same number and case.
  • Concessive Clauses Although etsi, quamquam
  • Antiquus is all ancient things, vetus refers to old, but it means more in relation to persons vetus vir.
  • KULeuven library founded in 1636 with less than 1,000 books, 200 years after the university started. And it was considered at the time to be an important library.

Exercises 1. Quamquam (conj) princeps (n.s) sacerdotum ( verba ( Jesu (gen.s) audivit (3s, inhaesit tamen antiquis ( modis, et non credidit (3s perf ai).Although the prince of priests (high priest) heard the words of Jesus, nevertheless he clung to the ancient ways and did not believe.2. In templo (acc.s loc) Jesus (n.s) a libro (abl.s) prophetae (gen.s) orationem (acc.s) legit (3s pres/perf ai).In the temple, Jesus read a prayer from the book of the prophets.3. Ergo (conj) apostuli ( cibum ( collegerunt (3pl et dederunt (3pl populo (dat.s).Therefore the apostles collected food and gave it to the people.4. Scripto libro (abl.s absolute), apostolus (n.s) iterum (adv) venit (3s pres/ ad terram (acc.s) ubi a Jesu (abl.s agency) ante multos annos ( electus erat (3s plup.pass.ind) .When the book was written, the apostle again came to the land where by Jesus he had been chosen many years before.5. Scis (2s pai) quia Joannes (n.s) dicebatur (3s imp.pass.ind) dilectus discipulus (n.s)?Do you know that John was called the beloved apostle?6. Si nostra deprecatio (n.s) a Patre (abl.s agency) suscepta erit (3s fut.perf.pass.ind), laeti erimus (3ps our prayer is accepted by the Father, we will be happy.7. Mater (n.s) dolorosa corpus (acc.s) Jesu (gen.s) in brachiis ( suscepit (3s,, postea (adv) corpus (n.s) in terra (abl.s) conditum est (3s perf.pass.i).The sorrowful mother received the body of Jesus in the arms, afterwards the body was buried in the earth.8. Sanctus Petrus (n.s), homo (n.s) pacis (gen.s) et bonae voluntatis (gen.s), electus est (3s perf.pass.ind) princeps (n.s) cunctorum ( apostolorum ( peter, a man of peace and good will, was elected prince of all the apostles.9. Nostra ( peccata a Redemptore (abl.s), Jesu Christo (abl.s), detersa sunt (3pl perf.pass.ind.)Our sins have been wiped clean by the redeemer, Jesus Christ.10. Novus discipulus (n.s) , quamquam unus (n.s) apostolorum ( non erat (3s imp.act.ind), hominibus cunctis ( Evangelium (acc.s) scripsit (3s perf.act.ind).The new disciple, although he was not one of the apostles, wrote a Gospel for all people.11. Discipuli (gen.s objective) Evangelium (n.s) Jesu (gen.s) Christi per universas terras ( semper (adv) lectum est (3s perf.pass.ind). Nam (conj) in libro (abl.s) vitam (acc.s) Jesu (gen.s) descripsit (3s perf.act.ind).The Gospel of Jesus Christ of the disciple for all the lands was read, for in the book, he described the life of Jesus.12. Tunc (adv) familia (n.s) Jesu (gen.s) ad Bethlehem (acc.s) venit (3s perf.act.ind) et descripta est (3s perf.pass.ind).Then the family of Jesus came to bethlehem and was enrolled (described).13. Postquam (adv) Ioannes (n.s) traditus est (3s perf.pass.ind), Jesus (ns) ministerium (acc.s) incepit (3s John was betrayed, Jesus began ministry.14. Propter regem (n.s) hominem (acc.s) malo animo (abl.s) familia terram (acc.s) patrum reliquit (3s perf.act.ind).On account of the king, a man of bad spirit, the family abandonded the father land.15. Postquam (adv) sacerdos (n.s) noster orationem (acc.s) legit (3s pres/, subdidimus (1pl Amen.After the Priest read the prayer, we supplied: Amen.16. Maria (n.s), et virgo (n.s) et mater (n.s), ab homimbus ( cunctis laudata (n.s).Mary, both virgin and mother, is praised by all men.17. Sancta familia (n.s) per multos annos ( vixit (3s in terra Aegyptia (abl.loc), dum (adv) rex impius (n.s) in Galilaea (abl.s) regnat (3s pai).The holy family, for many years lived in the land of Egypt, while an evil king reigns in Galilee.18. Nomine (abl.s absolute) Jesu (gen.s) a sacerdote (abl.s agency) dicto (abl.s absolute), populus se inclinavit (3s the name of Jesus was spoken by the priest, the people bowed.19. Ubi lumen est, vita est.Where there is light, there is life.20. Deum (n.s) de Deo (abl.s), lumen (n.s) de lumine (abl.s), Deum verum (n.s) de Deo vero (abl.s)….God from God, light from light, true God from True God….21. Ideo (adv) Patrem (acc.s) invocavimus (1pl et magnas ( Filio (dat.s) egimus gratias (, we invoked the father and gave great thanks to the Son.22 Baptismate (abl s) Joannis (abl.s) Judaei peccatis (abl.s ) liberati sunt (3s perf.pass.ind).When baptized by John, the judeans were freed from their sins.23 Primo Dei Testamento genus (n.s) Judaeum (gen.s) effectum est (3s perf.pass.ind) universo (dat.s) lumen (n.s) mundo.The first testament of God, the race of Judea has brought about light to the whole world.24. Hebraei ( a Domino (abl.s agency) per aquam (acc.s) sicco vestigio?? (abl.s) recti sunt (3pl perf.pass.ind).The Hebrews by the Lord were made right through water &mdash; dry steps??25 Aurum gladiique (, munera ( populi (gen.s), regi (dat.s) iam data ( erant (3ps plup.pass.ind).Now, gold and swords, gifts of the people, were given to the king26. Postquam (adv) Paulus (n.s) Romanis ( scripsit (3s, discipulus (n.s) Paulo () cenam (acc.s) parare poterat (3s imp.act.ind).After Paul wrote to the Romans, the disciple was able to prepare dinner for paul.27. Hic (this) est Jesus Rex Judaeorum. Mt. xxvii, 37.This is the king of the Jews.28. Et ecce aperti sunt Jesu caeli. Mt. iii, 16, adapted..And behold the heavens were open to Jesus.

Unit 15 Third Declension -i stem

  • Masculine and Feminine -ium in genitive plural - this is indicated in the vocabulary. They either end in two consonants (2nd isn't L or R) or have equal number of syllables in nominative and genitive singular. Neuter -ium in genitive plural, also i in ablative singular and ia in nom and accusative plural. Most nominatives are in -e, -ar or -al. See table in Unit 14 above.<p id=“l916”>
  • Partitive Genitive genitive indicates the whole after a word denoting a part: multos discipulorum. The whole is in the genitive.<p id=“l917”>
  • Dative with certain adjectives pleasing to, near to, dear to, similar to, dissimilar to, difficult to, easy to, useful, jucundus: Deo gratum. Similar to the dative of advantage or dative or disadvantage. Compound verbs quite often take the dative.<p id=“l918”>
  • Predicate Accusative Christus Jesus Petrum apostolum fecit.<p id=“l919”>
  • Cognate Accusative Vitam bonam vixit. = Bene vixit.

Exercises 1. Multi (n.s) hominum ( a Jesu (abl.s agency) sanatorum ( gratias Deo (dat.s) non egerunt (3pl people who were healed by Jesus didn't give thanks to God.2. Joannes (n.s) viam (acc.s) Domini (gen.s) paravit (3s; multi ( Iudaeorum (, corde (abl/dat.s) contriti (gen.s /, a Joanne (abl.s agency) baptisma ( aquae (gen.s) acceperunt (3pl perf.act.ind); Jesus (n.s) quoque ad Joannem (acc.s) venit (3s p/perf ai) in baptisma (; secundum Joannem debemus Jesum vocare Agnum Dei.John prepared the way of the Lord, Many of the Judeans, contrite of heart, accepted baptism of water by john; likewise Jesus came to John in baptism; according to John we should call Jesus: Lamb of God.3. Ad saeculi (gen.s) finem (acc.s) tuba ( justitiae (gen.s) insonuerit (3s fut.perf.act.ind).At the end of the ages, the trumpets of justice will have sounded.4. In primis (adv) ad ambonem (acc.s) lector (n.s) primam (acc.s) lectionem leget (3s p/; hinc (adv) cantor (n.s) canticum (acc.s) cantabit (3s fut.act.ind).First the lector reads the first reading from the pulpit, then the cantor will sing. (from there??)5. Sanguis (gen.s) agni (gen.s) in postibus ( location) fecit (3s antiquos ( hebraeos salvos.Of the blood of the lamb on the doorposts made safe the ancient jews.6. Ad Pascham (acc.s) laeti sumus (1pl perf.pass.ind), quoniam (conj) per resurrectionem (acc.s) Redemptoris (gen.s) effecti sumus (1pl perf.pass.ind) novae vitae (gen.s) participes ( are joyful at the pasch, since by the resurrection of the redeemer are made participants of new life.7. Hebraei (, quorum ( corda ( erant (3pl Imp.act.ind) apta ad Domini ministerium, per Mare Rubrum (acc.s) ducti sunt (3pl perf.pass.ind).Hebrews, whose hearts were suitable for the ministry of the Lord, were lead through the Red Sea.8. Fugatur (3s pres.pass.ind) caligo iniquitatis (gen.s); lumen (n.s) Christi (gen.s) a cunctis hominibus ( agency) videtur. Alleluja.The mist of iniquity was put to flight; the light of christ was seen by all people. Alleluia.9. Praeter cunctos homines ( Mariam (acc.s), Stellam Maris, laudamus (1pl pai), quia Mater (n.s) Dei est.Above all people, we praise mary, Star of the Sea, for she is mother of God.10. Nisi (conj) meum (acc.s) corpus manducaveritis (2pl fut.perf.act.ind) et biberitis (2pl fut.perf.act.ind) meum (acc.s) sanguinem, in regnum (acc.s) caelorum ( non intrabitis (2pl you all will have eaten my body and drunk my blood, you will not enter into the kingdom of heaven.11. Sanguine (abl.s) agni (gen.s) in postibus ( Hebraeorum ( viso (abl.s), sub tecta ( angelus (n.s) Dei (gen.s) non intravit (3s perf.act.ind).Seeing the blood of the lamb on the posts of the Hebrews, the angel of God did not enter under the roofs.12. Propter Christi (gen.s) victoriam (acc.s) mortis (gen.s) aula (n.s) laetis ( hymnis personuit (3s account of the victory of Christ, the hall resounded with the joyous hymns of the death.13. Turba ( satis panis ( habuerunt (3pl Nisi (conj) satis ( manducaverint (3pl, pars populi (gen.s partitive) in via (abl.s) deficient (3pl the crowds have enough bread? Unless they will have eaten enough, some of the people will fail in the way.14. Petrus (n.s) primus (n.s) Jesum (acc.s) vocavit (3s Christum (acc.s)? Quamquam (conj) Petrus (n.s) multa non scivit (3s, vidit (3s quod (rel.pron) Jesus (n.s) erat (3s Dominus (n.s).Was Peter first to call Jesus the Christ? Although Peter didn't know much, he saw that Jesus was the Lord15. Viri (,a diacono (abl.s agency) formati (, nunc (adv) sunt (3pl pai) baptismati ( apti?The men, educated by the deacon, now are ready for baptism.16. Joannes(n.s), Jesu (gen.s) cordi (loc.s) proximus (n.s), ad dextram (acc.s) Mariae (gen.s) astitit (3s, close to the heart of Jesus, stood at the right of Mary.17. Morte (abl.s) Jesu (gen.s) apostoli, quoniam erant humani, effecti sunt maesti, sed resurrectione, laeti.When Jesus died, the apostles, because they were human, became but at the resurrection, they became joyful.18. Jesus, redemptor humani generis, prae cunctis ( ubique laudatur (3s pres.pass.ind).Jesus, redeemer of the human race, before everyone, everywhere is praised.19. Etsi (conj) mentem (acc.s) Dei (gen.s) scire (inf) non semper possumus (1pl pai), boni ( Domino () credunt (3pl pai).Although we cannot always know the mind of God, the good believe in the Lord.20. Per boni (gen.s) Domini largitatem (acc.s) plena (n.s) est mensa (n.s) nostra cibo (abl.s).Throught the abundance of the good Lord, our table is full of food.21. Etiam (conj) pars (n.s) hominum ( partitive) optimorum a malo (abl.s) seducti sunt (3pl perf.pass.ind).Now part of the best persons are lead away from evil.22. Audivisti (2s quia cunctae creaturae ( a mari (abl.s) primum (adv) venerunt (3pl you heard that all creatures first came from the sea?23. Post Evangelii (gen.s) lectionem (acc.s) popolus (n.s) responsum (acc.s) acclamavit (3s perf ai).After the reading of the Gospel, the people proclaimed the response.24. Humani (, qui in mondo (abl.s) vivimus (1pl pai), laudamus (1pl pai) Patrem (acc.s), qui mundum (acc.s) condidit (3s, we who live in the world praise the Father who preserved the world.25. Episcopus Romanus, etsi homo bonus et justus, satis beatam vitam non vixit.The bishop of rome, although a good and upright man, did not live a sufficiently holy life.26. Mariam Reginam Caeli vocamus, quoniam est Mater Dei.We call Mary the Queen of heaven because she is the Mother of God.27. Semper et ubique misericordiam Domini in mente habebimus.Always and everywhere, we will have in mind the mercy of God.28. Aeterno cibo maducato, orationem subdimus ante missae finem.When the eternal food is eaten, we say the prayer before the end of Mass.29. Relicta Galilaea, iterum Jesus cum apostolis ad fines Judaeae venit.When he returned to Galilee, again, Jesus with the apostles when to the border of Judea.30. Dominus mentes nostras ad superna desideria erigit.The lord leads our minds to supreme desire.31. Beati mundo corde, quoniam ipsi ('they') Deum videbunt Mt. v 8.Blest the pure of heart, they shall see God.32. Adoramus (1pl pai) quod scimus (1pl pai) quia salus ex Judaeis est. Jn iv 22We adore what we know since salvation is from the Judeans

Unit 16 Third Declension Adjectives

  • Third Declension Adjectives like 3 declension nouns. All three genders have -i in abl.s, -ium in and nom and acc pl of neuter have -ia.
3 endings
Nom acer acris acre acres acres acria
Gen acris acrium
Dat acri acribus
Acc acrem acrem acre acris, -es acris, -es acria
Abl acri acribus
Nom omnis omne omnes omnia
Gen omnis omnium
Dat omni omnibus
Acc omnem omne omnis, -es omnia
Abl omni omnibus
Nom. felix felices felicia
Gen. felicis felicium
Dat. felici felicibus
Acc. felicem felicam felix felices felicia
Abl. felici felicibus
  • par, part STEM pari- BASE par-
Nom. par pares paria
Gen. paris parium
Dat. pari paribus
Acc. parem par paris, -es paria
Abl. pari paribus

Present active participle formed by adding -ns to the present stem. In -io verbs of the third conjugation, and in the fourth conjugation, the stem is modified by the addition of -e-, as capi-e-ns, audi-e-ns. It is declined like an adjective of one ending of the third declension above.

nominative singular other cases
stem + ns stem + nt + endings
1st laudans laudantis
2nd monens monentis
3rd ducens ducentis
capiens capientis
4th audiens audientis


  1. Adjectival: clamans vir - the shouting man
  2. Adverbial: subordinate clauses vir, clamans, tamen a jesu non auditus est. The man, though shouting, wasn't heard by jesus.
  3. Ablative Absolute: Petro in domum intrante…. When Peter entered the house… aqua fervente - while the water was boiling….
  4. Fourth Declension Nouns ritus, m., ceremony gen…, n., kneeSTEMS ritu- genu-BASES rit- gen-
  5. No adjectives - both masculine and neuter, only about 4 or 5 feminine.
Nom Gen Dat Acc Abl Nom Gen Dat Acc Abl
MASC. ritus ritus ritui (u) ritum ritu (e) ritus rituum ritibus ritus ritibus
NEUT. genu genus genu (ui) genu genu genua genuum genibus genua genibus

Exercises 1. In nomine (abl.s) Patris (gen.s) et Filii (gen.s) et Spiritus (gen.s) Sancti. Amen.In the name of the father and of the son and of the holy spirit. Amen.2. Et sanguis (n.s) meus (n.s) verus (n.s) est (3s pai) potus (n.s) Jn vi, 55And my blod is true drink.3. Apostoli ( dederunt (3pl panes ( miros hominibus in terra (abl.a) reclinatis ().The apostles gave miracle bread to people reclined on the land.4. Corpus (n.s) vestrum templum (n.s) est (3s pai) Spiritus (gen.s)Sancti, qui in vobis (abl.s) est (3s pai), quem (acc.s) habetis (2pl ) a deo (abl.s), et non estis (2pl pai) vestri ( 1 Cor vi 19.Your body is a temple of the holy spirit who is in you, whom you have from God and you are not yours.5. Tunc Jesus (n.s) et apostoli ( intra domum (acc.s) erant (3pl, manducantes Pascha. Unus (n.s) autem Dominum (acc.s) jam tradiderat (3s Jesus and the apostles were in the house eating the pasch. But one had already betrayed the Lord.6. Parvula ancilla (n.s), adveniens ad jesum, cum innocentia (acc.s) dixit (3s Scio (1s pai) quia sanare (inf) potes (2s pai) male habentes (acc.s). Non sanabis (2s matrem (acc.s) meam? Et Jesus (n.s) domum (acc.s) intravit (3s et matrem (acc.s) ancillae (gen.s) sanavit (3s little servant, coming to Jesus, with innocence said: I know that you can heal those who are sick. Will you heal my mother? And Jesus entered the house and healed the monther of the servant.7. a. Dum Jesus autem ambulat ad mare, vidit Petrum.While Jesus walked to the sea, he saw Peter.b. Donec Jesus autem ambulabat ad mare, vidit Petrum.While Jesus was walking to the sea, he saw Peter.c. Jesus autem, ambulans ad mare, vidit Petrum monentem felicem populum.And Jesus, walking to the sea, saw Peter teaching the happy people.8. Et vidit omnis populus eum ambulantem et laudantem Deum Acts iii, 9And all the people saw him walking and praised God.9. Discipuli autem collegerunt confractos panes a populo relictos.And the disciples collected the broken bread left by the people.10. Gloria Patri et Filio et Spiritui Sancto.Glory to the Father and to the Son and to the Holy Spirit.11. Accepit panem et gratias agens fregit et dixit: Hoc est corpus meum. I Cor xi, 23-24.He took bread and giving thanks broke and said: this is my body.12. Hic calix novum testamentum est in meo sanguine I Cor xi, 25This chalice is the new testament in my blood.13. Christus Jesus enim effundit sanguinem pro mundi vita.Indeed Christ Jesus pours out blood for the life of the world.14. Nos autem non spiritum mundi accepimus, sed Spiritum, qui ex Deo est. I Cor ii, 12And we do not accept the spirit of the world but the spirit who is from God.15. In oratione genuflectentes, semper laudabimus Dominum, qui passione et morte in cruce et resurrectione mundum salvum fecit.Genuflecting in prayer, we always prais the Lord who through the passion and death on the cross and resurrection caused the salvation of the world.16. Vino autem in calicem fuso, Jesus benedixit et dedit apostolis, dicens: Hic est meus sanguis, Si biberitis, vivetis in aeternum.But when the win was poured in the chalice, Jesus blest and gave to the apostles saying: this is my blood. If you will have drunk, you will live eternally.17. Quis nos separabit a caritate Christi?Who will separate us from the love of Christ?18. Jesus (n.s) memor autem Patris omnipotentis ascendit in templum atque aspexit (3s vultus ( orantium ( Et intra templum invenit (3s perf/ multos, et felices et acres.But Jesus mindful of the almighty father went up into the temple and he saw faces of prayer (entreaty). And in the temple he found many both happy and bitter.19. Paschalis (n.s) ritus (n.s) memores videmus (1pl suavitatem et misericordiam et caritatem Dei Patris….We see the goodness and mercy and love of God the Father.20. Et Petrus invenit Jesum in cornu orantem pro omnibus hominibus.And peter found jesus on the mountain praying for all people.21. Venit Filus hominis manducans et bibens. Mt xi, 19The Son of Man came eating and drinking.22. Justorum autem animae in manu Dei sunt. Wisdom iii, 1But the souls of the just are in the hand of God.23. Quapropter salutare praeceptum Domini felices audivimus, et diligimus omnes, et nobis similes et dissimiles.Wherefore we have heard and we love everyone, bothe like and dislike24. Jesus, reclinatus in cenaculo, cum apostolis panem frangebat.Jesus, reclining in the cenacle, was breaking bread with the apostles.25. Per omnia saecula saeculorum.Forever and ever.

Unit 17 Volo and Eo

Irregular verb volo, velle volui wish

Present volo vis vult volumus vultis volunt
Imperfect volebam volebas volebat volebamus volebatis volebant
Future volam voles volet volemus voletis volent
Perfect volui voluisti voluit voluimus voluistis voluerunt
Pluperfect volueram volueras voluerat volueramus volueratis voluerant
Future Perfect voluero volueris voluerit voluerimus volueritis voluerint
subj Pres velim velis velit velimus velitis velint

* Ablative of location place where you are in with ablative with cities and towns the in isn't necessary.

  • Ablative of place from with a (ab, abs), e (ex) Paulus venit a Roma with cities and towns the a, ex, ab isn't necessary.
  • Locative case signifying place where; for 1st and 2nd declensions it is the genitive singular / ablative plural. Louvanii, Athenis - 3rd declention always ablative.

Peter of Amian first crusade: Deus Vult

Exercises1. Postquam turbae satis manducaverunt, apostoli ierunt et omnes panes relictos collegerunt.After the crowds had eaten enough, the apostles went and collected all the remaining bread fragments.2. Qui enim voluerit animam suam salvam facere, perdet eam; qui autem perdiderit animam suam propter me et evangelium, salvam faciet eam.Whoever will have wanted to save his soul, will loose it; whoever will loose his soul for me and the gospel, will save it.3. Vere dignum et justum est, invisibilem Deum Patrem omnipotentem Filiumque unigenitum Dominum nostrum Jesum Christum, personare.It is truly right and just to praise the invisible almight father God, and the only son our lord Jesus Christ.4. a. Jesus in mundum inivit in remissionem peccatorum nostrorum, et pro omnibus crucifixus est.Jesus came into the world to forgive of our sins and on behalf of all was crucified.b. Jesus, qui in mundum invit in remissionem peccatorum nostrum, pro omnibus hominibus crucifixus est.Jesus who came into the world to forgive our sins, for all people was crucified.c. Jesus Salvator, iniens in mundum in remissionem peccatorum, voluntatem Patris clementis fecit.Jesus the Savior, coming into the world for the forgiveness of sins, did the will of the merciful father.5. O dilectio caritatis! Pater noster enim Filium unigenitum misit.O delight of love. Our father sent the only begotten Son.6. Credo in unum Deum, Patrem omnipotentem, factorem caeli et terrae, visibilium omnium et invisibilium.I believe into one God, the Almight Father, maker of heaven and of earth, of all things visible and invisible.7. Supplices igitur volumus ad Dominum pietatis acceptabile sacrificium facere.We supplicants must therefore make to the Lord of mercy an acceptible sacrifice.8. Angelus Domini ad Mariam annuntiavit: Quod mater Dei eris.The angle of the Lord announced to Mary you will be mother of God.9. Paulo autem volente intrare in populum, non permiserunt discipuli. Acts xix, 30.Although Paul wanted to enter among the people, the disciples did not let him through.10. Libri veteris testamenti ac novi, in numero multi, prosunt omnibus credentibus in Deum.Books of the old and new testaments, many in number, are advantageous to all believers in God.11. Jesus circuibat Galilaeam, et populum monebat. Postea rediit Hierosolymam, ubi dixit apostolis de morte et resurrectione.Jesus was going around Galilee and teaching the people. Afterwards he returned to Jerusalem, where he spoke to the apostole of death and resurrection.12. Sciebat autem et Judas, qui tradebat eum, locum. John xviii, 2.And Judas knew the place where he was handing him over.13. Scriptum est in libro veteris testamenti primo (adv) quoniam (conj) Deus spiritum emisit et vivificavit Adam.It is written in the book of the old testament that first God sent the spirit and gave life to Adam.14. Diaconus, deprecationes pro populo effundens, laudem (acc.s) cerei (loc.s) diligenter (adv) implevit (3s deacon, pouring out prayers for the people, diligently fulfilled the praise at the candle.15. Paulus, adventum gloriosum Filii nuntians, confundebat Judeos qui in templo aderant.Paul, announcing the coming glory of the Son, was confounding the Jews who were present in the temple.16. Sanctus Petrus, servus et apostolus Jesu Christi, Romae primus episcopalem potentiam habebat.Holy Peter, servant and apostle of Jesus Christ, the first of rome had the episcopal power.17. Volo ergo viros ( orare in omni loco.Therefore I want men to pray in every place18. Noster panis, fructus telluris, a sacerdote benedictus, erit omnibus panis vitae aeternae.Our bread, fruit of the earth, blessed by the priest, is for all the bread of eternal life.19. Deo volente, omnis natura purgabitur.When God wills, all nature will pass away.20. Ob felicem culpam Adae, Jesus venit in mundum atque Patri omnes filios Adae placavit.From the happy fault of Adam, Jesus came into the world and he placated to the Father the all the sons of adam.21. Apostoli, a Jesu admissi, male habentes sanare et pecata remittere valebant.The apostles, sent by Jesus, were powerful to heal the sick and to forgive sins.22. Petrus autem et Joannes ascendebant in templum ad horam orationis nonam.And peter and john were going up to the temple at the ninth hour to pray.

Unit 18 Future Participles

Lauda - tur - us / a / um future active participle - I am about to praise - active in meaning, so takes a direct object. Convey likelihood or purpose.Lauda - nd - us / a / um future passive participle - will be praised - must be praised. Stem vowels are short before nd. Often convey the notion of duty or necessity. With future passive participle, the actor is put in the dative, called dative of agency.

Active Passive
Present Future Perfect Future
CONJ. I amans amaturus amatus amandus
loving about to love loved, having been loved to be loved
CONJ. II monens moniturus monitus monendus
advising about to advise advised, having been advised to be advised
CONJ. III regens recturus rectus regendus
ruling about to rule ruled, having been ruled
capiens capturus captus capiendus
taking about to take taken, having been taken
CONJ. IV audiens auditurus auditus audiendus
hearing about to hear heard, having been heard to be heard

Present passive and perfect active participles are lacking.

Periphrastic conjugations: Future active -rus (intention) and passive participles -dus (necessity, propriety) used with sum to form a regular tense

Present Active Periphrastic laudaturus sum I am going to praise
Imperfect Active Periphrastic laudaturus eram I was intending to praise
Pluperfect Active Periphrastic laudaturus fueram I had been about to praise

Participles determines voice, the form of sum determines person, number, tense and mood.

Present Passive Periphrastic audiendus est he must be heard
Future Passive Periphrastic audienda erit she will have to be heard

adj vera religioadv vere dignum - using adverb to modify an adjectiveadv vero amare - adverb to modify verbAdverbs are never declined.Periphrastic tenses take dative of agency.

Exercises1. Quicumque facit legem secundum Patris voluntatem, aeternam gloriam perventurus est in regno caelorum.Whoever does the law according to the will of the father, is about to come to eternal glory in the reign of heaven.2. Ritu incepto, devoti conveniunt circum festum altare Domini, arte humanitatis factum.When the ceremony begins, the devoted come together around the festive altar of the Lord, made by the skill of humanity.3. Non veni (1s solvere Legem aut Prophetas; non veni solvere, sed adimplere.I did not come to dissolve the law or the prophets, I did not come to dissolve but to fulfill.4. Pater benignus humanitati panem cotidianum semper dat.Good father always gives daily bread to humanity.5. Post Jesu ascensionem apostoli Galilaeae astiterunt, aspicientes in caelos.After the ascension of Jesus, the apostles stood in Galilee, looking into heaven.6. Prima lectione lecta, principium Evangelii secundum Lucam Levitae legendum erat. Lectione finita, populus acclamavit.After the first reading was read, the biginning of the Gospel according to luke was read by the Deacon. The reading being finished, the people cried out.7. Vir autem, Jesum intendens, exclamavit: Quia me salvum facere potes. Concedes (2s fut ai) igitur (conj) indigno (dat.s) homini (dat.s) clementiam (acc.s) tuam?And the man, stretching out to Jesus exclaimed: You can save me. Will you concede your mercy therefore to the unworthy man?8. Sapientia clementiaque Dei omnibus Christianis semper et ubique laudandae sunt.The wisdom and mercy of God must be praised by all christians always and everywhere.9. Etsi in tenebris incedentes, tamen Christum, lumen indeficiens, habemus. Qui enim populo viam semper ostendit.Although walking in darkness, yet we have Christ the unfailing light who indeed always shows the way to the people.10. Dominus Jesus apostolis saepe ostendebat quod mors eius in salutem mundi suffectura erat.The Lord Jesus was often showing to the apostles that his death would be sufficient for the salvation of the world.11. Ubi (conj) de monte descendi et supervenit Jesus, statim.Whereby Jesus descending from the mountain and arrived immediately.??12. Jesus autem non volebat in Judaea circuire, quia Judaei dicebant quod interficiendus erat.And Jesus did not want to go around in Judea because the Judeans were saying that he was going to be killed.13. Ut apostoli in cenaculo conclusi sunt, Jesus, vinculis mortis solutis, accessit et dixit: Ecce adsum.While the apostles were locked in the cenacle, Jesus, after dissolving the bonds of death, came to them and said behold I am here.14. Baptizarus autem Jesus, confestim ascendit de aqua. Mt iii,16And Jesus was baptized, and immediately he came out of the water.15. Missa incepta, sacerdos dicebat: Introibo ad altare Dei.When the mass began, the priest was saying, I will go in to the altar of God.16. Joannes bapista dixit quoniam Jesu baptizandus fuit.John the baptist said that Jesus had been baptized.17. Postquam autem resurrexero, praecedam vos in Galilaeam. Mt xxvi, 32.After I am raised, I will go before you into Galilee.18. Tunc sacerdos, manibus ( manner) extensis, dicit orationem.Then the priest, with hands extended, says the prayer.19. Et respiciens Jesum ambulatem dicit: Ecce agnus dei. Jn i, 36And seeing Jesus walking, he says, Behold the lamb of God.20. Credimus in Spiritum Sanctum, Dominum et vivificantem, qui ex Patre Filioque procedit.21. Corpus Christi custodiet me in vitam aeternam.The body of Christ will guard me into eternal life.22. Perficere autem bonum, non invenio.To accomplish the good, I do not find.23. Inde angelus Domini accessurus est ad pastores in agris greges custodientes.Thence the angle of the lord is coming upon the shepherds in the field guarding sheep.24. Ecce enim evangelizo vobis gaudium magnum quod erit omni populo. Evangelium secundum Lucam. ii, 10Behold, indeed, I proclaim to you great joy which shall be to all people.25. Ego sum Alpha et Omega, dicit Dominus deus, qui est et qui erat et qui venturus est, Omnipotens. Rev i, 8I am the Alpha and Omega, said the Lord God, who is, who was and who is to come, the Almighty.26. Beati qui ambulant in lege Domini.Blessed those who walk in the Law of the Lord.

Unit 19 Fifth Declension Nouns

Nouns of the fifth declension are feminine except dies, day, and meridies, midday, which are usually masculine. Genitive ends -ei.

word stem base nom gen dat acc abl
dies die- di- dies diei diei diem die
res re- r- res rei rei rem re
endings -es -ie -ie -em -e
Plural dies dierum diebus dies diebus
Plural res rerum rebus res rebus

Imperative Present active - all four conjugations The present stem in the signular, add -te for the plural:

I. ama, love thou amate, love ye amare, amamini,
lauda, praise! laudate, praise! laudare laudamini be praised!
II. mone, advise thou monete, advise ye monere, monemini,
III. (a) rege, rule thou regite, rule ye regere, regimini,
(b) cape, take thou capite, take ye capere, capimini,
IV. audi, hear thou audite, hear ye audire, audimini,
sum (irregular) es, esto, be thou este, estote, be ye
eo i ite
  • Note the second person present IMP passive is also the second person present IND passive (Singular and Plural) Chapter 7. The verbs dico, say; duco, lead; and facio, make, have the irregular forms dic - dicite, duc - ducite, and fac - facite fer - ferite. There is no imperative for volo or possum.
  • Vocative All like the nominitive except second declension masculine that end in -e. Domine, Care apostole.
  • Exceptions: second declension -ius goes to -i, Jesus vocative is Jesu. Agnus and Deus use nominative. Nouns in -ir or -er use nominative. Meus is either meus or mi.
  • Personal Pronouns
Nom. ego, I tu, you
Gen. mei, of me tui, of you
Dat. mihi, to or for me tibi, to or for you
Acc. me, me te, you
Abl. me, with, from me te, with, from you
Nom. nos, we vos, you
Gen. nostrum or nostri, of us vestrum or vestri, of you
Dat. nobis, to or for us vobis, to or for you
Acc. nos, us vos, you
Abl. nobis, witi, from us vobis, with, from you
  • Double Accusative Some verbs, e.g. ask or teach, take an accusative of thing and accusative of person: Dicaonus pueros evangelium docebat Verbs: desidero, doceo
  • Secundus, a, um - but secundum can also be in declinable prepositional: according to + accusative. You can tell the difference from the context - or from the declention.Autem - de in greek - conjunction that doesn't always need tranlsation. Context tells translation.

Exercises1. Agnus Dei, qui tollis (2s pai) peccata mundi, dona nobis pacem.Lamb of God who takes away the sins of the world, give us peace.2. Fili, dimittuntur tibi peccata tua.Child, your sin is forgiven you.3. Deinde dilectus apostolus discipulis dixit res quae in secunda die inciderant (3ps plup.act.ind) Hierosolymis.Then the beloved apostle said to the disciples the things that had happened the second day in Jerusalem.4. Panis autem, quem ego dabo, caro mea est pro mundi vita.And the bread that I will give is my flesh for the life of the world.5. Dominus (n.s) vobiscum ( Et cum spiritu ( tuo. Sursum corda ( Habemus ad Dominum (acc.s).The Lord be with you. And with your spirit. Lift up (your) hearts. We have (lifted them) to the Lord.6.Curans (pres.act.ppl) nos (, Jesus (n.s) in latere (abl.s) vulneratus est (3s perf.pass.ind) et effudit (3s sanguinem (acc.s) salutis (gen.s).Caring for us, Jesus was wounded in the side and he shed blood of salvation.7. Benedicta (n.s) tu (n.s) inter mulieres ( Lk i, 42Blest are you among women.8. A quibus ( custodientes ( vos bene agetis (2pl Acts xv, 29You will do well guarding (refraining) from them.9. Tu (n.s) credis (2s pai) in filium (acc.s) hominis (gen.s)? Jn ix, 35Do you believe in the son of man.10. Effundentes (n/ preces nostras, desideramus (1pl pai) fideles (n/ tuam salutem nostri, O dulcis (voc.s) Jesu. Veni (s act.imp), Domine (voc.s) Jesu.Pouring out our prayer, we the faithful desire your salvation of us, o sweet jesus, come lord jesus.11. Justus ex fide vivet (3s fut ai). Gal iii, 11Justice will live from faith,12. Volo autem vos scire quod omnis viri caput Christus est, caput autem mulieris vir, caput vero Christi Deus. I Cor xi, 3.I wish you to know that Christ is the head of all men, and man is the head of women and God is the true head of Christ.13. Relinque ibi munus tuum ante altare. Mt v, 24Leave there your gift before the altar.14. Laudo autem vos[, fratres,] quod omnia [in all respects] mei memores estis. I Cor. xi, 2.And I praise you all brothers, who in all respects are remembering me15. Cotidie alimur tua dilectione, O Domine: vere tu docuisti nos tuam salutem.Daily I am fed by our love, O Lord, truly you lead us to your salvation.16. Dicit ei mulier: Domine, video qui propheta est tu. Jn 4, 19.The woman said to him, Lord, I see that you are a prophet.17. Panem nostrum supersubstantialem da nobis hodie. Mt vi, 11.Give us today our abundant bread.18. Gratias ago deo meo semper pro vobis in gratia Dei, qua data est vobis in Christo Jesu. I Cor. i,4I give thatnks to my god always for you in the grace of god which is given to you in Christ Jesus.19. Domine, doce nos orare, sicut et Joannes docuit discipulos suos. Lk xi,1Lord, teach us to pray, as john taught his disciples20. Dimitte eam, quia clamat post nos. Mt 15, 23.Send her away, who clamors after us.21. Creditis (2pl pai) quia possum (1s pai) hoc facere? Mt ix, 28Do you all believe that I can do this?22. Et elegerunt Stephanum, virum plenum fide et spiritu sancto. Acts vi, 5.And they chose Stephen, a man full of faith and the holy spirit.23. Dominus Jesus interficiet (3s spiritu (abl.s) oris. II Thess, ii, 8The Lord Jesus will kill24. Tu ergo, si adoraveris coram me, erit tua omnis. Lk iv, 7You therefore, if you will worship before me, all this will be yours.25. Caro enim mea verus est cibus, et sanguis meus verus est potus. Jn vi, 55My flesh is real food and my blood is real drink.26. Spes autem, quae videtur, non est spes. Rom viii, 24And hope which is seen is not hope.27. Dixit Jesus: Facite homines discumbere. John vi, 10Jesus said: make the people sit down.28. Hodie impleta est haec Scriptura in auribus vestris. Lk iv, 21Today this scripture is complete in your hearing.29. Oculos habentes non videtis, et aures habentes non auditis? Mk viii, 18Having eyes, do you not see, and having ears, do you not hear?30. Quae est mater mea et fratres mei?Who is my mother and who are my brothers?31. Amen dico vobis: unus vestrum me traditurus est.Amen I say to you, one of you is about to betray me.32. Omnia mihi tradita sunt a patre meo.Everything to me is given over by my father.33. Dixit ergo Jesus Petro: mitte gladium in vaginam; calicem quem dedit mihi pater, non bibam illum?Therefore Jesus said to peter: put your sword in the scabbard, the chalice which my father gave me, will I not drink it?34. Ite, Missa est. Go. It is mass, she is sent.35. Magister dicit: apud te facio pascha cum discipulis meisThe master says, at your home I do the pasch with my disciples.36. Panem nostrum cotidianum da nobis cotidie, et dimitte nobis peccata nostra.Give us today our daily bread and forgive us our sins.37. Sancta Maria, ora pro nobis. Holy Mary, pray for us.

Unit 20 Deponents & Subjunctive

Defective verbs: A number of verbs are passive in form but active in meaning but they are less deponent that you might think since there is a passive sense to them, being acted on by an outside cause. Example: hortor, I encourage; vereor, I fear; miror I wonder; misereor, ”have pity, nascor, be born patior, suffer orior, spring up, [sun] rise. Such verbs are called deponent because they have laid aside (“de-ponere,” to lay aside) the active forms. (Besides having all the forms of the passive, deponent verbs have also the future active infinitive and a few other active forms which will be noted later.) Orient (sun springing up) occident (sun dying). It may also be closer to middle tense in greek or reflexive in english.

Conj. I hortor, hortari, hortatus sum, encourage
miror, mirari, – miratus sum, wonder at, admire
Conj. II vereor, vereri, veritus sum, fear
misereor, misereri, – misertus sum, have pity on
Conj. III (a) sequor, sequi, secutus sum, follow
nascor, nasci, – natus sum, be born
(b) patior, pati, passus sum, suffer, allow
Conj. IV partior, partiri, partitus sum, share, divide
orior, oriri, – ortus sum, spring up, arise
* Semideponent Deponent only in their perfect system.
audeo, audere, – ausus sum, dare
gaudeo, gaudere, – gavisus sum, rejoice
confido, confidere, – confisus sum, trust

* Subjunctive Mood = four tenses: present, perfect, imperfect, pluperfect. The negative is ne. It can be introduced by a sign-word such as utinam or ut. Exact meaning is determined by use.

Active Voice
-e- replaces the stem vowel -a-.
I amem ames amet amemus ametis ament
laudem laudes laudet laudemus laudetis laudent
-a- replaces the stem vowel -e-.
II moneam moneas moneat moneamus moneatis moneant
IIIa regam regas regat regamus regatis regant
IIIb capiam capias capiat capiamus capiatis capiant
IV audiam audias audiat audiamus audiatis audiant
Passive Voice
I amer ameris ametur amemur amemini amentur
lauder lauderis (-re) laudetur laudemur laudemini laudentur
II monear monearis moneatur moneamur moneamini moneantur
IIIa regar regaris regatur regamur regamini regantur
IIIb capiar caparis capiatur capiamur capiamini capiantur
IV audiar audiaris audiatur audiamur audiamini audiantur

- Direct commands or requests: Subjunctive mode expresses Hesitation, exhortation, wish, uncertainty, subjective

  1. Hortatory Subjunctive present subjunctive first person, when rousing onself to action : Cantemus domino canticum novum. Let us sing to the Lord a new song! Baptizemur a Joanne. Let us be baptized by John.
  2. Optative Subjunctive present subjunctive, expresses obtainable wishes: Dominum semper glorificem. May I always glorify the Lord. (Sometimes uses utinam)
  3. Jussive Future Indicative future indicative, for commands binding now and in the future: Diliges proximum tuum. You shall love your neighbor.
  4. Jussive Subjunctive Present subjunctive 3rd person. Translate: “Let…” Populus gaudeat! Let the people rejoice. Crucifigatur! Let him be crucified!
  5. Direct quotes: Deliberative Subjunctive. Translate “Am I to…” “Are we to…” “Should…” Quod donum ad Dominum demus? What give are we to give to the Lord? Non mittam diaconos Romam? Am I not to send the deacons to Rome?
  6. Conditional Clauses if, unless, when, should - all express a hesitation. Main clause is the apodosis, the conditional clause is the protasis. Introduced with Si or nisi
  7. Simple conditional - no implication about fulfillment. Si Dominum invocamus, nos audit. If we call upon the Lord, He hears us. Nisi legem faciabant, non justi erant. If they were not keeping the law, they were not righteous.
  8. Future conditional - more or less vivid, depends on likelihood or confidence with which the speaker sees the action.
  9. More Vivid if (future indicative, also subjunctive translated with english present) … then (subjunctive). Si voluntatem Dei faciet, salvus efficietur. If he does the will of God, he will be saved. Nisi voluntatem Dei fecerimus, in regnum caelorum non introibimus. Unless we (first) do the will of God, we will not enter into the kingdom of heaven. Si Petrus venerit, cum Paulo cenet! If peter comes, let him dine with paul.
  10. Less Vivid If (present subjunctive) … then (present indicative or present subjunctive). Si agnus unus amittatur, pastor bonus est maestus. If one lamb should be lost, the good shepherd is sad. Si Petrus domum intret, fratres orantes videat. If peter should enter the house, he would see his brothers praying.'

Exercises 1. Filius (n.s) hominis (gen.s) traditur (3s pres.pass.ind) in manus ( peccatorum ( Son of Man is betrayed into the hands of sinners.2. Praeceptis ( salutaribus moniti (, audemus (1pl pres.act.subj) dicere (inf):As taught by the saving precepts, let us dare to say:3. Pater noster, qui es in caelis, sanctificetur nomen tuum.Our father who art in heaven, hallowed be your name.4. Miseri ( deprecemur (1pl pres.pass.subj) Dominum (acc.s) scelera nostra fugare (inf/imp)!We poor ones, let us entreat the lord to drive away our sins.5. Utinam Corpus et Sanguis (n.s) Domini (gen.s) Jesu Christi nos ( ab omnibus ( iniquitatibus nostris liberent!Would that the body and blood of the Lord Jesus Christ would free us from all our iniquity.6. Turba mira (abl.s) opera Jesu (gen.s) admirata est (3s perf.pass.ind).The crowd is astonished at the wonderful works of Jesus.7. Domino (dat.s) demus (1pl pres.subj.act) panem (acc.s) nostrum, fructum (acc.s) terrae ( et operis (abl.s) manuum (acc.s) hominum.Let us give to the Lord our bread, fruit of the earth and by the works of human hands.8. Petrus (n.s) mirabatur (3s pres.pass.ind) quod populus (n.s) Domino (dat.s) nihil confidebat (3s imp.act.ind).Peter was amazed that the people didn't believe in God.9. Utinam paterna dilectio (n.s) nos ( semper (adv) servet (3s pres.subj.ind)!Would that the father's love would always save us.10. Paulus, verba atque opera Jesu in memoria habens, evangelizare erat potens.Paul, having the words and works of jesus in mind, was able to evangelize.11. Opus est sacerdoti pro populo benedictionem Domini invocare.It is the work of the priest to invoke the blessing of the Lord for the people.12. Lumen mundi ortum est et fugavit peccatorum tenebras.The light of the world rises up and puts to flight the darkness of sin.13. Homo miser, lacrimas effundens, dixit quod filius moriebatur.The miserable man, tears flowing, said that the son died.14. Ipse vos baptizabit in Spiritu Sancto et igni. Mt iii, 11.He will baptize you in the holy spirit and fire.15. Haec nox est, qua hodie per universum mundum in Christo credentes reddit gratiae.This is the night, when today for the whold world in christ believers return to grace.16. Deum de Deo, lumen de lumine, Deum verum de Deo vero, genitum, non factum, consubstantialem Patri: per quem omnia facta sunt.God from God, light from light, true God from true God, begotten, not made consubstantial with the father, through whom all things were made.17. Ideo precor beatum Mariam semper Virgenem, omnes Agnelos et Sanctos, et vos, fratres, orare pro me ad Dominum Deum nostrum.Therefore I ask blessed mary ever virgin, all the angels and saints and you brothers to pray for me to the Lord our God.18. Dominus enim Jesus crucifixus, pasus et mortuus est pro mundi vita.For the Lord Jesus was crucified suffered and died for the life of the world.19. O Domine, et fac (imp) me tuis ( semper inhaerere mandatis.O Lord , make me always cling to your commands.20. Natus est (3s pres.dep.ind) vobis ( hodie (adv) Salvator (n.s), qui est Christus (n.s) Dominus. Lk ii, 11Today a savior is born for us who is christ the lord.21. Ego baptizavi (1s vos (acc.s) aqua (abl.s means); ille (n.s) vero baptizabit (3s vos Spiritu (abl.s means) Sancto. Mk i, 8I baptized you with water, the other truly will baptize you with the Holy Spirit.22. Quare cum peccatoribus ( manducat (3s pai) et bibit Magister vester?Why with sinners eats and drinks your master.23. Peccavi tradens sanguinem innocentem. Mt xxvii, 4.I have sinned betraying innocent blood.24. Eodem tempore natus est Moyses et erat formosus coram deo. Acts vii, 20.In that time Moses was born and was beautiful in the sight of God.25. Tunc Jesus apostolis dedit postestatem spirituum malorum.Then Jesus gave to the apostles power over evil spirits.26. Nam et ego homo sub potestate. Mt. viii, 9.For I too am a man under power.27. Et aspiciens dicebat: Video homines, quia velut arbores video ambulantes. Mk viii, 24.And looking, he was saying: I see people, which just like trees, I seem them walking.28. Et ecce nihil dignum morte actum est a Nazareno.And behold nothing worthy of death is by the Nazarean.29. Exi a me, quia homo peccator sum, Domine. Lk v,8.Go away from me, because I am a sinful man. Lord.30. Videntes autem stellam gavisi sunt gaudio magno valde. Mt ii, 10.And seeing the start they rejoiced with truly great joy.31. Agnus Dei, qui tolis peccata mundi, miserere nobis.Lamb of God who takes away the sins of the world, have mercy on us.

Unit 21

Exercises 1. Si ergo filius vos liberaverit, vere liberi eritis.If therefore the son will have freed you, you will be free indeed.2. Si ego testimomium perhibeo de meipso (= me), testimonium meumnon est verum.If I give testimony on my behalf, my testimony is not true.3. Benedicat vos omnipotens Deus, Pater et Filius et Spiritus Sanctus.May he bless you God the father and the son and the holy spirit.4. Nam Deus dixit: “Honora patrem et matrem” et “Qui maledixeritpatri vel matri, morte moriatur.”For God said: honor father and monther and who curses father or mother will die the death.5. Sed turba haec, quae non novit legem, maledicti sum.But this crowd, that cannot read, are cursed.6. Neque me scitis neque Patrem meum.Neither I know, nor my father.7. Et extendens manum, tetigit eum.And extending the hand he touched him.8. Jesus autem plenus Spiritu Sancto regressus est a Jordane et agebatur in Spiritu in deserto.And Jesus, full of the holy spirit returned from the jordan and was led in spirit into the desert.9. Venit enim Joannes nequc manducans neque bibens.For john came neither eating or drinking.10. Quod ergo Deus conjunxit, homo non separet.Therefore what God has joined, let man not separate.11. Corpus Domini nostri Jesu Christi custodiat animam tuam in vitam aeternam.Let the body of our lord jesus christ lead your soul into eternal life.12. Nos enim spiritu ex fide spem justitiae expectamus.For we expect the hope of justice by the spirit of faith.13. Si vertatem dico, quare vos non creditis mihi? Jn viii, 46If I say the truth, why do you not believe me?14. Exsultet jam angelica turba caelorum: exsultent divina mysteria: et pro tanti Regis victoria tuba insonet salutaris.Let the angelic crowd of heaven exult: Let the divine mysteries exult and for so great a king, let the victorious trumpet of salvation resound15. Fratres, agnoscamus peccata nostra.Brothers, let us acknowledge our sins.16. Misereatur nostri omnipotens Deus, et, dimissis peccatis nostris, perducat nos ad vitam aeternam.Have mercy on us omnipotent God and forgiving our sins, lead us to eternal life.17. Et expecto resurrectionem mortuorum, et vitam venturi saeculi.And I await the resurrection of the dead and life in the coming age.18. Postea, si habenda sit, legitur secunda lectio.Afterwards, if it should be, the second reading will be read.19. Suscipiat Dominus sacrificium de manibus tuis ad laudem et gloriam nominis sui.Let the Lord receive the sacrifice from your hands to the praise and glory of his name.20. Gratias agamus Domino Deo nostro. Dignum et justum est.Give thanks to the Lord our God - it is right and just.21. Tu es qui venturus es? Are you the one who is to come?22. Amen, amen, dico vobis: Nisi manducaveritis carnem filii hominis et biberitis ejus sanguinem, non habetis vitam in vobismetipsis.Amen, amen I say to you, unless you have eaten the flesh of the son of man and you have drunk his blood, you do not have live in you.23. Dixi ergo vobis quia moriemini in peccatis vestris; si enim non credideritis quia ego sum, moriemini in peccatis vestris. Therefore I have said to you that you will die in your sins; if you have not believed that I am, you will die in your sins.

Unit 22 Imperfect Subjunctive

All imperfect subjunctives are formed with the infinitive + personal endings (active and passive). Deponents form the subjunctive imperfect as if they had an active infinitive.

Subjunctive Imperfect Active
amarem amares amaret amaremus amaretis amarent
monerem moneres moneret moneremus moneretis monerent
regerem regeres regeret regeremus regeretis regerent
caperem caperes caperet caperemus caperetis caperent
audirem audires audiret audiremus audiretis audirent
Subjunctive Imperfect Passive
amarer amareris amaretur amaremur amaremini amarentur
monerer monereris moneretur moneremur moneremini monerentur
regerer regereris regeretur regeremur regeremini regerentur
caperer capereris caperetur caperemur caperemini caperentur
audirer audireris audiretur audiremur audiremini audirentur

Tenses in Subordinate Clauses

  1. primary tenses: present, future, future perfect, perfect (completed)<p id=“l1570”>
  2. secondary tenses: imperfect, pluperfect, perfect (simple)

Relation between tense of the main clause and the tense of the subjunctive clause:

  1. If the main clause is in primary tenses, the present subjunctive or the perfect subjunctive is used in the subordinate: I go (primary) in order that (present subjunctive)<p id=“l1573”>
  2. If the main clause in secondary tenses, subordinent clause is in the imperfect subjunctive or pluperfect subjunctive: I was going (secondary) in order that (imperfect subjunctive)
Independent Clause Subordinate Clause
Contemporary Subsequent Prior
Primary tense: present, future, perfect (completed), future perfect Present Subjunctive Perfect Subjunctive
Secondary tense imperfect, perfect (simple) pluperfect Imperfect Subjunctive Pluperfect Subjunctive

Abverbial purpose clause ut subjunctive quia more of a logical connection; ne for negative purpose. Ne - is ut non.Relative clauses - who, whom, why with qui, quae, quod or occasionally ubi. Paul sent the four deacons in order to see peter paulus quattuor diaconos misit, qui petrum viderent.Infinitive of Purpose the infinitive may be used to express purpose: Paulus Romam venit Petrum videre. Paul came to Rome to see Peter.Indirect Commands / Requests after a verb of command or request, use ut + subjunctive or ut + accusative + infinitive. Deprecemur Deum ut peccata nostra nobis dimittat. Let us beseech God that he forgive our sins. Diaconus jussit populum orare. The deacon bade the people to pray. Verbs of command or request: postulo - ask, rogo - request, peto - petition, oro - pray, precor - ask, moneo - advise, jubeo takes only accusative + infinitive, dico takes only ut + subjunctive.

<p id=“l1587”> Exercises 1. Non enim misit (3s me (acc/abl.s) Christus (n.s) baptizare (inf) sed evangelizare.For Christ did not send me to baptize but to evangelize.2. Planctus (n.s) mulierum ( ad lacrimas ( et curam () Jesum movit (3s .Lamentations of the women moved Jesus to tears and care.3. Omnis (n.s) ergo (conj) qui confitebitur (3s fut.dep.ind) me (acc.s) coram hominibus (, confitebor (1s et ego eum coram Patre (abl.s) meo, qui est in caelis (abl.s).Therefore all who will confess me in the presence of humanity, I will confess them in the presence of my father who is in heaven.4. Tollat (3s pres.subj.act) crucem (acc.s) et sequatur (3s pres.dep.subj) me.Let him take up the cross and follow me.5. Non veni (1s pai) vocare (inf) justos ( sed peccatores ( have not come to the just but to the sinners.6. Commune aut immundum numquam introivit in os meum.The common and unclean never entered into my mouth.7. Statimque tunc Paulum dimiserunt fratres, ut iret usque ad mare.And immediately then the brothers sent paul away that he might go up to the sea.8. Confiteor tibi, Pater, Domine caeli et terrae.I confess to you Father, Lord of heaven and earth.9. Nos autem non spiritum mundi accepimus, sed Spiritum, qui ex Deo est, ut sciamus, quae a Deo donata sum nobis.And we did not accept a worldly spirit, but the spirit who is from god and we know that from God it is given to us.10. Glorificate ergo Deum in corpore vestro.Therefore glorify god in your body.11. Ego enim sum minimus apostolorum, qui non sum dignus vocari apostolus, quoniam persecutus sum ecclesiam Dei.For I am least of the apostles, who am not worthy to be called an apostle, because I persecuted the church of God.12. Non enim countuntur Judaei Samaritanis.For the Jews are not friends with samaritans.13. Respondit mulier et dixit ei: Non habeo virum.The woman responded and said to him, I have no man.14. Ego sum, qui loquor tecum.It is I who speak with you.15. Ego cibum habeo manducare, quem vos nescitis.I have food to eat which you do not know.16. Ex civitate autem illa multi crediderunt in eum Samaritanorum propter verbum mulieris testimonium perhibentis: Dixit mihi omnia, quaecumque feci.From the town there were many of the Samaritans who believed in him on account of the word of the women's testimony given: He told me all things whatever I did.17. Per mariae (gen.s) et omnium ( sanctorum intercessionem (acc.s), rogemus (1pl pres.subj.act) Patrem (acc.s) ut nos ( respicere (inf) dignetur (3s pres.dep.subj).Through the prayer of mary and of all the saints, we pray the father that he deign to look upon us.18. Pater (n.s), nostri (gen.s) memorans (pres.part), Filium (acc.s) misit (3s, qui a sceleribus ( nostris ( nos ( liberaret (3s imp.act.subj).The father, mindful of us, sent the son, who from our crimes is setting us free.19. Si judicemus (1pl pres.act.subj), judicemur (1pl pres.act.subj).If we judge, we are judged.20. Profiteamur (1pl present dep.subj) fidem (acc.s) nostram in Christo (abl.s) Jesus.We profess our faith in Christ Jesus.21. Fatentes (pres.part) culpas (, Deum (acc.s) remissionem postulaverunt (3pl perf.act.ind).Confessing sins, they asked God for forgiveness.22. Apostoli ( Jesum (acc.s) interrogabant (3pl de Patris (gen.s) misericordia ( apostoles were asking Jesus about the mercy of the father.23. Jesus (n.s) mulierem (acc.s) non dedignatus (ppl) sed allocutus est (3s perf.dep.ind)Jesus did not distain the woman but spoke to her.24. Joannes (n.s) primum (adv.) venit (3s ut major (n.s) sequeretur (3s imp.subj.dep).John came first that the greater on would come.25. Et cotidie Jesus in templo predicabat, ut voluntatem Patris faceret.And daily Jesus was in the temple preaching that he might do the will of the father.26. Corona spinorum gloriae corona.Crown of thorns, crown of glory.27. Diende antistes noster introitum missae diei legit.Then our bishop read the introit of the mass of the day.28. Cantibus laetis fratres confitentur domino.The brothers acknowledged (sang) joyful songs to the Lord.29. Ad Majorem Dei Gloriam.To the greater glory of god.30. Jubeamus (1pl pres.act.subj) Dominum (acc.s) nos servare (inf) ne amittamur (1pl pres.subj.pass).Let us ask the Lord to save us and let us not be sent away.31. Petamus a Jesu ut claritas vultus sereni nobis ( appareat (3s pres.subj.act).Let us ask from Jesus that the clarity of a serene face would appear to us.

Unit 23 Demonstrative Pronouns

Present Subjunctive of sum and possumsim, sis, sit, simus, sitis, sintpossim, possis, possit, possimus, possitis, possint

Demonstrative Pronouns hic, this and ille that emphatic; is this, that, iste this, that (of yours) unemphatic

n gen dat acc abl n gen dat acc abl
hic huius huic hunc hoc hi horum his hos his
haec huius huic hanc hac hae harum his has his
hoc huius huic hoc hoc haec horum his haec his
ille illius illi illum illo illi illorum illis illos illis
illa illius illi illam illa illae illarum illis illas illis
illud illius illi illud illo illa illorum illis illa illis
is eius ei eum eo ei eorum eis eos eis
ea eius ei eam ea eae earum eis eas eis
id eius i id eo ea eorum eis ea eis
iste istius isti istum isto isti istorum istis istos istis
ista istius isti istam ista istae istarum istis istas istis
istud istius isti istud isto ista istorum istis ista istis

Result Clauses Main clause introduces with talis, tale such, tantus, a, um so, so great, ita so, thus, sic so, thus tam so, to such a degree. Translated = that…

  1. Adverbial: Deus mundum sic dilexit, ut Filium nobis daret. God so loved the world that he gave us his Son. Pastor bonus oves custodit ita ut non amittantur. The good shepherd guards his sheep so that they are not lost.
  2. Relative: answers who and what, and qui, quae, quod replaces ut. Deus mundum sic dilexit, qui Filium mitteret. God so loved the world that he sent his Son.
  3. Special verbs: facere, efficere and volere can take subjunctive: Deus effecit ut Hebraei mare transirent God brought it about that the Hebrews crossed the sea. Vultis respondeam Do you wish that I answer.
  4. Characterizing Relative expresses typical action or characteristic: Paulus est qui in viis Domini ambulet. Paul is (the sort) who walks in the ways of the Lord.

Exercises 1. Gloria Patri, et Filio, et Spiritui Sancto. Sicut erat in principio, et nunc et semper, et in saecula saeculorum. Amen. Glory to the father and to the son and to the holy spirit, as it was in the beginning, and now and always, and forever, amen.2. Hoc (acc.s) facite ( in meam (acc.s) commemorationem. Do this in my commemoration.3. Ille (n.s) vos ( docebit (3s omnia ( That one will teach you all things.4. Scimus autem quoniam diligentibus (dat/ Deum (acc.s) omnia ( cooperantur (3pl pres.pass.ind) in bonum, his, qui secundum propositum (acc.s) vocati sunt (3pl perf.pass.ind). And we know that all things work together for good to them that love God, to them who are the called according to his purpose.5. Is (n.s) erat (3s qui Jesum (acc.s) tradere (inf) vellet (3s pres.subj.act). He is the one who wanted to betray Jesus.6. Vides (2s pai) quoniam fides cooperabatur (3s imp.pass.ind) operibus illius? Do you see that faith is cooperating with those works?7. Esto fidelis usque (prep) ad mortem (acc.s), et dabo (1s tibi (dat.s) coronam (acc.s) vitae (gen.s). Be faithful up to death and I will give to you the crown of life.8. Et cum oratis non eritis sicut hypocritae, qui amant in synagogis et in angulis platearum stantes orare, ut videantur ab hominibus. And when you pray do not be like the hypocrits, who love to pray in synagogues and on standing on street corners that they might be seen by men.9. Ego sum vitis vera. I am the true vine.10. Sic transit gloria mundi. Thus passes the glory of the world.11. Haec (n.s) nox est (3s pai), de qua (abl.s) scriptum est (3s perf.pass.ind): Et nox (n.s) sicut dies (n.s) illuminabitur (3s fut.pass.ind): et nox (n.s) illuminatio (n.s) mea in deliciis (abl.s) meis. This is the night of which it has been written: and the night as the day will be illuminated, and the night is my illumination in my delight.12. Haec nox (n.s) reddit (3s pai) innocentiam (acc.s) lapsis ( et maestis laetitiam (acc.s). This night restores innocence from backsliding and joy from sorrow.13. Et sanatus est (3s perf.pass.ind) puer (n.s) in hora (abl.s) illa. And the boy was healed in that hour.14. Ecce faciam (1s pres.act.subj) illos, ut veniant et adorent ante pedes tuos et scient quia ego dilexi te. Behold I make them, that they may come and adore before your feet and they know that I love you.15. Sic enim dilexit deus mundum, ut filium suum unigenitum daret, ut omnis, qui credit in eum, non pereat, sed habeat vitam aeternam. God so loved the world that he gave his only sone that all who believe in him will not perish but will have eternal life.16. Si confiteamur peccata nostra, fidelis est et justus, ut remittat nobis peccata.If we confess our sins, it is right and just, that he remit from us our sins.17. Filius autem hominis non habet, ubi caput reclinet. And the son of man has no place to rest his head.18. Et viso eo rogabant (3pl, ut transiret a finibus eorum. And they were asking to his face, that he would go across from their border.19. Nisi factores verbi simus, non simus salvi (1pl perf.pass.subj). Unless we are doers of the word, we may not have been saved.20. Tu est sacerdos in aeternum secundum ordinem melchisedech. You are a priest forever according to the order of melchisedek.21. Illae mulieres parvulos sic tuitae sunt, ut omnes eas bonas matres vocarent. Those women were so protecting the children that all clled them good mothers.22. Misertus autem dominus servi (gen.s) illius dimisit (3s eum et debitum dimisit (3s ei (dat.s). The merciful lord of that servant dismissed him and forgave the debt to him.23. Nisi bona opera operatus eris (2s fut.perf.pass.ind), regnum (acc.s) caelorum ( non consequeris (2s fut.dep.i). Unless you will have performed good works, you will not follow after the reign of the heavens.24. Regnum meum non est de mundo hoc. My reign is not of this world.25. Quis enim cognovit sensum domini? For who has known the mind of the lord?26. Ita et isti nunc non crediderunt (3s propter vestam (acc.s) misericordiam, ut et ipsi nunc misericordiam consequantur. Those that did not believe in your mercy now follow your mercy27. Qui videt me, videt eum, qui misit me. Whoever sees mee, sees him who sent me.28. Haec tibi omnia dabo, si cadens adoraveris me. All this I will give to you, if falling, you will have adored me.29. Nam et pater tales quaerit, qui adorent eum. For the father seeks such who will adore him.30. De corde enim exeunt cogitationes malae. For wicked thoughts come out of the heart.31. Pax domini sit semper vobiscum. May the peace of the lord always be with you.32. Discedite (imp) a me, qui operamini (2pl pres.dep.i) iniquitatem (acc.s). Depart from me you who are doing evil.33. Qualia et quanta sunt opera domini? What kind and how many are the works of the lord?34. Pro tanti (gen.s) regis victoria (abl.s) tuba (n.s) insonet (3s pres.act.subj.) salutaris! For the victory of such a king, let the trumpet sound the greetings.35. In sexta hora ei ad civitatem regressi sunt (3pl perf.dep.ind), ubi rex, sedens in judicio, eis gratiam largiretur (3s imp.pass.subj). In the sixth hour, they returned to the city where the king sitting in judgment, granted them kindness.

Unit 24 Ipse and Gerundives

Present Subjunctive of go eo: eam eas eat eamus eatis eant ; and wish volo: velim, velis, velit, velimus, velitis, velint.

Intensive pronoun/adjective: ipse e.g. myself

ipse ipsius ipsi ipsum ipso ipsi ipsorum ipsis ipsos ipsis
ipsa ipsius ipsi ipsam ipsa ipsae ipsarum ipsis ipsas ipsis
ipsum ipsius ipsi ipsum ipso ipsa ipsorum ipsis ipsa ipsis
  • Ego ipse hoc feci I did this myself. Also -met Egomet hoc feci
  • Present Contrafactual If x were, y would. Si paulus esset hic, felices essemus. If paul were here, we would be happy. The protasis is in the imperfect conditional, and the apodosis may be as well.
  • Gerundive The future passive participle -ndus can be a verbal adjective modifying anything but nominative (which is passive periphrastic). Latin has passive contruction where english prefers the active: Petro erat desiderium Pauli videndi Peter is desirous of seeing paul. Joannes venit ad populum baptizandum. John came to baptize the people. Can use ad or causa to construct a purpose clause.Gerunds are neuter singular of the gerund used substantively with active meaning. translated …ing. orandi of praying orando for praying orandum praying orando by praying. Jesus in montem subivit ad orandum. Jesus went up into the mountain to pray (for praying).

Exercises 1. Beati mites, quoniam ipsi possidebunt terram. Blessed the meek, because they will possess the earth.2. Et praecepit turbae sedere super terram. And he commmanded the crowd to sit on the earth.3. Ut autem sciatis quia potestatem habet Filius hominis in terra dimittendi peccata. Tibi dico: Surge, tolle grabatum tuum et vade in domum tuam. And that you may know that the son of man has power on earth of forgiving sins, To you I say: rise, take your mat and go to your home.4. Et hymno dicto, exierunt in montem Oliveti. After saying hymns they went out to the mount of olives.5. Illo die in nomine meu petetis, et non dico vobis, quia ego rogaboPatrem de vobis; ipse enim Pater amat vos, quia vos me amastis et credidistis quia ego Deo exivi. Exivi a Patre et veni in mundum; iterum relinquo mundum et vado ad Patrem. That day you will ask in my name and I do not say to you that I will ask the father for you, the fater loves you yourselves since you love me and believe that I have come out from God. I have come out from the Father and I came into the world, and again I relinquish the world and I go to the father.6. Videte autem vosmetipsos. Look at yourselves.7. Salvum fac temetipsum descendens de cruce. Save your self, coming down from the cross.8. O Domine, Creator Spiritus, accende in cordibus nostris ignem dilectionis tuae. O Lord, creator spirit, kindle in our hearts the fire of your love.9. Prophetae ad sensum Dei illustrandum cecinerunt. The prophets sang explaining the mind of God.10. Jesu reposito, quinque mulieres plangebant valde. When Jesus was brought back, 5 women were lamenting greatly.11. Vere homo hic Filius Dei erat. Truly this man was the son of god.12. In hoc enim vocati estis, quia et Christus passus est pro vobis vobis reliquens exemplum ut sequamini vestigia ejus. In this you are called, that Christ suffered for you and left you an example that you might follow in his footsteps.13. Pauci, id est octo animae, salvae factae sunt per aquam. Few, it is 8 spirits, are saved through water.14. Se quemadmodum communicatis Christi passionibus, gaudete, ut et in revelatione gloriae ejus gaudeatis exsultantes. To the extent that you share the passion of Christ, rejoice, that in the revelation of glory you will rejoice exultantly.15. Ipsi imperium in saecula saeculorum. Amen. To him be dominion for ever amen.16. Sufficit, venit hora: ecce traditur Filius hominis in manus peccatorum. Surgite, eamus; ecce qui me tradit prope est. It is enough, the hour comes, behold the son of man is betrayed into the hands of sinners. Get up, let us go. behold, the one who betrays me is near.17. Spiritus quidem promptus, caro vero infirma. The spirit is ready, the flesh is truly weak.18. Et ponentes genua adorabant eum. And kneeling, they adored him.19. Propter quod rogo (1s pai) vos accipere (inf) cibum (acc), hoc enim pro salute vestra est. According to which I ask you all to accept food, this is for your salvation.20. Transeamus usque bethlehem et videamus hoc verbum quod factum est, quod dominus ostendit nobis. Let us go over to bethlehem and see this word which is made, which the lord has shown to us.21. Meus cibus est, ut faciam voluntatem ejus, qui misit me, et ut perficiam opus ejus. My food is that I do his will who sent me, and that I complete his work.22. Non est hic: surrexit enim, sicut dixit. Venite, videte locum, ubi positus erat. He is not here, for he has risen as he said. Come see the place where he was placed.23. Multi enim sunt vocati, pauci vero electi. For many are called, truly few are chosen.24. Omnia ergo quaecumque vultis, ut faciant vobis homines, ita et vos facite eis, haec est enim Lex et Prophetae. Therefore all the things whatever you want that people do to you all, that you do to them, for that is the law and the prophets.25. Et egressus est rursus ad mare; omnisque turba veniebat ad eum, et docebat eos.26. Primus homo de terra terenus, secundus homo de caelo. Qualis terenus, tales et terreni, et qualis caelestis, tales et caelestes; et sicut portavimus imaginem terreni, portabimus et imaginem caelestis.27. Deus autem spe repleat vos omni gaudio et pace in credendo.28. Et ipso et per ipsum et in ipsum omnia. Ipsi gloria in saecula. Amen. In from him and through him and in him are all things. To him be glory forever.29. Et unus ex illis non cadet super terram sine patre vestro. And one of them will not fall to the earth withough your father.30. Vos misistis (2pl ad joannem, et testimonium perhibuit veritati; ego autem non ab homine testimonium accipio, sed haec dico, ut vos salvi sitis. You sent yourselves to john and he gave testimony to truth; and I do not accept testimony from humans, but I say this, that you may be saved.31. Beati mundo corde, quoniam ipsi deum videbunt. Blest are the pure of heart because they will see god.32. Ecce video caelos apertos et Filium hominis a dexteris stantem dei. Behold I see the heavens opened and (I see) the son of humanity standing at the right of god.33. Neque me scitis neque patrem meum; si me sciretis (2pl imp.act.subj.) forsitan et patrem meum sciretis. You know neither me nor my father, if you might know me, perhaps you might know my father.34. Rogo autem te, permitte mihi loqui ad populum. I ask you, permit me to speak to the people.35. Vos estis lux mundi. You are the light of the world.36. Si enim crederetis Moysis, crederetis forsitan et mihi. For if you might believe moses, perhaps you might believe me.37. Erant enim, qui veniebant et redibant multi, et nec manducandi spatium habebant. For they were those who were coming and many were turning away, and they didn't space for eating.38. Confestim igitur misi ad te, et tu bene fecisti veniendo. Immediately therefore I sent to you and you did well in coming.39. Ipsi enim audivimus et scimus quia hic est vere salvator mundi. For we heard him and we knew that here is truly the savior of the world.40. Qui habet aures audiendi, audiat. Whoever has ears to hear, let him hear.41. Diliges (2s fut.act.ind) proximum tuum sicut teipsum. You shall love your neighbor as yourself.42. Si diligeretis (2pl imp.act.subj.) me, gauderetis quia vado (1s pai) ad patrem, quia pater major me est. If you loved me, you would rejoice that I go to the father because the father is greater than me.43. Per huius aquae et vini mysterium ejus efficiamur divinitatis consortes. Through the mystery of this water and wine, we will be made sharers in divinity.44. Haec commixtio corporis et sanquinis domini nostri jesu christi sit accipientibus nobis in vitam aeternam. May this mixture of the body and of the blood of our lord jesus christ be to/for our acceptance in eternal life.45. Simulatque octogina milites in civitatem inierunt, mulieres de criminibus eorum exclamaverunt. At the same time the 80 soldiers entered the city, the women spoke out about their crimes.

Unit 25 Pluperfect Subjunctive

Subjunctive mood expresses Hesitation, exhortation, wish, uncertainty. Perfect stem + imperfect subjunctive of sum (slightly misspelled, with initial e- becoming -i-). Any double -ii- is contracted to a single -i-. …that I might have praised, advised, led, taken, heard, gone…

laudavissem laudavisses laudavisset laudavissemus laudavissetis laudavissent
monuissem monuisses monuisset monuissemus monuissetis monuissent
duxissem duxisses duxisset duxissemus duxissetis duxissent
cepissem cepisses cepisset cepissemus cepissetis cepissent
audivissem audivisses audivisset audivissemus audivissetis audivissent
issem isses isset issemus issetis issent
  • The passive pluperfect subjunctive is the perfect passive participle and the imperfect subjunctive of sum. …that I might have been praised, advised, led, taken, heard…laudatus (monitus, ductus, captus, auditus) essem, esses, esset, essemus, essetis, essent
  • Conditional Clauses Past contrafactal 'if I had known you were sick (but I did not), I would have… In latin use pluperfect subjunctive in the protasis, the apososis (main clause) may use pluperfect subjunctive as well. If … had … would have …. Si paulus fuisset hic, felices fuissemus. If paul had been here, we would have been happy.Fearing Verb of fear uses ne (for want you don't want) and ut (for what which wish, but don't think is happening). Both use subjunctive. Paulus timet ne Romani Petrum interfecturi sint Paul fears that the Romans will kill Peter. Paulus timuit ut Corinthii essent fideles. Paul feared the Corinthians were not being faithful.Unattainable Wishes Attainable wishes uses present subjunctive, but unattainable wishes use imperfect or pluperfect subjunctive frequently with utinam.
  • Present: …would that … were. or I wish that … were ….<p id=“l1793”>
  • Past: Utinam petrus adhunc viveret. I wish that Peter were still living.

Exercises 1. O certe (adv) necessarium adae (gen.s) peccatum, quod Christi morte delectum est. O most necessary sin of adam, that Christ is delivered to death.2. Per ipsum (acc.s), et cum ipso (abl.s), et in ipso, est tibi (dat.s) Deo Patri omnipotenti, in unitate (abl.s) spiritus (gen.s) sancti, omnis honor et gloria (n.s) per omnia ( saecula saeculorum. Amen. Through him and with him and in him, there is to you God, almighty father, in unity of the holy spirit, all honor and glory for all ages forever. Amen.3. Et relinquentes ( eum (acc.s) omnes ( fugerunt (3pl Mk xiv,50. And leaving him they all fled.4. Bonum (n.s) erat (3s ei (dat.s), si natus (n.s) non fuisset (3s plup.subj.act) homo ille (n.s). Mt xxvi, 24. It would have been better for him, if that man had not been born.5. Domine (voc.s), si fuisses (2s plup.subj.act) hic, non esset mortuus (3s plup.subj.dep) frater (n.s) meus! Lord, if you would have been here, my brother would not have died.6. Si enim data esset (3s plup.pass.subj) lex, quae posset (3s imp.act.subj) vivificare, vere ex lege esset justitia. Gal iii,21 For if the law had been given, that he could have lived, truly from the law would have come justice.7. Non est propheta (n.s) sine honore (abl.s) nisi in patria (abl.s) et in domo sua. Mt xiii, 57 A prophet is not without honor except in the homeland and in his own house.8. Ave, gratia (voc.s) plena, Dominus (n.s) tecum (abl.s). Benedicta (n.s) tu in mulieribus ( Lk i,28. Hail, full of grace, the Lord [is] with you. Blessed [are] you among women.9. Respice (2s pres.act.imp) etiam ad devotum Imperatorem (acc.s) nostrum. Likewise, look at our dedicated emporer.10. Judeaei ( timebant (3pl ne (conj) discipuli (n.s) Jesu (gen.s) sublaturi essent (3ps imp.act.periphrastic.subj ) corpus (acc.s) ejus.The Judeans were fearing that the disciples were intending to take away his body.11. Turba depoposcerunt (3pl perf.act.ind) ut Jesus ad mortem addiceretur (3s imp.pass.subj). The crowd demanded that Jesus would be condemned to death.12. Si non esset hic malefactor, non tibi tradidissemus eum. If he were not an evildoer, we would not have betrayed him to you.13. Respondit Jesus et dixit ei: Si scires donum dei et quis est, qui dicit tibi: Da mihi bibere, tu forsitan petisses ab eo et dedisset tibi aquam vivam. Jesus responded and said to her, if you knew the gift of god and who it is who says to you give to me to drink, you perhpas would have asked from him and he would have given you living water.14. Tunc discipuli omnes, relicto eo, fugerunt. Then all the disciples, abandoning him, fled.15. Nam et si sunt, qui dicantur (3s pres.pass.subj) dii sive in caelo sive in terra, siquidem sunt dii multi et homini multi, nobis tamen unus Deus Pater ex quo omnia et nos in illum, et unus dominus Jesus Christus, per quem omnia et nos per ipsum.For and if they are, who would speak to the gods whether in heaven or whether on earth, if indeed there are many gods and many people, to us nevertheless [there is] one God, Father, from whom [are] all things and we in them, and one Lord, Jesus Christ, through whom are all things and we through him.16. Vos ex patre diabolo estis et desideria patris vestri vultis (2pl pai) facere. You are from the father, the devil, and the desires of your father you wish to do.17. Sive enim vivimus, domino vivimus, sive morimur, domino morimur. Sive ergo vivimus, sive morimur, domini sumus. For whether we live, to the lord we live, or we die, we die to the lord. THerefore whether we live or we die, we are of the Lord.18. Si enim cognovissent, numquam Dominum gloriae crucifixissent. If we had known, we would not have crudified the lord of glory.19. Extra civitatem filiae Jerusalem, dolore plenae, ad crucem Jesu flebant. Outside the city, the daughters of Jerusalem, full of sorrow, were lamenting to the cross of Jesus.20. Beati pauperes spiritu, quoniam ipsorum est regnum caelorum. Blest the poor in spirit, because of them is the reign of heaven.21. Jesus surrexit sicut praedixit, alleluja. Jesus has risen as he fortold, alleluia.22. Dominus cum venia accipiat (3s pres.act.subj) oblationem nostram. Let the Lord with kindness accept our oblations.23. Salve Michael Archangele, Nos a diabolo semper defendas. Hail Michael archangel. Defend us always from the devil.24. Occurrit Petrus Jesu contradicenti cum Judaeis. Peter ran up to jesus [who was] disputing with the Judeans.25. Stantes circa Jesus corpus, mulieres lacrimarum cum effusione flebant, clamantes, quare dominus est mortuus? utinam adhuc viveret.Standing around the body of Jesus, the women wept with and outpouring of tears, crying: why is the lord dead, if only he had lived.

Unit 26 Perfect Subjunctive

Subjunctive mood expresses Hesitation, exhortation, wish, uncertainty. The perfect subjunctive is formed on the perfect stem or perfect participle. The perfect active subjunctive is formed with the perfect stem + -eri- + personal endings. (This mimics the future-perfect active indicative except in the 1st person singular) The perfect passive subjunctive is formed with the perfect passive participle + the present subjunctive of sum.

laudaverim laudaveris laudaverit laudaverimus laudaveritis laudaverint
monuerim monueris monuerit monuerimus monueritis monuerirint
duxerim duxeris duxerit duxerimus duxeritis duxerint
ceperim ceperis ceperit ceperimus ceperitis ceperint
audiverim audiveris audiverit audiverimus audiveritis audiverint
fuerim fueris fuerit fuerimus fueritis fuerint
laudatus sim laudatus sis laudatus sit laudati simus laudati sitis laudati sint

Direct Questions:

  • Affirmative answer implied, use Nonne: Nonne christus iterum venturus est Christ is going to come again, isn't he?… (Yes) Nonne = non + ne
  • Negative answer implied use Numquid: Numquid paulus hierosolymis interfectus est? Paul was not killed in Jerusalem, was he? … (No)

Indirect Questions: may be introduced by si or any other interrogative pronoun, adjective or adverb. It may take the subjunctive or the original indicative: Quare Paulus Romam iit? Why did paul go to rome? may be subjunctive: Discipulus rogat quare paulus romam ierit? or in the indicative Discipulus rogat quare paulus romam iit?Donec, Dum while, as long as, until Context determines whether simultaneous or subsequent time is intended: Donec (dum) paulus rediit, fratres erant maesti Until paul returned, his brothers were sad. Donec (dum) vita est, spes est. While there is life, there is hope.Interrogative Pronoun: quis, quid who what

m&f quis cujus cui quem quo
n quid quid
who/what whose? of what? for/to what/whom who/what from/with/in/by who/what

the ablative quibus and quo coalesce with cum for quocum and quibuscum

Exercises1. Et interrogabat (3s quis esset (3s imp.act.subj) et quid fecisset (3s imp.act.subj). Acts xxi,33 And he was asking who he was and what he was doing.2. Quem (acc.s) vultis (2pl pai) dimittam (1s or pres.act.subj) vobis ( barabbam (acc.s) an jesum, qui dicitur (3s pres.pass.ind) christus (n.s)? Mt. xxvii, 17 Who do you want that I will release to you, barabbas or jesus who is called christ?3. Numquid Paulus crucifixus est (3s perf.pass.ind) pro vobis (, aut in nomine (abl.s)Pauli (gen.s) baptizati estis (2pl perf.pass.ind). I Cor. i,13 Was Paul crucified for you, or were you baptized in paul's name?4. Si terrena ( dixi (1s vobis (, et non creditis (2pl pai), quomodo (adv), si dixero (1s vobis ( caelestia (, credetis (2pl If I spoke to you of earthly things and you do not believe, in what way, if I will have spoken to you of heavenly things, will you believe?5. Est (3s pai) autem constuetudo (n.s) vobis (, ut unum (acc.s) dimittam (1s pres.subj.act) vobis ( in Pascha (abl.s); vultis (2pl pai) ergo dimittam (1s pres.subj.act) vobis (dat.s) regem (acc.s) judeorum ( Jn xviii, 39 It is custom to you, that I would release one person to you at pasch; therefore do you want that I would release to you the king of the judeans?6. Quis nos separabit a caritate Christi? Rom. viii, 35 Who will separate us from the love of Christ?7. Si quis (n.s) videtur (3s pres.pass.ind) propheta esse aut spiritalis cognoscat (3s pres.subj.act) , qua scribo (1s pai) vobis (, quia domini (gen.s) est mandatum (3s perf.pass.ind). If what the prophet has seen to be or would know in spirit, what I write to you, what of the Lord is commanded.8. O homo, sed tu quis es, qui respondeas deo? Rom ix, 20 O man, if you are thus, who are you that you respond to god?9. Laudo autem vos quod omnia mei memores estis? And I praise you who in all are brought to my mind.10. Et egressus ibat secundum consuetudinem in montem Olivarum. Lk xxii, 39 And he went out according to custom to the mount of olives.11. Dico enim vobis: Non manducabo illud, donec impleatur in regno Dei. Lk xxii, 16 For I say to you, I will not eat that until it is fullfilled in the regin of God.12. Ecclesiam tuam, peregrinantem in terra, in fide et caritate firmare digneris cum famulo tuo Papa nostro Joanne paulo et episcopo nostro N., cum episcopali ordine et universo clero et omni populo acquisitionis tuae. Your pilgrim church on earth, in faith and love with your servant pope john paul, our bishop n. with the episcopal order and with all the clergy and all the people acquired by you.13. Lucifero orto, in nos in dogma resurrectionis credentes nova vita spirata est. When the morning star arises, new live is breathed forth in us believers in the dogma of the resurrection.14. Quomodo igitur aperti sunt oculi tibi? Jn ix, 10 In what way therefore were your eyes opened for you?15. An nescitis quoniam corpus vestrum templum est Spiritus sancti, qui in vobis est, quem habetis a deo, et non estis vestri? I Cor vi, 19 And do you not know that your body is a temple of the holy spirit, who is in you, whom you have from God, and is not your own?16. Nonne Moyses dedit vobis legem? Didn't moses give you the law?17. Hoc autem dico secundum indulgentiam, non secundum imperium. I Cor vii, 6 This then I say, according to concession, not according to the law.18. An necitis quoniam sancti de mundo judicabunt? Or do you not know that the holy ones will judge the world.19. Quid me interrogas? Interroga eos, qui audierunt quid locutus sum ipsis; ecce hi sciunt, quae dixerim (1s perf.act.subj) ego. Jn xviii, 21 Why do you question me? Question them who heard what I said themselves; behold these know what I have said.20. Et si quis vobis dixerit: Quid facitis hoc? dicite: Domino necessarius est. And if he says to you all: why are you doing this? say: the lord has need.21. Respondens autem Judas, qui tradidit eum dixit: Numquid ego sum, Rabbi? Responding, Judas, who betrayed him said: is it I Rabbi?22. Et observabant eum, si sabbatis curaret illum. And they were observing him if he would be curing him on the sabbath.23. Et dimitte nobis debita nostra, sicut et nos dimittimus debitoribus nostris. And forgive us our debts as we forgive our debtors.24. Dum Jesu doctori praestolantur, discipuli, stantes in fide fortes, in domo orabant. While the doctors wait for Jesus, the disciples standing in strong faith were praying in the house.25. Magister, quid boni faciam, ut habeam vitam aeternam? Master what good should I do that I may have eternal life?26. Sancte Petre, patrone noster, duc martyres laborantes pro domino ad triumphum. Holy Peter, our patron, lead the working martyrs before the lord in triumph.27. Manifestum enim quod ex Juda ortus sit Dominus noster. For it is clear that Our Lord would be born from from Judah.28. Peregrinantes in terra facimus iter ad regnum caelorum. Pilgrims on earth, we make a journey to the reign of heaven.29. Ergo, fratres, debitores sumus, non carni, ut secundum carnem vivamus. Therefore brothers, we are debtors, not in the flesh that according to the flesh we would live.30. Quid mihi prodest? si mortui non resurgunt, manducemus et bibamus, cras enim moriemur. What is the profit to me? if the dead do not rise let us eat and let us drink, for tomorrow we will die.31. Quomodo potest hic nobis carnem suam dare ad manducandum? In what way this one can give to us his flesh for eating?32. Quid ergo dicemus ad haec? Si Deus pro nobis, quis contra nos? Therefore what do I say to them? If God is for us, who is against us?33. Sed et si quid patimini propter justitiam, beati. But if you suffer on account of justice, you are blest.34. Mysterium fidei: mortem tuam annuntiamus, Domine, et tuam resurrectionem confitemur, donec venias. Mystery of faith: we announce your death, lord, and we confess your resurrection until you come.35. Quomodo autem nunc videat nescimus, aut quis ejus aperuit oculos nos nescimus. In what way he now sees what we do not know and who opened the eyes of him we do not know.36. Quis reddere potest, id quod perditum est? Who can redeem that which is lost.37. Et ecce clamaverunt dicentes: Quid nobis et tibi, Fili Dei. And behold they cried out saying: what to you and to us, Son of God?38. Nam semper pauperes habetis vobiscum, me autem non semper habetis. For the poor you alwyas have with you, but me you do not always have.

Unit 27 Comparative Adjectives

comparative add -ior superlative add -issim-
like 3rd declension like 1st / 2nd declension
beatus beatior beatissimus
beati beatioris beatissimi
beato beatiori beatissimo
beatum beatiorem beatissimum
beato beatiore beatissimo
beati beatiores beatissimi
beatorum beatiorum beatissimorum
beatis beatioribus beatissimis
beatos beatiores beatissimos
beatis beatioribus beatissimis

Special forms:

good bonus melior optimus
bad malus pejor pessimus
great magnus major maximus
many multus plus plurimus
small parvus minor minimus
near prope(adv) propior proximus
before prae, pro(prep) prior primus
above superus superior supremus

Usually the comparisons are expressed or implied. But if they are more remote, then happier / happiest can be used without a specific comparison. In explicit comparison, quam is used. If one comparator is in nominative or accusative, then the other can be in ablative, without quam. Peter was happier than john: Petrus erat felicior joanne. For degrees of difference, the ablative can be used to express the intensity: This table is higher by a foot than that one: Haec mensa est pede altior quam illa.

Exercises 1. Et veniens in patriam suam, docebat eos in synagoga eorum, ita ut mirarentur et dicerent: Unde huic sapientia haec et virtutes? And coming in his own country, he was teaching them in their synagogue such that they were amazed and were saying where to him this wisdom and power?2. Deum de deo, lumen de lumine, deum verum de deo vero, genitum, non factum. God from god, light from light, true god from true god, begotten, not made.3. Gratias agimus Deo semper pro omnis vobis, memoriam facientes in orationibus nostris sine intermissione memores operis fidei vestrae et laboris caritatis. We give thanks to god always for all of you, making remembrance in our prayers without interruption, mindful of your works of faith and loving labors.4. O inaestimabilis dilectio caritatis: ut servum redimeres, Filium tradidisti,O priceless pleasure of charity thatyou might redeme the servant, you betray the son.5. Et claritas Dei circumfulsit illos. And the glory of God shown around them.6. Tempus meum nondum adest, tempus autem vestrum semper est paratum. My time is not yet here, but your time is always prepared.7. Qui amat patrem aut matrem plus quam me, non est me dignus. Whoever loves father or mother more than me is not worthy of me.8. Dixit ergo eis Pilatus: accipite eum vos et secundum legem vestrem judicate eum. Therefore Pilate said to them, take him yourselves and judge him according to your law.9. Empti enim estis pretio! Glorificate ergo deum in corpore vestro. For your were purchased dearly, therefore glorify god in your body.10. Qui ergo solverit unum de mandatis istis et docuerit sic homines, minimus vocabitur in regno caelorum. Whoever therefore breaks one of these commands and teaches people thus, is called least in the reign of heaven.11. Respondit pilatus: numquid ego judaeus sum? Pilate responded: am i a jew?12. Posui te in lucem gentium. I set you as in [as] light of the nations.13.

Unit 28 Reflexive Adjectives & Pronouns

Suus, Sui An adjective or pronoun referring to the subject is reflexive. In the first and second person, they are the same as the first and second pronouns. ego diligo me I love myself. tu diligis te you love yourself. In the third person, the adjective suus -a -um serves, and the pronoun sui (gen), sibi (dat), se (acc and abl). for singular and plural. So hic diligit se he loves himself; vidit suos fratres he saw his own brothers.Partly Irregular Adjectives Some adjectives follow the demonstrative pronouns with -ius in gen.s and -i in dat.s:

alius -a um other alius ali
unus -a -um one unius uni
alter -a -um the other alterius alteri
nullus-a -um not any nullius nulli
solus -a -um only, alone solius soli
totus -a -um all, the whole totius toti

Comparison of Adverbs Positive adverbs are formed from adjectives:

Adjective Adverb comparative adverb superlative adverb
1&2 decl -e neuter acc.s -issime
aptus -a -um apte aptius aptissime
3 decl -iter neuter acc.s -issime
suavis, suave suaviter suavius suavissime

Cum clauses using cum with the subjunctive. The concessive especially requires context for translation.

Temporal Cum Jesus docet while Jesus was teaching
Temporal-Circumstantial Cum Jesus doceret under the circumstances when Jesus was teaching
Causal Cum vir esset felix since the man was happy
Concessive Cum viri male haberent (tamen) Although the men were sick (nevertheless)

Exercises 1. Cum ergo venisset (3s perf.act.subj) in Galilaeam, exceperunt eum Galilaei, cum omnia vidissent, quae fecerat hierosolymis in die festo. Jn iv, 45 Therefore once he had come into galilee, the galileans accepted him, since they had seen all the things that he had done in jerusalem.2. Et cum haec dixisset, positis genibus suis, cum omnibus illis oravit. Acts xx, 36 And when he had said this, you all knelt down when he prayed for all of them.3. Unus autem ex illis, ut vidit quia sanatus est, regressus est cum magna voce magnificans deum. lk xvii, 15 One of them, that saw that he was cured, returned with a great voice praising god.4. Quomodo potest homo nasci, cum senex sit? Jn iii,4 In what way can a man be born, although he is old?5. Cum autem descendisset de monte, secutae sunt eum trubae multae. Mt viii, 1 Once he had descended from the mountain, many crowds followed him.6. Quid hic sic loquitur? Blasphemat! Quis potest dimittere peccata nisi solus Deus? Mk ii,7 Why does he say thus? He blasphemes, Who can forgive sins, but God alone?7. Alius autem de discipulis ejus ait illi: domine permitte me primum ire et sepelire patrem meum. Mt viii, 21 Another of the disciples said to him, lord, permit me first to go and to bury my father.8. Et respondit ad illum Jesus: scriptum est: non in pane solo vivet homo sed in omni verbo dei. Lk iv,4 And Jesus responded to them, it is written, man does not live by bread alone, but by every word of god.9. Qui cum pervenisset, et videsset gratiam dei, gavisus est. Whoever when coming through sees the grace of god, rejoices???10. Magna est veritas, et proficit, cum multi a diabolo infecti ei contradicant. The truth is great and it profits, although many by the devil polluted contradict it???11. Et procedens inde vidit alios duos fratres, Jacobum Zebedaei et Joannem fratrem ejus, in navi cum Zebedaeo patre eorum reficientes retia sua et vocavit eos. Mt iv, 21. And proceeding, then he saw another two brothers jacob of zebedee and john his brother, in boats with zebedee their father repairing their nets and he called them.12. Qui enim voluerit animam suam salvam facere, perdet illam; qui autem perdiderit animam suam propter me, hic salvam faciet illam. Lk ix, 24 For whoever will want to make healthy [save] his/her soul will loose it, but whoever will have lost his/her soul on account of me, this will make it healthy [save it].13. Alter cedit gravi tentationi, alter non. One receives great temptations the other not.14. Et nullam causam mortis invenientes petierunt a pilato, ut interficeretur (3s imp.pass.subj). Acts xiii, 28. And finding no cause for death, they asked pilate that he would be killed.

Unit 29 Indefinite Pronouns & Adjectives

Indefinite Pronouns & Adjectives quis; aliquis; aliqui, etc. quis, quid can be used indefinitely in the following ways:

  • preceded by si, nisi, numquid or ne for something, someone
  • prefixed by ali to form aliquis, aliquidsomeone, something

qui, quae, quod who, which can be used as follows.

  • preceded by si, nisi, numquid or ne for something, someone
  • suffixed by -cumque for whoever, whatever: quicumque, quaecumquae, quodcumque
  • suffixed by -dam for quidam, quaedam, quiddam a certain one or thing

Dative of Purpose; Double Dative Dative may be used to express purpose: This one holds me 'to hate': Hic odio me habet. The dative of purpose can be combined with the dative of reference for a double dative: Jesus is for us for salvation: Jesus est saluti nobis.


Time cum, ubi, ut, quando, when; simul atque (ac), as soon as; postquam, after indicative only
-cumque can be suffixed to ubi, ut or quando to make indefinite: whenever
antequam, priusquam, before; dum, donec, while, until indicative or subjunctive
cum - under the circumstances when subjunctive only
Cause quia, quoniam, quod: because indicative for actual cause; subjunctive for actual or alleged cause
concession etsi, licet, quamquam, although indicative or subjunctive
cum, although subjunctive only
ablative absolute participle & ablative - for time cause or consession

Exercises 1. O bone jesu, miserere nobis quia tu creasti nos, tu redemisti nos sanquine tuo pretiosissimo. O good jesus, have mercy on use because you create us you redeem us by your most precious blood.2. Jesu, Salvator mundi, tuis famulis subveni, quo pretioso sanguine redemisti, Jesus, savior of the world, receive your servant who by precious blood you have receemed.3. Et eritis odio omnibus gentibus propter nomen meum. Mt xxiv, 9 And you will be to hate to all nations on account of my name. You will be hated by all on account of my name.4. Osculabantur eum dolentes maxime in verbo, quod dixerat, quoniam amplius faciem ejus non esset visuri. Acts xx,38. They were kissing him with great sadness in words, because he had been saying because they would not see his face any more.5. Jacob dilexi, Esau autem odio habui. I love / jacob / but / i have to hate esau. ??? Rom ix, 136. Nam cum liber essem ex omnibus, omnium me servum feci. I Cor. ix 19 For although (when) I am free from all, I make all things serve me.7. Quamquam jesus non baptizaret sed discipuli ejus. Jn iv, 2 Although jesus did not baptize but his disciples8. Quis enim cognovit sensum domini, qui instruat eum? nos autem sensum christi habemus. I Cor ii, 16 Who has known the mind of the lord, who has instructed him, but we have the mind of christ.

Unit 30 Present Infinitives / Indirect Statements

Present Infinitives Second principle part is an pa.infinitive. Passive infinitives end in -i, first second and fourth are the same, the 3rd uses the verb stem, as in duci, capi.Negative Direct Commands Negative particle with infinitive, subjunctive or indicative.

  • Noli, nolite: Child do not weep: O puer, noli flere; Shepherds don't be afraid: Pastores, nolite timere!
  • Ne/non with the present or perfect subjunctive: Don't touch this: Ne tangas hoc. Don't be led: Non ducaris! Don't betray me: Ne tradideris me!
  • Non with the future indicative: You shal not speak evil: Non maledices.

Indirect Statements: Subject Accusative & Present Infinitive Indirect statements can take quod, quia, quoniam with subjunctive or indicative, OR the subject accusative with infinitive. The introductory clause has a verb of saying, knowing or thinking. The subject accusative is always expressed with a noun or pronoun; if it is the subject of the main clause, reflexive is used.

  • Simultaneous in the present: They say, Jesus is preacing: Dicunt Jesum praedicare.
  • Simultaneous in the past: They were saying, Jesus was preaching: Dicebant Jesum praedicare.
  • Simultaneous in the future: They will say Jesus is preaching: Dicent Jesum predicare.

Exercises 1. Nihil horum ( timeas (2s pres.act.subj), quae passurus es (2s pai.paraphrastic)2. Haec dicit (3s pai) Sanctus, Verus, qui habet (3s pai) clavem (acc.s) David, qui aperit (3s pres/ et nemo claudet (3s et claudit (3s pai) et nemo aperit (3s pres/ At ille (n.s) negavit (3s coram omnibus ( dicens (pres.act.ppl), Necio (1s pai) quid dicis (2s pai).

Unit 31 Perfect Infinitives

Perfect Infinitives to have praised, warned, led, etc. It is formed with the perfect stem and -isse. It is like the pluperfect subjunctive without the personal endings.

laudavi laudav+isse laudavisse
monui monu+isse monuisse
duxi dux+isse duxisse
cepi cep+isse cepisse
audivi audiv+isse audivisse
fui fu+isse fuisse
potui potu+isse potuisse
volui volu+isse voluisse
ii i+isse isse
ivi iv+isse ivisse

Passive uses the 4th principle part with esse: laudatus, a, um esse, to have been praised.Note: Many compound verbs take the dative rather than the accusative. Indirect Statement: Subject accusative and perfect infinitive

  • Prior in the present: They say Jesus preached in the synagogue. Dicunt Jesum in synagoga praedicavisse.<p id=“l2031”>
  • Prior in the past: They said Jesus had preached in the synagogue. Dixerunt Jesum in synagoga praedicavisse.<p id=“l2032”>
  • Prior in the future: They will say Jesus preached in the synagogue. Dicent Jesum in synagoga praedicavisse.

Predicate Genitive trait or action characteristic of a certain type of person.Diligere et Deum et vicinum est boni Christiani - To love god and neighbor is [characteristic] of a good christian.Petrus erat magnae fidei - Peter was [a man] of great faith.Conditional RelativeRelative pronoun or adjective in a conditional construction as a general condition.Quodcumquae minimis feceris mihi facies. Whatever you do to the least, you do to me.Qui vicinum diligit, me diligit. Whoever loves the neighbor, loves me.Exercises1. Ait (3s autem: Quid enim mali (pred.gen.s) fecit (3s At illi (dat.s) magis (adv) clamabant (3pl dicentes (pa.ppl) crucifigatur (3s ppi)2. Qui credit (3s pai) in Filium (acc.s), habet (3s pai) vitam (acc.s) aeternam; qui autem incredulus (n.s) est (3s pai) filio (dat.s), non videbit (3s vitam (acc.s), sed ira (n.s) dei (gen.s) manet (3s pai) super eum (acc.s).

Unit 32 Future Active Infinitive

Future Active Infinitive is the future active participle +esselaturus,a,um esse; moniturus, a um esse; ducturus, a, um esse; capturus, a um esse; auditurus, a, um esse. Identical in form to the periphrastic.

  • Subsequent in the present: They say Jesus will preach in the synagogue. Dicunt Jesum in synagoga praedicaturum esse.<p id=“l2047”>
  • Subsequent in the past: They said Jesus would preach in the synagogue. Dixerunt Jesum in synagoga praedicaturum esse.<p id=“l2048”>
  • Subsequent in the future: They will say Jesus will preach in the synagogue. Dicent Jesum in synagoga praedicaturum esse.

Indirect Reflexives a reflexive pronoun in a subordinate construction may refer to the subject of the main clause. Paulus subito audivit virum loquentem sibi. Paul suddenly heard a man speaking to him.Expression of Purpose

  • Prepositions in or ad: in remissionem peccatorum: for the forgivness of sin.
  • Subjunction: Jesus venit ut (qui) mundum salvum faceret: Jesus cam in order that he might save the world.
  • Gerund or Gerundive: ad + accusative (causa with ablative): Apostoli missi sunt ad infirmos sanados, informos sanandi causi: the apostles were sent to heal the sick.
  • Infinitives: Iterum venturus est judicare vivos et mortuos: He is coming again to judge the living and the dead.
  • Participles: Vir venit audiens de Jesu: The man came to hear about Jesus.
  • Dative Case - abstract noun: Hoc sacrificum sit utilitati nobis: May this sacrifice be for our benefit.

Exercises1. Audiens (n.s pa.ppl) autem Jesus, miratus (3s perf.pass.ind) est et sequentibus ( se dixit (3s Amen dico vobis: Apud nullum inveni (1s tantam (acc.s) fidem in Israel (abl.s).2. Vobis ( primum (adv) Deus (n.s) suscitans (n.s pa.ppl) puerum (acc.s) suum, misit (3s eum (acc.s) benedicentem vobis in avertendo (abl.s) unumquemque (acc.s) a nequitiis ( vestris.3. Et palam (adv) verbum (acc.s) loquebatur (3s imp.pass.ind).4. Dum oraret (3s imp.act.subj), species ( vultus ( mutata (3s perf.pi) est.

Unit 33 Irregular Verb

Fero ferre, tuli, latus bring, bear carry

Active fero fers fert ferimus fertis ferunt
Passive feror ferris, ferre fertur ferimur ferimini feruntur

Imperative: fer! ferte!Ablative of time when or time within, duration which Ablative, with or without the preposition in: In illo tempore Jesus in Galilaea praedicabat: In that time / at that time / within that time, Jesus was preaching in Galilee. Quinque diebus mulier furat inferma: for five days, the woman had been sick.Accusative of Extent of Time or Space Paulus mansit ibi dies paucos: Paul stayed there for a few days.Summary of Conditional Clauses

  • Simple Conditional - with present or past indicative, expressing only the idea of contingency. Si abit: If he leaves; Si abiit: If he left; quicumque abiit: Whoever left.
  • Future Conditional - more or less vivid, depending on the firmness of the contingency.
  • Future more vivid uses future or future perfect indicative: Nisi vicinum tuum diligis/dilexeris…; Unless you love your neighbor.
  • Future less vivid uses present subjunctive: Quocumque ire velis; To wherever you should wish to go. Si eum roges; If you should ask him.


  • Present contrafactal conditional uses imperfect subjunctive: Si hoc facerent; If they were doing this… but they aren't…
  • Past contrafactal conditional uses pluperfect subjunctive: Si hoc fecissent; If they had done this… but they didn't ….

Note, ablative absolute can also be used to express contingency.


Unit 34 fio, fieri<sub> factus sum

Be made, be done, become, happen. 1) In the present stem (except infinitive) it is active in form but passive in meaning; 2) The long I is retained in all forms of the present subjunctive and in the present, imperfect and future indicative; 3) The present infinitive has a unique ending: fieri. As with deponents, the imperfect is made with a hypothetical passive infinitive fiere. Fio also serves as the passive present stem of facio, facere, feci, factus - the two verbs are identical in the perfect passive system: factus. Fio is almost never compounded, but facio is.

Present fio fis fit fimus fitis fiunt
Imperfect fiebam fiebas fiebat fiebamus fiebatis fiebant
Future fiam fies fiet fiemus fietis fient
Present Subj fiam fias fiat fiamus fiatis fiant
Imperfect Subjunctive fierem fieres fieret fieremus fieretis fierent


M/N duo duorum duobus duos (duo) duobus
F duae duarum duabus duas duabus
MF tres trium tribus tres tribus
N tria trium tribus tria tribus

Impersonal Verbs occur in the thir person singular only.auditur - it is heard; convenit - it is fitting; dicitur - it is said; licet - it is permitted; placet - it is pleasing; videtur - it seems good; oportet - it is proper; necesse est - it is necessary; cenatum est - there was dining: people ate; ventum est - there was coming - people came; factus est - there was happening - it came to past - a semitic idiom.

Summary of Genitive

  • Possession: Libri puerorum - the children's books.
  • Description: Homines bonae boluntatis - people of good will.
  • Subjective and Objective Genitive: Dei dilectio hominum - God's love of huamity.
  • Partitive: Satis cibi - enough (of) food.
  • Predicative: Vir est sanae mentis - The man is (of) sound mind.
  • After certain adjectives: Memor Petri - mindful of Peter; Potens daemoniorum - power of (over) demons.
  • After certain verbs: misereor tui - I pity you.
  • Various, e.g. with causa, after comparatives, like the hebrew in in saecula saeculorum.

Summary of Dative

  • Of Possessor: Quid est tibi nomen? - what is name to you, what is your name?
  • Indirect Object: Petrus mihi hoc dedit - peter gave this to me.
  • Reference (advantage or disadvantage) - Jesus eis peccata dimisit - Jesus forgave (to) them their sins.
  • Personal Agency, with passive periphrastic - Hymnos nobis cantandus est - the hymns ought to be sung by us.
  • Purpose: Eritis odio eis - You will be to hatred to them - They will hate you.
  • With certain adjectives: Filius Patri similis est - the Son is like (to) the father.
  • With certain verbs:
    • Intransitives:
      • command, obey, serve
      • pareo (2) parui &mdash;&mdash;&mdash; “to be obedient to (not “to obey”
      • impero (1) -avi -atus “to give order to” (not “to order”)
      • servio (4) -ivi -itus “to be a slave to (not “to serve”)
      • obedire, to obey
  • II. harm, forgive, spare
    • ignosco (3) ignovi ignotus “to grant pardon to” (not “to forgive”)
    • noceo (2) nocui nocitus “to do harm to” (not “to harm”
    • parco (3) peperci parsurus “to be lenient to (not “to spare”)
    • remittere, to pardon
    • resistere, to resist
    • invidere, to envy
  • III. persuade, trust, please
    • pareo (2) parui &mdash;&mdash;&mdash; “to be obedient to (not “to obey”
    • persuadeo (2) -suasi -suasus “to be persuasive to (not “to persuade”)
    • suadere, persuade
    • placeo (2) placui placitus “to be pleasing to (not “to please”)
    • displicere, displease
    • credo (3) credidi creditus “to believe in” (not “to trust)
    • confiteri, confess
    • studeo (2) studui &mdash;&mdash;- “to be eager for” (not “to study”)
    • evangelizare, evangelize
  • Impersonal verbs: Non licet tibi abire - It is not permitted to you to leave.
    • Compounds (especially of sum) Quid mihi prodest? - what it profits to me? What does it profit to me? Modis antiquis inhaerebant - They were clinging to the ancient ways.

Allen & Greenough


Unit 35

  • Greek periphrastic Tenses Like Greek, latin sometimes uses the present active participle with sum to for a progressive tense, e.g.: 1) Present laudens sum - I am praising; 2) Imperfect laudens eram - I was praising; 3) Future laudens ero - I will be praising.
  • Syncopation the -vi- or -ve- syllable may be lost, e.g. laudavisti &gt; laudasti, audivi &gt; audii, custodivi &gt; custodii, ivi &gt; ii. In poetry, the -erunt ending can change to ere. Other words may have short forms as well: dexteris &gt; dextris; vinculum &gt; vinclum.
  • Historical Present may be used in narrating past events.
  • Cognate Ablative Gavisi sunt magno gaudio - they rejoiced in joy. Clamavit magna voce - He shouted loudly

Summary of Accusative

Direct Object

  • Directo object: petrum vidit paulus - peter saw paul
  • Predicate A: Fecerunt eum papam - they made him pope.
  • Cognate A: vitas nostras vivimus - we live our lives.
  • Double A: Nos orationem docuit - he taught us the prayer.
  • Subject A + Infinitive: Putaverunt Paulum esse deum - they though paul was a god.
  • Anticipatory A: Dicimus petrum quod hic est bonus - we say (of) peter that he is good.

Space and time

  • In domum intravit; Romam iit.
  • Quinque dies mansit - he stayed (for) five days.

Adverbial Accusative - Quid ploras? Why are you weeping?

Summary of Ablative

  • Accompaniment: Cum Petro venit - he came with peter.
  • Separation: Libera nos (a) malo - deliver us from evil.
  • Means: Gladio occisus est - he was killed with a sword.
  • Manner: (Cum) Dolore locutus est - he spoke with sorrow.
  • Personal Agency: Missa ab episcopo celebrabitur. Mass will be celebrated by the bishop.
  • With certain adjectives: … gratia plena - … full of grace.
  • Respect or Specification: pauperes spiritu. - poor in spirit.
  • Cause: (Prae) gaudio clamaverunt. The shouted for joy.
  • Ablative Absolute: Hoc facto, abiit. This being done, he went away.
  • Description: Petrus erat magna vir fide - Peter was a man of great faith.
  • Place where: In domo petri manebant - in peter's house they were staying.
  • Place from, out of which: E domo venerunt - they came out of the house.
  • Comparison: Quis est maior illo: Who is greater than that one?
  • Degree of difference: Petrus erat multo senior quam Joannes - Was peter much older than John?
  • Time when, within which - In illo tempore… At that time. Quinque annis hoc facierunt. They did that in five years.
  • Duration: Duodecim annis infirma fuerat - She had been sick for 12 years.
  • Cognate Ablative: Timore timuerunt - they were afraid with fear.
  • With certain verbs: Sacerdos ritu fungitur. The priest performs the ceremony. Also utor, I use; fruor, I enjoy; fungor, I perform; potior, I possess; careo, I lack; egeo, indigeo, I need, gaudeo, I enjoy {usually constructed with an object clause, quod, the abl., or absol.; less freq. with acc. and quia, gen., si, etc.. with acc and inf or simple inf.}

excepta - in later latin, a preposition governing accusative or ablativeexcludo - (dative) in later latin, ablative absolute.


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